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1.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 427, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795805

ABSTRACT

Abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism in COVID-19 patients were recently reported with unclear mechanism. In this study, we retrospectively investigated a cohort of COVID-19 patients without pre-existing metabolic-related diseases, and found new-onset insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and decreased HDL-C in these patients. Mechanistically, SARS-CoV-2 infection increased the expression of RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST), which modulated the expression of secreted metabolic factors including myeloperoxidase, apelin, and myostatin at the transcriptional level, resulting in the perturbation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Furthermore, several lipids, including (±)5-HETE, (±)12-HETE, propionic acid, and isobutyric acid were identified as the potential biomarkers of COVID-19-induced metabolic dysregulation, especially in insulin resistance. Taken together, our study revealed insulin resistance as the direct cause of hyperglycemia upon COVID-19, and further illustrated the underlying mechanisms, providing potential therapeutic targets for COVID-19-induced metabolic complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Hyperglycemia/blood , Insulin Resistance , Lipid Metabolism , Lipids/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Hyperglycemia/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
2.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 107(2): 549-562, 2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633480

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Though posttransplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM, occurring > 45 days after transplantation) and its complications are well described, early post-renal transplant hyperglycemia (EPTH) (< 45 days) similarly puts kidney transplant recipients at risk of infections, rehospitalizations, and graft failure and is not emphasized much in the literature. Proactive screening and management of EPTH is required given these consequences. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to promote recognition of early post-renal transplant hyperglycemia, and to summarize available information on its pathophysiology, adverse effects, and management. METHODS: A PubMed search was conducted for "early post-renal transplant hyperglycemia," "immediate posttransplant hyperglycemia," "post-renal transplant diabetes," "renal transplant," "diabetes," and combinations of these terms. EPTH is associated with significant complications including acute graft failure, rehospitalizations, cardiovascular events, PTDM, and infections. CONCLUSION: Patients with diabetes experience better glycemic control in end-stage renal disease (ESRD), with resurgence of hyperglycemia after kidney transplant. Patients with and without known diabetes are at risk of EPTH. Risk factors include elevated pretransplant fasting glucose, diabetes, glucocorticoids, chronic infections, and posttransplant infections. We find that EPTH increases risk of re-hospitalizations from infections (cytomegalovirus, possibly COVID-19), acute graft rejections, cardiovascular events, and PTDM. It is essential, therefore, to provide diabetes education to patients before discharge. Insulin remains the standard of care while inpatient. Close follow-up after discharge is recommended for insulin adjustment. Some agents like dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists have shown promise. The tenuous kidney function in the early posttransplant period and lack of data limit the use of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors. There is a need for studies assessing noninsulin agents for EPTH to decrease risk of hypoglycemia associated with insulin and long-term complications of EPTH.


Subject(s)
Hyperglycemia/etiology , Hyperglycemia/therapy , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Glycemic Control , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Postoperative Complications/therapy , Transplant Recipients
3.
Nat Metab ; 4(1): 29-43, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612214

ABSTRACT

Severe cases of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are associated with elevated blood glucose levels and metabolic complications. However, the molecular mechanisms for how SARS-CoV-2 infection alters glycometabolic control are incompletely understood. Here, we connect the circulating protein GP73 with enhanced hepatic gluconeogenesis during SARS-CoV-2 infection. We first demonstrate that GP73 secretion is induced in multiple tissues upon fasting and that GP73 stimulates hepatic gluconeogenesis through the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. We further show that GP73 secretion is increased in cultured cells infected with SARS-CoV-2, after overexpression of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid and spike proteins and in lungs and livers of mice infected with a mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 strain. GP73 blockade with an antibody inhibits excessive glucogenesis stimulated by SARS-CoV-2 in vitro and lowers elevated fasting blood glucose levels in infected mice. In patients with COVID-19, plasma GP73 levels are elevated and positively correlate with blood glucose levels. Our data suggest that GP73 is a glucogenic hormone that likely contributes to SARS-CoV-2-induced abnormalities in systemic glucose metabolism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Glucose/metabolism , Hyperglycemia/etiology , Hyperglycemia/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Biomarkers , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/metabolism , Diet, High-Fat , Disease Models, Animal , Fasting , Gene Expression , Gluconeogenesis/drug effects , Gluconeogenesis/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Hyperglycemia/blood , Liver/metabolism , Liver/pathology , Membrane Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Membrane Proteins/blood , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Organ Specificity/genetics
4.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 107(3): e1009-e1019, 2022 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496303

