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1.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374478

ABSTRACT

We aimed to study the possible association of stress hyperglycemia in COVID-19 critically ill patients with prognosis, artificial nutrition, circulating osteocalcin, and other serum markers of inflammation and compare them with non-COVID-19 patients. Fifty-two critical patients at the intensive care unit (ICU), 26 with COVID-19 and 26 non-COVID-19, were included. Glycemic control, delivery of artificial nutrition, serum osteocalcin, total and ICU stays, and mortality were recorded. Patients with COVID-19 had higher ICU stays, were on artificial nutrition for longer (p = 0.004), and needed more frequently insulin infusion therapy (p = 0.022) to control stress hyperglycemia. The need for insulin infusion therapy was associated with higher energy (p = 0.001) and glucose delivered through artificial nutrition (p = 0.040). Those patients with stress hyperglycemia showed higher ICU stays (23 ± 17 vs. 11 ± 13 days, p = 0.007). Serum osteocalcin was a good marker for hyperglycemia, as it inversely correlated with glycemia at admission in the ICU (r = -0.476, p = 0.001) and at days 2 (r = -0.409, p = 0.007) and 3 (r = -0.351, p = 0.049). In conclusion, hyperglycemia in critically ill COVID-19 patients was associated with longer ICU stays. Low circulating osteocalcin was a good marker for stress hyperglycemia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Hyperglycemia/blood , Osteocalcin/blood , Parenteral Nutrition/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Care Outcomes , Critical Illness/mortality , Female , Humans , Hyperglycemia/mortality , Hyperglycemia/virology , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis
2.
Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; 4(4): e00291, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1312722

ABSTRACT

AIM: Diabetes has been identified as a risk factor for poor outcomes in patients with COVID-19. We examined the association of hyperglycaemia, both in the presence and absence of pre-existing diabetes, with severity and outcomes in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Data from 74,148 COVID-19-positive inpatients with at least one recorded glucose measurement during their inpatient episode were analysed for presence of pre-existing diabetes diagnosis and any glucose values in the hyperglycaemic range (>180 mg/dl). RESULTS: Among patients with and without a pre-existing diabetes diagnosis on admission, mortality was substantially higher in the presence of high glucose measurements versus all measurements in the normal range (70-180 mg/dl) in both groups (non-diabetics: 21.7% vs. 3.3%; diabetics 14.4% vs. 4.3%). When adjusting for patient age, BMI, severity on admission and oxygen saturation on admission, this increased risk of mortality persisted and varied by diabetes diagnosis. Among patients with a pre-existing diabetes diagnosis, any hyperglycaemic value during the episode was associated with a substantial increase in the odds of mortality (OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.52-2.07); among patients without a pre-existing diabetes diagnosis, this risk nearly doubled (OR: 3.07, 95% CI: 2.79-3.37). CONCLUSION: This retrospective analysis identified hyperglycaemia in COVID-19 patients as an independent risk factor for mortality after adjusting for the presence of diabetes and other known risk factors. This indicates that the extent of glucose control could serve as a mechanism for modifying the risk of COVID-19 morality in the inpatient environment.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Female , Humans , Hyperglycemia/blood , Hyperglycemia/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Survival Rate
3.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 649405, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295631

ABSTRACT

The finding that high-dose dexamethasone improves survival in those requiring critical care due to COVID-19 will mean much greater usage of glucocorticoids in the subsequent waves of coronavirus infection. Furthermore, the consistent finding of adverse outcomes from COVID-19 in individuals with obesity, hypertension and diabetes has focussed attention on the metabolic dysfunction that may arise with critical illness. The SARS coronavirus itself may promote relative insulin deficiency, ketogenesis and hyperglycaemia in susceptible individuals. In conjunction with prolonged critical care, these components will promote a catabolic state. Insulin infusion is the mainstay of therapy for treatment of hyperglycaemia in acute illness but what is the effect of insulin on the admixture of glucocorticoids and COVID-19? This article reviews the evidence for the effect of insulin on clinical outcomes and intermediary metabolism in critical illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Insulin/therapeutic use , Metabolic Diseases/chemically induced , Metabolic Diseases/prevention & control , COVID-19/complications , Critical Care/methods , Critical Illness/therapy , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Diabetes Complications/drug therapy , Diabetes Complications/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Hyperglycemia/complications , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Hyperglycemia/mortality , Metabolic Diseases/etiology , Obesity/complications , Obesity/drug therapy , Obesity/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Treatment Outcome
4.
Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; 4(3): e00279, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269107

