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1.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 99-109, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544351

ABSTRACT

A severe pandemic of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) has been sweeping the globe since 2019, and this time, it did not stop, with frequent mutations transforming into virulent strains, for instance, B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and B.1.427. In recent months, a fungal infection, mucormycosis has emerged with more fatal responses and significantly increased mortality rate. To measure the severity and potential alternative approaches against black fungus coinfection in COVID-19 patients, PubMed, Google Scholar, World Health Organization (WHO) newsletters, and other online resources, based on the cases reported and retrospective observational analysis were searched from the years 2015-2021. The studies reporting mucormycosis with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) coinfection and/or demonstrating potential risk factors, such as a history of diabetes mellitus or suppressed immune system were included, and reports published in non-English language were excluded. More than 20 case reports and observational studies on black fungus coinfection in COVID-19 patients were eligible for inclusion. The results indicated that diabetes mellitus, hyperglycemic, and immunocompromised COVID-19 patients with mucormycosis were at a higher risk. We found that it was prudent to assess the potential risk factors and severity of invasive mycosis via standardized diagnostic and clinical settings. Large-scale studies need to be conducted to identify early biomarkers and optimization of diagnostic methods has to be established per population and geographical variation. This will not only help clinicians around the world to detect the coinfection in time but also will prepare them for future outbreaks of other potential pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Humans , Hyperglycemia/pathology , Immunocompromised Host/physiology , Mucorales/growth & development , Mucorales/isolation & purification , Mucormycosis/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
2.
FEBS J ; 288(17): 5042-5054, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295003

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the vulnerability of people with diabetes mellitus (DM) to respiratory viral infections. Despite the short history of COVID-19, various studies have shown that patients with DM are more likely to have increased hospitalisation and mortality rates as compared to patients without. At present, the mechanisms underlying this susceptibility are unclear. However, prior studies show that the course of COVID-19 disease is linked to the efficacy of the host's T-cell responses. Healthy individuals who can elicit a robust T-cell response are more likely to limit the severity of COVID-19. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that an impaired T-cell response in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) drives the severity of COVID-19 in this patient population. While there is currently a limited amount of information that specifically addresses T-cell responses in COVID-19 patients with T2DM, there is a wealth of evidence from other infectious diseases that T-cell immunity is impaired in patients with T2DM. The reasons for this are likely multifactorial, including the presence of hyperglycaemia, glycaemic variability and metformin use. This review emphasises the need for further research into T-cell responses of COVID-19 patients with T2DM in order to better inform our response to COVID-19 and future disease outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Hyperglycemia/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Humans , Hyperglycemia/complications , Hyperglycemia/pathology , Hyperglycemia/virology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , T-Lymphocytes/virology
3.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(4): 102188, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293736

ABSTRACT

AIM: The pandemic has generated the need for COVID-19 patients to be treated as best as possible; however, the effect of these treatments on glycemic control has not yet been taken into account. This article aims to determine whether the daily variation of glucose is influenced by the use of corticosteroids in COVID-19 patients treated in Lima-Peru. METHODOLOGY: A prospective cohort study was undertook, in which glucose was measured four times a day in 53 patients hospitalized due to COVID-19. These values were associated with the use of corticosteroids and adjusted for other socio-educational variables, all by means of PA-GEE models. RESULTS: Nested multivariate analysis of daily glucose variation found that those using corticosteroids increased the daily average glucose as well as the first and last glucose measurements, this is, at 6am and 10pm, respectively (all p-values <0.026). An increase in glucose levels was also observed in those with diabetes (all p-values <0.001). In contrast, we found that there was a decrease in the last glucose measurement of the day in obese patients (p-value = 0.044). CONCLUSIONS: The patients who used corticosteroids for the treatment of COVID-19 increased the average glucose per day, especially in the first and last measurement.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hyperglycemia/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Hyperglycemia/chemically induced , Hyperglycemia/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Peru/epidemiology , Prospective Studies
4.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 175: 108789, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163636

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Due to heterogeneity on the prognostic role of glucose values and glucose variability in Novel Coronavirus (COVID) disease, we aimed at assessing the prognostic role for Intensive Care Unit (ICU) death of admission hyperglycaemia, peak glycemia and glucose variability in critically ill COVID patients: METHODS: 83 patients consecutively admitted for COVID-related Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) from from 1st March to 1st October 2020. RESULTS: Non survivors were older, with more comorbidities and a more severe disease. Corticosteroids were used in the majority of patients (54/83, 65%) with no difference between survivors and non survivors. Mean blood glucose values, (during the first 24 and 48 h, respectively), were comparable between the two subgroups, as well as SD 24 and CV 24. During the first 48 h, survivors showed significantly lower values of SD 48 (p < 0.001) and CV 48, respectively (p < 0.001) than non survivors. CONCLUSIONS: in consecutive COVID-related ARDS patients admitted to ICU hyperglycemia (>180 mg/dl) is more common in non survivors who also showed a significantly higher glucose variability in the first 48 h since ICU admission. Our findings point to the clinical significance of in-ICU glucose control in severe COVID patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , Hyperglycemia/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hyperglycemia/blood , Hyperglycemia/pathology , Male , Prognosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
5.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0246265, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117479