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess whether dysglycemia diagnosed during severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pneumonia may become a potential public health problem after resolution of the infection. In an adult cohort with suspected coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia, we integrated glucose data upon hospital admission with fasting blood glucose (FBG) in the year prior to COVID-19 and during postdischarge follow-up. METHODS: From February 25 to May 15, 2020, 660 adults with suspected COVID-19 pneumonia were admitted to the San Raffaele Hospital (Milan, Italy). Through structured interviews/ medical record reviews, we collected demographics, clinical features, and laboratory tests upon admission and additional data during hospitalization or after discharge and in the previous year. Upon admission, we classified participants according to American Diabetes Association criteria as having (1) preexisting diabetes, (2) newly diagnosed diabetes, (3) hyperglycemia not in the diabetes range, or (4) normoglycemia. FBG prior to admission and during follow-up were classified as normal or impaired fasting glucose and fasting glucose in the diabetes range. RESULTS: In patients with confirmed COVID (n = 589), the proportion with preexisting or newly diagnosed diabetes, hyperglycemia not in the diabetes range and normoglycemia was 19.6%, 6.7%, 43.7%, and 30.0%, respectively. Patients with dysglycemia associated to COVID-19 had increased markers of inflammation and organs' injury and poorer clinical outcome compared to those with normoglycemia. After the infection resolved, the prevalence of dysglycemia reverted to preadmission frequency. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19-associated dysglycemia is unlikely to become a lasting public health problem. Alarmist claims on the diabetes risk after COVID-19 pneumonia should be interpreted with caution.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/metabolism , Hyperglycemia/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Fasting/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
5.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 107(2): 549-562, 2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438330

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Though posttransplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM, occurring > 45 days after transplantation) and its complications are well described, early post-renal transplant hyperglycemia (EPTH) (< 45 days) similarly puts kidney transplant recipients at risk of infections, rehospitalizations, and graft failure and is not emphasized much in the literature. Proactive screening and management of EPTH is required given these consequences. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to promote recognition of early post-renal transplant hyperglycemia, and to summarize available information on its pathophysiology, adverse effects, and management. METHODS: A PubMed search was conducted for "early post-renal transplant hyperglycemia," "immediate posttransplant hyperglycemia," "post-renal transplant diabetes," "renal transplant," "diabetes," and combinations of these terms. EPTH is associated with significant complications including acute graft failure, rehospitalizations, cardiovascular events, PTDM, and infections. CONCLUSION: Patients with diabetes experience better glycemic control in end-stage renal disease (ESRD), with resurgence of hyperglycemia after kidney transplant. Patients with and without known diabetes are at risk of EPTH. Risk factors include elevated pretransplant fasting glucose, diabetes, glucocorticoids, chronic infections, and posttransplant infections. We find that EPTH increases risk of re-hospitalizations from infections (cytomegalovirus, possibly COVID-19), acute graft rejections, cardiovascular events, and PTDM. It is essential, therefore, to provide diabetes education to patients before discharge. Insulin remains the standard of care while inpatient. Close follow-up after discharge is recommended for insulin adjustment. Some agents like dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists have shown promise. The tenuous kidney function in the early posttransplant period and lack of data limit the use of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors. There is a need for studies assessing noninsulin agents for EPTH to decrease risk of hypoglycemia associated with insulin and long-term complications of EPTH.


Subject(s)
Hyperglycemia/etiology , Hyperglycemia/therapy , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Glycemic Control , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Postoperative Complications/therapy , Transplant Recipients
6.
Metabolism ; 123: 154845, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340768