ABSTRACT

Aims: To evaluate the frequency of diabetes and admission hyperglycaemia in Mexican COVID-19 patients, to describe the clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients with admission hyperglycaemia and to determinate the impact of diabetes and admission hyperglycaemia on COVID-19 severity and mortality. Methods: A multicentric study was performed in 480 hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Clinical and biochemical characteristics were evaluated in patients with admission hyperglycaemia and compared with non-hyperglycaemic patients. The effect of diabetes and admission hyperglycaemia on severity and risk of death were evaluated. Results: Age was 50.7 ± 13.6 years; 68.3% were male. Some 48.5% (n = 233) had admission hyperglycaemia; 29% (n = 139) of these patients had pre-existing diabetes. Patients with admission hyperglycaemia had more requirement of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), higher levels of urea, D-dimer and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), as well as lower lymphocyte count. An association between admission hyperglycaemia with IMV and D-dimer with glucose was found. Age ≥50 years (OR 2.09; 95%CI 1.37-3.17), pre-existing diabetes (OR 2.38; 95%CI 1.59-5.04) and admission hyperglycaemia (OR 8.24; 95%CI 4.74-14.32) were risk factors for mortality. Conclusions: Admission hyperglycaemia is presented in 48.5% of COVID-19 patients. Diabetes and admission hyperglycaemia are associated with the severity of disease and mortality. This study shows the devastating conjunction of hyperglycaemia and COVID-19. Clinical trial registration: Clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19, DI/20/204/04/41 (Hospital General de Mexico) and NR-13-2020 (Hospital Regional de Alta Especialidad Ixtapaluca).


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hyperglycemia/mortality , COVID-19/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Humans , Hyperglycemia/blood , Survival Rate
5.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 640529, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190303

ABSTRACT

This retrospective study examined changes in fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels during hospitalization and their effect on risk of death for Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients without previously diagnosed diabetes. A model with low- and high-stable pattern trajectories was established based on a longitudinal change in FBG levels. We analyzed FBG trajectory-associated clinical features and risk factors for death due to COVID-19. Of the 230 enrolled patients, 44 died and 87.83% had a low-stable pattern (average FBG range: 6.63-7.54 mmol/L), and 12.17% had a high-stable pattern (average FBG range: 12.59-14.02 mmol/L). There were statistical differences in laboratory findings and case fatality between the two FBG patterns. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that increased neutrophil count (odds ratio [OR], 25.43; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.07, 313.03), elevated direct bilirubin (OR, 5.80; 95%CI: 1.72, 19.58), elevated creatinine (OR, 26.69; 95% CI: 5.82, 122.29), lymphopenia (OR, 8.07; 95% CI: 2.70, 24.14), and high-stable FBG pattern (OR, 8.79; 95% CI: 2.39, 32.29) were independent risk factors for higher case fatality in patients with COVID-19 and hyperglycemia but no history of diabetes. FBG trajectories were significantly associated with death risk in patients with COVID-19 and no diabetes.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Aged , Bilirubin/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Creatinine/blood , Diabetes Mellitus , Fasting , Female , Glycemic Control , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hyperglycemia/blood , Hyperglycemia/mortality , Leukocyte Count , Lymphopenia/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
6.
Diabetes Metab ; 47(3): 101254, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157234