ABSTRACT

Medicinal uses and applications of metals and their complexes are of increasing clinical and commercial importance. The ligation behavior of quercetin (Q), which is a flavonoid, and its Zn (II) (Q/Zn) complex were studied and characterized based on elemental analysis, molar conductance, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, electronic spectra, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), thermogravimetric analysis, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). FTIR spectral data revealed that Q acts as a bidentate ligand (chelating ligand) through carbonyl C(4) = O oxygen and phenolic C(3)-OH oxygen in conjugation with Zn. Electronic, FTIR, and 1H-NMR spectral data revealed that the Q/Zn complex has a distorted octahedral geometry, with the following chemical formula: [Zn(Q)(NO3)(H2O)2].5H2O. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) injection. A total of 70 male albino rats were divided into seven groups: control, diabetic untreated group and diabetic groups treated with either MSCs and/or Q and/or Q/Zn or their combination. Serum insulin, glucose, C-peptide, glycosylated hemoglobin, lipid profile, and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant levels were determined. Pancreatic and lung histology and TEM for pancreatic tissues in addition to gene expression of both SOD and CAT in pulmonary tissues were evaluated. MSCs in combination with Q/Zn therapy exhibited potent protective effects against STZ induced hyperglycemia and suppressed oxidative stress, genotoxicity, glycometabolic disturbances, and structural alterations. Engrafted MSCs were found inside pancreatic tissue at the end of the experiment. In conclusion, Q/Zn with MSC therapy produced a synergistic effect against oxidative stress and genotoxicity and can be considered potential ameliorative therapy against diabetes with pulmonary dysfunction, which may benefit against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Quercetin/therapeutic use , Zinc/therapeutic use , Animals , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Glucose/metabolism , C-Peptide/blood , C-Peptide/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Coordination Complexes/chemistry , Coordination Complexes/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Hyperglycemia/blood , Hyperglycemia/metabolism , Hyperglycemia/pathology , Hyperglycemia/therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry , Insulin/blood , Insulin/metabolism , Lung/drug effects , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Male , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Quercetin/analogs & derivatives , Rats , Zinc/chemistry
6.
Cell Metab ; 33(2): 258-269.e3, 2021 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064967

ABSTRACT

Corticosteroid therapy is now recommended as a treatment in patients with severe COVID-19. But one key question is how to objectively identify severely ill patients who may benefit from such therapy. Here, we assigned 12,862 COVID-19 cases from 21 hospitals in Hubei Province equally to a training and a validation cohort. We found that a neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) > 6.11 at admission discriminated a higher risk for mortality. Importantly, however, corticosteroid treatment in such individuals was associated with a lower risk of 60-day all-cause mortality. Conversely, in individuals with an NLR ≤ 6.11 or with type 2 diabetes, corticosteroid treatment was not associated with reduced mortality, but rather increased risks of hyperglycemia and infections. These results show that in the studied cohort corticosteroid treatment is associated with beneficial outcomes in a subset of COVID-19 patients who are non-diabetic and with severe symptoms as defined by NLR.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Lymphocytes/cytology , Neutrophils/cytology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Humans , Hyperglycemia/complications , Hyperglycemia/pathology , Length of Stay , Proportional Hazards Models , ROC Curve , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome
7.
Cell Metab ; 33(3): 479-498, 2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039321

ABSTRACT

The increased prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk factors in people hospitalized with severe COVID-19 illness has engendered considerable interest in the metabolic aspects of SARS-CoV-2-induced pathophysiology. Here, I update concepts informing how metabolic disorders and their co-morbidities modify the susceptibility to, natural history, and potential treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection, with a focus on human biology. New data informing genetic predisposition, epidemiology, immune responses, disease severity, and therapy of COVID-19 in people with obesity and diabetes are highlighted. The emerging relationships of metabolic disorders to viral-induced immune responses and viral persistence, and the putative importance of adipose and islet ACE2 expression, glycemic control, cholesterol metabolism, and glucose- and lipid-lowering drugs is reviewed, with attention to controversies and unresolved questions. Rapid progress in these areas informs our growing understanding of SARS-CoV-2 infection in people with diabetes and obesity, while refining the therapeutic strategies and research priorities in this vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Metabolic Diseases/pathology , Obesity/pathology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cholesterol/metabolism , Comorbidity , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Glucose/metabolism , Humans , Hyperglycemia/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(5): 725-727, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-381813