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Individuals with diabetes/stress hyperglycemia carry an increased risk for adverse clinical outcome in case of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether this risk is, at least in part, modulated by an increase of thromboembolic complications. METHODS: We prospectively followed 180 hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to the Internal Medicine Units of San Raffaele Hospital. Data from 11 out of 180 patients were considered incomplete and excluded from the analysis. We analysed inflammation, tissue damage biomarkers, hemostatic parameters, thrombotic events (TEs) and clinical outcome according to the presence of diabetes/stress hyperglycemia. RESULTS: Among 169 patients, 51 (30.2%) had diabetes/stress hyperglycemia. Diabetes/stress hyperglycemia and fasting blood glucose (FBG) were associated with increased inflammation and tissue damage circulating markers, higher D-dimer levels, increased prothrombin time and lower antithrombin III activity. Forty-eight venous and 10 arterial TEs were identified in 49 (29%) patients. Diabetes/stress hyperglycemia (HR 2.71, p = 0.001), fasting blood glucose (HR 4.32, p < 0.001) and glucose variability (HR 1.6, p < 0.009) were all associated with an increased risk of thromboembolic complication. TEs significantly increased the risk for an adverse clinical outcome only in the presence of diabetes/stress hyperglycemia (HR 3.05, p = 0.010) or fasting blood glucose ≥7 mmol/L (HR 3.07, p = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Thromboembolism risk is higher among patients with diabetes/stress hyperglycemia and COVID-19 pneumonia and is associated to poor clinical outcome. In case of SARS-Cov-2 infection patients with diabetes/stress hyperglycemia could be considered for a more intensive prophylactic anticoagulation regimen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hyperglycemia/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/etiology , Hyperglycemia/therapy , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/epidemiology , Inflammation/therapy , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Stress, Psychological/complications , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome
7.
Hemoglobin ; 45(2): 124-128, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281786

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to examine the relationship between Hb A1c levels and the clinical course of coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) patients. Sixty-six COVID-19(+) patients with high Hb A1c and 46 with average Hb A1c and 30 COVID-19(-) patients with average Hb A1c were included. Hb A1c levels and parameters examined in COVID-19(+) patients were compared between groups, and correlation analysis was performed between these parameters and Hb A1c levels. The effect of Hb A1c levels on intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality rate in COVID-19 patients was analyzed with the χ2 test. It was observed that hemoglobin (Hb) and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) levels of the COVID-19 (+) groups was lower than the COVID-19 (-) group, while ferritin, D-dimer, procalcitonin (PCT), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were higher. The COVID-19 (+) group with high Hb A1c had higher lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), PCT and D-dimer levels than the other two groups, while Hb, partial arterial oxygen pressure (PaO2) levels were lower. The Hb A1c levels of the COVID-19 (+) groups were positively correlated with absolute neutrophil count (ANC), LDH, PCT and (K+) levels, while negatively correlated with Hb and PaO2 levels. Hb A1c was found to be associated with the inflammation process, coagulation disorders and low PaO2 in COVID-19 patients. The COVID-19 patients with high Hb A1c levels had a higher mortality rate than other COVID-19 patients. Using Hb A1c measurements with other prognostic markers would contribute to the patient's risk of death assessment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Hyperglycemia/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Diabetes Complications/blood , Female , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Hyperglycemia/etiology , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils , Oxygen/blood , Partial Pressure , Procalcitonin/blood , Prognosis , Risk , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombophilia/blood , Thrombophilia/etiology
10.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 78(13): 1207-1215, 2021 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169632

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The implementation of a pharmacist-managed transition of care program for kidney transplant recipients with posttransplant hyperglycemia (PTHG) is described. METHODS: In September 2015, a collaborative practice agreement between pharmacists and transplant providers at an academic medical center for management of PTHG was developed. The goal of the pharmacist-run service was to reduce hospitalizations by providing care to patients in the acute phase of hyperglycemia while they transitioned back to their primary care provider or endocrinologist. For continuous quality improvement, preimplementation data were collected from August 2014 to August 2015 and compared to postimplementation data collected from August 2017 to August 2018. The primary endpoint was hospitalizations due to hyperglycemia within 90 days post transplantation. Secondary endpoints included emergency department (ED) visits due to hypoglycemia and the number of interventions performed, number of encounters completed, and number of ED visits or admissions for hypoglycemia. A Fisher's exact test was used to compare categorical data, and a Student t test was used to compare continuous data. A P value of <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. RESULTS: Forty-three patients in the preimplementation group were compared to 35 patients in the postimplementation group. There was a significant reduction in hospitalizations due to hyperglycemia in the postimplementation versus the preimplementation group (9 vs 1, P < 0.05); there was a reduction in ED visits due to hyperglycemia (5 vs 0, P = 0.06). There were no ED visits or hospitalizations due to hypoglycemia in either group. Clinical transplant pharmacists performed an average of 8.3 (SD, 4.4) encounters per patient per 90 days. CONCLUSION: A collaborative practice agreement was created and successfully implemented. A pharmacist-managed PTHG program could be incorporated into the standard care of kidney transplant recipients to help minimize rehospitalizations due to hyperglycemia.