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Diabetes is a known risk factor for mortality in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Our objective was to identify prevalence of hyperglycaemia in COVID-19 patients with and without prior diabetes and quantify its association with COVID-19 disease course. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This observational cohort study included all consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted to John H Stroger Jr. Hospital, Chicago, IL from March 15, 2020 to May 3, 2020 and followed till May 15, 2020. The primary outcome was hospital mortality, and the studied predictor was hyperglycaemia [any blood glucose ≥7.78 mmol/L (140 mg/dL) during hospitalization]. RESULTS: Of the 403 COVID-19 patients studied, 51 (12.7%) died; 335 (83.1%) were discharged while 17 (4%) were still in hospital. Hyperglycaemia occurred in 228 (56.6%) patients; 83 of these hyperglycaemic patients (36.4%) had no prior history of diabetes. Compared to the reference group no-diabetes/no-hyperglycaemia patients the no-diabetes/hyperglycaemia patients showed higher mortality [1.8% versus 20.5%, adjusted odds ratio 21.94 (95% confidence interval 4.04-119.0), P < 0.001]; improved prediction of death (P = 0.01) and faster progression to death (P < 0.01). Hyperglycaemia within the first 24 and 48 h was also significantly associated with mortality (odds ratio 2.15 and 3.31, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Hyperglycaemia without prior diabetes was common (20.6% of hospitalized COVID-19 patients) and was associated with an increased risk of and faster progression to death. Development of hyperglycaemia in COVID-19 patients who do not have diabetes is an early indicator of progressive disease.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , Hyperglycemia/mortality , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Hyperglycemia/blood , Male , Middle Aged
7.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 596518, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156116

ABSTRACT

Clinical Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT04365634. Context: Diabetes mellitus was associated with increased severity and mortality of disease in COVID-19 pneumonia. So far the effect of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) or hyperglycemia on the immune system among COVID-19 disease has remained unclear. Objective: We aim to explore the clinical and immunological features of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among COVID-19 patients. Design and Methods: In this retrospective study, the clinical and immunological characteristics of 306 hospitalized confirmed COVID-19 patients (including 129 diabetic and 177 non-diabetic patients) were analyzed. The serum concentrations of laboratory parameters including cytokines and numbers of immune cells were measured and compared between diabetic and non-diabetic groups. Results: Compared with non-diabetic group, diabetic cases more frequently had lymphopenia and hyperglycemia, with higher levels of urea nitrogen, myoglobin, D-dimer and ferritin. Diabetic cases indicated the obviously elevated mortality and the higher levels of cytokines IL-2R, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α, as well as the distinctly reduced Th1/Th2 cytokines ratios compared with non-diabetic cases. The longitudinal assays showed that compared to that at week 1, the levels of IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly elevated at week 2 after admission in non-survivors of diabetic cases, whereas there were greatly reductions from week 1 to week 2 in survivors of diabetic cases. Compared with survival diabetic patients, non-survival diabetic cases displayed distinct higher serum concentrations of IL-2R, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, and lower Th1/Th2 cytokines ratios at week 2. Samples from a subset of participants were evaluated by flow cytometry for the immune cells. The counts of peripheral total T lymphocytes, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and NK cells were markedly lower in diabetic cases than in non-diabetic cases. The non-survivors showed the markedly declined counts of CD8+ T cells and NK cells than survivors. Conclusion: The elevated cytokines, imbalance of Th1/Th2 cytokines ratios and reduced of peripheral numbers of CD8+ T cells and NK cells might contribute to the pathogenic mechanisms of high mortality of COVID-19 patients with T2DM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Adult , Aged , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , China/epidemiology , Cytokines/analysis , Cytokines/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Female , Humans , Hyperglycemia/blood , Hyperglycemia/complications , Hyperglycemia/immunology , Hyperglycemia/mortality , Immune System/metabolism , Immune System/pathology , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/complications , Lymphopenia/immunology , Lymphopenia/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Th1 Cells/pathology , Th2 Cells/pathology
8.
J Diabetes Complications ; 35(2): 107809, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-943309