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Diabetes in often associated with an increased severity and mortality in patients with COVID-19. We aimed to find out whether the severity and mortality in patients with diabetes with COVID-19 has any correlation to the level of glycemic control. METHODS: A Boolean search was made in PubMed database using the specific keywords related to our objectives up till May 14, 2020 and full text of article retrieved with the supplements published in English language. RESULTS: Two studies available so far have studied the outcomes of severity and mortality in patients with diabetes stratified on glycemic control. Both the studies have unequivocally found that patients with poorly-controlled hyperglycemia (blood glucose >180 mg/dl) have significantly higher level of poor prognostic markers biochemically, compared to the well-controlled arms (blood glucose <180 mg/dl). Moreover, significant increase in severity and mortality was observed in cohorts with poorly-controlled blood glucose due to any cause (diabetes or stress hyperglycemia), compared to the well-controlled cohorts with COVID-19, even after the adjustment of multiple confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Poorly-controlled hyperglycemia increases the severity and mortality in patients with COVID-19. All treating physician must strive for a good glycemic control (blood glucose <180 mg/dl) in patients with or without diabetes.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Hyperglycemia/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Blood Glucose/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Humans , Hyperglycemia/complications , Hyperglycemia/pathology , Mortality , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
10.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 164: 108217, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-245152

ABSTRACT

Increasing evidence points to endothelial cell dysfunction as a key pathophysiological factor in severe coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), manifested by platelet aggregation, microthrombi and altered vasomotor tone. This may be driven by direct endothelial cell entry by the virus, or indirectly by activated inflammatory cascade. Major risk groups identified for adverse outcomes in COVID-19 are diabetes, and those from the Black, Asian and ethnic minority (BAME) populations. Hyperglycaemia (expressed as glycated haemoglobin or mean hospital glucose) correlates with worse outcomes in COVID-19. It is not known whether hyperglycaemia is causative or is a surrogate marker - persistent hyperglycaemia is well known as an aetiological agent in microangiopathy. In this article, we propose that pre-existing endothelial dysfunction of microangiopathy, more commonly evident in diabetes and BAME groups, makes an individual vulnerable to the subsequent 'endothelitis' of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Diabetic Angiopathies/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Diabetic Angiopathies/pathology , Humans , Hyperglycemia/pathology , Hyperglycemia/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(4): 519-520, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-186339

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Administration of corticosteroids is common in obstetric practice. In this concise review we queried on the effects of corticosteroids in pregnancies complicated by SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We performed a literature search on PubMed, regarding the use of corticosteroids in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, in pregnancies complicated by SARS-CoV-2, as well as their impact on glycemia in pregnant women with or without diabetes. Furthermore, we searched for effects of SARS-CoV-2 and of other coronaviridae on insulin secretion and glycemia. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 infection appears to be a risk factor for complications in pregnancy. Corticosteroids may not be recommended for treating SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia but they may be needed for at-risk pregnancies. Corticosteroids in pregnancy have a diabetogenic potential. SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviridae may have effects on glycemia. CONCLUSIONS: Caution should be exercised while using corticosteroids in pregnant women with COVID-19 requiring preterm delivery.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Hyperglycemia/pathology , Hypoglycemia/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Homeostasis , Humans , Hyperglycemia/etiology , Hyperglycemia/metabolism , Hypoglycemia/etiology , Hypoglycemia/metabolism , Insulin Secretion/drug effects , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/etiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(4): 513-517, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-186627

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Diabetes mellitus is associated with poor prognosis in patients with COVID-19. On the other hand, COVID-19 contributes to worsening of dysglycemia in people with diabetes mellitus over and above that contributed by stress hyperglycemia. Herein, we have reviewed the two-way interactions between COVID-19 and diabetes mellitus. METHODS: We have performed an extensive literature search for articles in PubMed, EMBASE and Google Scholar databases till April 25, 2020, with the following keywords: "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV-2", "diabetes", "diabetes mellitus", "SARS", "infection" and "management of diabetes mellitus" with interposition of the Boolean operator "AND". RESULTS: Compromised innate immunity, pro-inflammatory cytokine milieu, reduced expression of ACE2 and use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system antagonists in people with diabetes mellitus contribute to poor prognosis in COVID-19. On the contrary, direct ß-cell damage, cytokine-induced insulin resistance, hypokalemia and drugs used in the treatment of COVID-19 (like corticosteroids, lopinavir/ritonavir) can contribute to worsening of glucose control in people with diabetes mellitus. CONCLUSIONS: The two-way interaction between COVID-19 and diabetes mellitus sets up a vicious cycle wherein COVID-19 leads to worsening of dysglycemia and diabetes mellitus, in turn, exacerbates the severity of COVID-19. Thus, it is imperative that people with diabetes mellitus take all necessary precautions and ensure good glycemic control amid the ongoing pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Hyperglycemia/pathology , Hypoglycemia/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Severity of Illness Index , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Humans , Hyperglycemia/etiology , Hypoglycemia/etiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
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