Subject(s)
Hyperglycemia , Hypoglycemia , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Hyperglycemia/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Hyperglycemia/etiology , Patient Transfer , Pharmacists , Retrospective Studies
11.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 50(7): e13262, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081113

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic confronted us with unknown clinical pictures, also in diabetology and endocrinology. Sharing clinical experiences is therefore of enormous importance. Actually, information about the care given in the Covid-19 ward (in contrast to that provided in the Emergency Room/ICU) is still sparse. The last weeks we built experience and gathered knowledge while giving hospital care to patients who had a pre-existent endocrine disease (and diabetes; most patients suffered from a type two diabetes). In our contribution we presented our insights obtained from this intensive period obtained in the Covid-19 ward.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adrenal Insufficiency/complications , Adrenal Insufficiency/drug therapy , Belgium , Betacoronavirus , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Insipidus/complications , Diabetes Insipidus/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Disease Management , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Hospital Units , Hospitalization , Humans , Hyperglycemia/etiology , Hyperglycemia/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Biosci Rep ; 41(2)2021 02 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1075263

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia at admission has been demonstrated to exacerbate the outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) but a meta-analysis is lacking to further confirm this hypothesis. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to summarize the evidence on the association between hyperglycemia at admission and the development of COVID-19. METHOD: Four databases namely, PubMed, Web of Science, Embase and Cochrane Library, were screened for eligible studies. STATA software was utilized to pool data for this meta-analysis. The primary outcomes included mortality and severity. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with random-effects models, and the quality of evidence was appraised by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). This meta-analysis was prospectively registered online on PROSPERO, CRD42020191763. RESULTS: Sixteen observational studies with 6386 COVID-19 patients relating hyperglycemia at admission to COVID-19 outcomes were included. The overall data demonstrated that, compared with the control, the hyperglycemia at admission group was more likely to have increased mortality (OR = 3.45, 95% CI, 2.26-5.26) and severe/critical complications (OR = 2.08, 95% CI, 1.45-2.99) of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Hyperglycemia at admission in COVID-19 patients may be a strong predictor of mortality and complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Hyperglycemia/etiology , Humans , Patient Admission , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
13.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(2): 499-503, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1071266

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Few studies have reported on the use of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) during the Covid-19 pandemic. We aimed to examine glycemic control metrics using flash glucose monitoring during insulin treatment and the clinical outcome in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Prospective, single-center cohort of adult patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes or hyperglycemia and COVID-19 infection treated with basal bolus insulin regimen. Glycemic control was assessed with the use of intermittent Freestyle Libre flash glucose monitoring during the hospital stay. Outcome of interest were time in range [TIR], time above [TAR] and below [TBR] range, glycemic variability [coefficient of variation [% CV]), and differences in a composite of complications including ICU admission, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and acute kidney injury. RESULTS: A total of 60 patients were included (44 known diabetes and 16 new onset hyperglycemia). In total 190,080 data points of CGM were available, of which 72.5% of values were within the target area [TIR (70-180 mg/dL)], 22% TAR (>180 mg/dL), and 3% were TBR (<70 mg/dL). During treatment, the coefficient of variation (% CV) was 30%. There were no association with TIR, but patients with TAR >180 mg/dl had higher rates of a composite of complications (22.5% vs 16%, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Basal bolus insulin regimen was safe and effective in achieving inpatient glycemic control in most patients with COVID-19. The association between TAR and complications indicates the need for improved inpatient glycemic control in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Hyperglycemia/metabolism , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Colombia/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Glycemic Control , Humans , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Hyperglycemia/etiology , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Monitoring, Physiologic , Pilot Projects , Point-of-Care Testing , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Biosci Rep ; 41(2)2021 02 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1044789

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia at admission has been demonstrated to exacerbate the outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) but a meta-analysis is lacking to further confirm this hypothesis. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to summarize the evidence on the association between hyperglycemia at admission and the development of COVID-19. METHOD: Four databases namely, PubMed, Web of Science, Embase and Cochrane Library, were screened for eligible studies. STATA software was utilized to pool data for this meta-analysis. The primary outcomes included mortality and severity. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with random-effects models, and the quality of evidence was appraised by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). This meta-analysis was prospectively registered online on PROSPERO, CRD42020191763. RESULTS: Sixteen observational studies with 6386 COVID-19 patients relating hyperglycemia at admission to COVID-19 outcomes were included. The overall data demonstrated that, compared with the control, the hyperglycemia at admission group was more likely to have increased mortality (OR = 3.45, 95% CI, 2.26-5.26) and severe/critical complications (OR = 2.08, 95% CI, 1.45-2.99) of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Hyperglycemia at admission in COVID-19 patients may be a strong predictor of mortality and complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Hyperglycemia/etiology , Humans , Patient Admission , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
16.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 15(3): 409-416, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014747