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been declared a global pandemic. COVID-19 is more severe in people with diabetes. The identification of risk factors for predicting disease severity in COVID-19 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is urgently needed. METHODS: Two hundred and thirty-six patients with COVID-19 were enrolled in our study. The patients were divided into 2 groups: COVID-19 patients with or without T2DM. The patients were further divided into four subgroups according to the severity of COVID-19 as follows: Subgroup A included moderate COVID-19 patients without diabetes, subgroup B included severe COVID-19 patients without diabetes, subgroup C included moderate COVID-19 patients with diabetes, and subgroup D included severe COVID-19 patients with diabetes. The clinical features and radiological assessments were collected and analyzed. We tracked the dynamic changes in laboratory parameters and clinical outcomes during the hospitalization period. Multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression to analyze the risk factors that predict the severity of COVID-19 with T2DM. RESULTS: Firstly, compared with the nondiabetic group, the COVID-19 with T2DM group had a higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and procalcitonin (PCT) but lower lymphocyte counts and T lymphocyte subsets, including CD3+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, CD16 + CD56 cells, and CD19+ cells. Secondly, compared with group A, group C had higher levels of Fasting blood glucose (FBG), IL-6, TNF-α, and neutrophils but lower lymphocyte, CD3+ T cell, CD8+ T cell, and CD4+ T cell counts. Similarly, group D had higher FBG, IL-6 and TNF-α levels and lower lymphocyte, CD3+ T cell, CD8+ T cell, and CD4+ T cell counts than group B. Thirdly, binary logistic regression analysis showed that HbA1c, IL-6, and lymphocyte count were risk factors for the severity of COVID-19 with T2DM. Importantly, COVID-19 patients with T2DM were more likely to worsen from moderate to severe COVID-19 than nondiabetic patients. Of note, lymphopenia and inflammatory responses remained more severe throughout hospitalization for COVID-19 patients with T2DM. CONCLUSION: Our data suggested that COVID-19 patients with T2DM are more likely to develop severe COVID-19 than those without T2DM and that hyperglycemia associated with the lymphopenia and inflammatory responses in COVID-19 patients with T2DM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Hyperglycemia/complications , Lymphopenia/complications , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , China , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hyperglycemia/mortality , Logistic Models , Lymphopenia/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
9.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 103-116, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-910016

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hyperglycaemia has emerged as an important risk factor for death in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between blood glucose (BG) levels and in-hospital mortality in non-critically patients hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS: This is a retrospective multi-centre study involving patients hospitalized in Spain. Patients were categorized into three groups according to admission BG levels: <140 mg/dL, 140-180 mg/dL and >180 mg/dL. The primary endpoint was all-cause in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Of the 11,312 patients, only 2128 (18.9%) had diabetes and 2289 (20.4%) died during hospitalization. The in-hospital mortality rates were 15.7% (<140 mg/dL), 33.7% (140-180 mg) and 41.1% (>180 mg/dL), p<.001. The cumulative probability of mortality was significantly higher in patients with hyperglycaemia compared to patients with normoglycaemia (log rank, p<.001), independently of pre-existing diabetes. Hyperglycaemia (after adjusting for age, diabetes, hypertension and other confounding factors) was an independent risk factor of mortality (BG >180 mg/dL: HR 1.50; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31-1.73) (BG 140-180 mg/dL; HR 1.48; 95%CI: 1.29-1.70). Hyperglycaemia was also associated with requirement for mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Admission hyperglycaemia is a strong predictor of all-cause mortality in non-critically hospitalized COVID-19 patients regardless of prior history of diabetes. KEY MESSAGE Admission hyperglycaemia is a stronger and independent risk factor for mortality in COVID-19. Screening for hyperglycaemia, in patients without diabetes, and early treatment of hyperglycaemia should be mandatory in the management of patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Admission hyperglycaemia should not be overlooked in all patients regardless prior history of diabetes.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Hyperglycemia/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Registries , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Glucose , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Hyperglycemia/mortality , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Spain/epidemiology
10.
J Diabetes Sci Technol ; 14(6): 1065-1073, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-873877