ABSTRACT

This review reported that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infected patients with short time bed rest or quarantine and airway inflammation are at more risk of developing hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. This condition can induce oxidative stress, decrease immune system function, impair endothelial function, induce apoptosis, and reduce antioxidant in the lungs. We provide a possible mechanism in severe COVID-19 patients and recommend treatment strategy to reduce mortality rate and prevent adverse outcomes after intensive care unit (ICU).


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Disease Management , Hyperglycemia/etiology , Intensive Care Units , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Health , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Hyperglycemia/therapy , Incidence , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate/trends
18.
Diabetes ; 69(10): 2048-2053, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-709698

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]) is now at global pandemic levels causing significant morbidity and mortality. Patients with diabetes are particularly vulnerable and more likely to get severe complications when infected with this virus. Although the information continues to emerge, here we provide our perspective on initial outcomes observed in hospitalized patients with diabetes and the potential role played by the proinflammatory metabolic state in these patients that promotes fertile ground for the virus' inflammatory surge, resulting in severe insulin resistance and severe hyperglycemia. The rapidly evolving renal failure, hypotension, pressor and steroid use, and variable nutritional support further complicates their management. Thus, timely implementation of glucose management protocols addressing these complex scenarios while also following COVID-19-related trajectories in inflammatory biomarkers and being cognizant of the health care provider exposure may substantially affect morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Hyperglycemia/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19 , Humans , Hyperglycemia/etiology , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(4): 519-520, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-186339

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Administration of corticosteroids is common in obstetric practice. In this concise review we queried on the effects of corticosteroids in pregnancies complicated by SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We performed a literature search on PubMed, regarding the use of corticosteroids in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, in pregnancies complicated by SARS-CoV-2, as well as their impact on glycemia in pregnant women with or without diabetes. Furthermore, we searched for effects of SARS-CoV-2 and of other coronaviridae on insulin secretion and glycemia. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 infection appears to be a risk factor for complications in pregnancy. Corticosteroids may not be recommended for treating SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia but they may be needed for at-risk pregnancies. Corticosteroids in pregnancy have a diabetogenic potential. SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviridae may have effects on glycemia. CONCLUSIONS: Caution should be exercised while using corticosteroids in pregnant women with COVID-19 requiring preterm delivery.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Hyperglycemia/pathology , Hypoglycemia/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Homeostasis , Humans , Hyperglycemia/etiology , Hyperglycemia/metabolism , Hypoglycemia/etiology , Hypoglycemia/metabolism , Insulin Secretion/drug effects , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/etiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(4): 513-517, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-186627

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Diabetes mellitus is associated with poor prognosis in patients with COVID-19. On the other hand, COVID-19 contributes to worsening of dysglycemia in people with diabetes mellitus over and above that contributed by stress hyperglycemia. Herein, we have reviewed the two-way interactions between COVID-19 and diabetes mellitus. METHODS: We have performed an extensive literature search for articles in PubMed, EMBASE and Google Scholar databases till April 25, 2020, with the following keywords: "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV-2", "diabetes", "diabetes mellitus", "SARS", "infection" and "management of diabetes mellitus" with interposition of the Boolean operator "AND". RESULTS: Compromised innate immunity, pro-inflammatory cytokine milieu, reduced expression of ACE2 and use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system antagonists in people with diabetes mellitus contribute to poor prognosis in COVID-19. On the contrary, direct ß-cell damage, cytokine-induced insulin resistance, hypokalemia and drugs used in the treatment of COVID-19 (like corticosteroids, lopinavir/ritonavir) can contribute to worsening of glucose control in people with diabetes mellitus. CONCLUSIONS: The two-way interaction between COVID-19 and diabetes mellitus sets up a vicious cycle wherein COVID-19 leads to worsening of dysglycemia and diabetes mellitus, in turn, exacerbates the severity of COVID-19. Thus, it is imperative that people with diabetes mellitus take all necessary precautions and ensure good glycemic control amid the ongoing pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Hyperglycemia/pathology , Hypoglycemia/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Severity of Illness Index , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Humans , Hyperglycemia/etiology , Hypoglycemia/etiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
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