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Amidst the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has emerged as an alternative for inpatient point-of-care blood glucose (POC-BG) monitoring. We performed a feasibility pilot study using CGM in critically ill patients with COVID-19 in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: Single-center, retrospective study of glucose monitoring in critically ill patients with COVID-19 on insulin therapy using Medtronic Guardian Connect and Dexcom G6 CGM systems. Primary outcomes were feasibility and accuracy for trending POC-BG. Secondary outcomes included reliability and nurse acceptance. Sensor glucose (SG) was used for trends between POC-BG with nursing guidance to reduce POC-BG frequency from one to two hours to four hours when the SG was in the target range. Mean absolute relative difference (MARD), Clarke error grids analysis (EGA), and Bland-Altman (B&A) plots were calculated for accuracy of paired SG and POC-BG measurements. RESULTS: CGM devices were placed on 11 patients: Medtronic (n = 6) and Dexcom G6 (n = 5). Both systems were feasible and reliable with good nurse acceptance. To determine accuracy, 437 paired SG and POC-BG readings were analyzed. For Medtronic, the MARD was 13.1% with 100% of readings in zones A and B on Clarke EGA. For Dexcom, MARD was 11.1% with 98% of readings in zones A and B. B&A plots had a mean bias of -17.76 mg/dL (Medtronic) and -1.94 mg/dL (Dexcom), with wide 95% limits of agreement. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, CGM is feasible in critically ill patients and has acceptable accuracy to identify trends and guide intermittent blood glucose monitoring with insulin therapy.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Monitoring, Physiologic/instrumentation , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/instrumentation , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/methods , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Critical Illness/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Hyperglycemia/blood , Hyperglycemia/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/mortality , Hyperglycemia/therapy , Insulin/administration & dosage , Insulin Infusion Systems , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Point-of-Care Systems , Prognosis , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 11: 2150132720958533, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760519

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with hyperglycemia during hospitalization, especially during ICU hospitalizations, often have worse outcomes, even if they do not have a premorbid diagnosis of diabetes. High glucose levels can provide insight into the underlying pathogenesis of a disease and can contribute to tissue injury. Some patients with COVID-19 have hyperglycemia during hospitalizations. METHODS: The Infectious Disease and Control office at University Medical Center in Lubbock, Texas, provided a list of patients with a COVID-19 infection hospitalized between March 1 and May 15, 2020. The medical records were reviewed to collect information on age, gender, history of diabetes, and glucose levels on admission and through the first 7 days of hospitalization. RESULTS: This study included 63 patients with a mean age of 62.1 ± 14.1 years. Thirty-five patients (55.6%) were males. The in-hospital mortality rate was 30.2%. The mean admission glucose level was 129.4 ± 57.1 mg/dL in patients who survived (N = 47) and 189.6 ± 112.2 mg/dL in patients who died during hospitalization (N = 16, P = .007). An admission glucose greater than 180 mg/dL predicted mortality in a model adjusted for a diabetes, age, and male gender. The mean differences between the maximum and minimum glucose levels calculated over the first 7 days of hospitalization were 112.93 ± 115.4 (N = 47) in patients who survived and were 240.5 ± 97.7 (N = 15) in patients who died during hospitalization (P = .0003). A difference between the maximum and minimum glucose level greater than 105 mg/dL was associated with increased mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who died during hospitalization for COVID-19 had higher admission glucose levels than patients who survived. Larger differences between maximum and minimum glucose levels during the first 7 days of hospitalization were associated with increased mortality. These results suggest that high glucose levels identify patients at increased risk for mortality and warrant more study.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Hyperglycemia/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Risk Assessment , Texas/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome
12.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 22(8): 1443-1454, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-647644

ABSTRACT

AIM: To explore whether coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with diabetes and secondary hyperglycaemia have different clinical characteristics and prognoses than those without significantly abnormal glucose metabolism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analysed 166 COVID-19 patients at Tongji Hospital (Wuhan) from 8 February to 21 March 2020. Clinical characteristics and outcomes (as of 4 April 2020) were compared among control (group 1), secondary hyperglycaemia (group 2: no diabetes history, fasting plasma glucose levels of ≥7.0 mmol/L once and HbA1c values <6.5%) and patients with diabetes (group 3). RESULTS: Compared with group 1, groups 2 and 3 had higher rates of leukocytosis, neutrophilia, lymphocytopenia, eosinopenia and levels of hypersensitive C-reactive protein, ferritin and d-dimer (P < .05 for all). Group 2 patients had higher levels of lactate dehydrogenase, prevalence of liver dysfunction and increased interleukin-8 (IL-8) than those in group 1, and a higher prevalence of increased IL-8 was found in group 2 than in group 3 (P < .05 for all). The proportions of critical patients in groups 2 and 3 were significantly higher compared with group 1 (38.1%, 32.8% vs. 9.5%, P < .05 for both). Groups 2 and 3 had significantly longer hospital stays than group 1, which was nearly 1 week longer. The composite outcomes risks were 5.47 (1.56-19.82) and 2.61 (0.86-7.88) times greater in groups 2 and 3 than in group 1. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperglycaemia in both diabetes and secondary hyperglycaemia patients with COVID-19 may indicate poor prognoses. There were differences between patients with secondary hyperglycaemia and those with diabetes. We recommend that clinicians pay more attention to the blood glucose status of COVID-19 patients, even those not diagnosed with diabetes before admission.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Hyperglycemia/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Adult , Aged , Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hyperglycemia/blood , Hyperglycemia/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 22(10): 1897-1906, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-436533

ABSTRACT

AIM: To evaluate the association between different degrees of hyperglycaemia and the risk of all-cause mortality among hospitalized patients with COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a retrospective study conducted from 22 January to 17 March 2020, 453 patients were admitted to Union Hospital in Wuhan, China, with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. Patients were classified into four categories: normal glucose, hyperglycaemia (fasting glucose 5.6-6.9 mmol/L and/or HbA1c 5.7%-6.4%), newly diagnosed diabetes (fasting glucose ≥7 mmol/L and/or HbA1c ≥6.5%) and known diabetes. The major outcomes included in-hospital mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). RESULTS: Patients with newly diagnosed diabetes constituted the highest percentage to be admitted to the ICU (11.7%) and require IMV (11.7%), followed by patients with known diabetes (4.1%; 9.2%) and patients with hyperglycaemia (6.2%; 4.7%), compared with patients with normal glucose (1.5%; 2.3%), respectively. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios of mortality among COVID-19 patients with normal glucose, hyperglycaemia, newly diagnosed diabetes and known diabetes were 1.00, 3.29 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65-16.6), 9.42 (95% CI 2.18-40.7) and 4.63 (95% CI 1.02-21.0), respectively. CONCLUSION: We showed that COVID-19 patients with newly diagnosed diabetes had the highest risk of all-cause mortality compared with COVID-19 patients with known diabetes, hyperglycaemia and normal glucose. Patients with COVID-19 need to be kept under surveillance for blood glucose screening.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Diseases/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Aged , Asymptomatic Diseases/therapy , Blood Glucose/physiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hyperglycemia/complications , Hyperglycemia/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/mortality , Hyperglycemia/therapy , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
16.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(5): 725-727, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-381813

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Diabetes in often associated with an increased severity and mortality in patients with COVID-19. We aimed to find out whether the severity and mortality in patients with diabetes with COVID-19 has any correlation to the level of glycemic control. METHODS: A Boolean search was made in PubMed database using the specific keywords related to our objectives up till May 14, 2020 and full text of article retrieved with the supplements published in English language. RESULTS: Two studies available so far have studied the outcomes of severity and mortality in patients with diabetes stratified on glycemic control. Both the studies have unequivocally found that patients with poorly-controlled hyperglycemia (blood glucose >180 mg/dl) have significantly higher level of poor prognostic markers biochemically, compared to the well-controlled arms (blood glucose <180 mg/dl). Moreover, significant increase in severity and mortality was observed in cohorts with poorly-controlled blood glucose due to any cause (diabetes or stress hyperglycemia), compared to the well-controlled cohorts with COVID-19, even after the adjustment of multiple confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Poorly-controlled hyperglycemia increases the severity and mortality in patients with COVID-19. All treating physician must strive for a good glycemic control (blood glucose <180 mg/dl) in patients with or without diabetes.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Hyperglycemia/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Blood Glucose/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Humans , Hyperglycemia/complications , Hyperglycemia/pathology , Mortality , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
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