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1.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(3)2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745767

ABSTRACT

A man in his early 30s, presented with multiple soft tissue swellings over the buttocks, around the knees, ankles and dorsum of both the hands since childhood. His father and paternal uncle had similar lesions, and his father had coronary artery disease. One of his sisters had a history of sudden death due to an unknown cause at 14 years. The patient and his parents had very high serum levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein. Based on the above findings, a clinical diagnosis of familial hyperlipidaemia type II was made. Larger lesions were excised in stages, and histopathological evaluation revealed the lesions to be eruptive xanthoma. A cardiac assessment revealed no significant abnormality. Lipid-lowering agents and low-dose aspirin were started, and the patient was advised for regular cardiology and endocrine evaluation. This case emphasises its rare presentation and the importance of early diagnosis and management to prevent any untoward future incidence.


Subject(s)
Coronary Artery Disease , Hyperlipidemias , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II , Xanthomatosis , Child , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Homozygote , Humans , Hyperlipidemias/complications , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II/complications , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II/diagnosis , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II/genetics , Male , Xanthomatosis/pathology
2.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 91(2)2021 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1215533

ABSTRACT

To the Editor COVID-19 (COrona VIrus Disease) patients with cardiovascular (CV) disease, multiple CV risk factors or comorbidities (i.e., arterial hypertension and diabetes) were shown to be more prone to a worse prognosis. SARS-CoV-2 is a still unknown enemy and the role of concomitant cardiovascular therapies has been controversial in the early stages, particularly with regard to Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme inhibitors...


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hyperlipidemias/drug therapy , Hypolipidemic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Deprescriptions , Humans , Hyperlipidemias/complications , Primary Prevention , SARS-CoV-2 , Secondary Prevention
3.
Chin Med Sci J ; 36(1): 17-26, 2021 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1187236

ABSTRACT

Objective This study aimed to determine the association of hyperlipidemia with clinical endpoints among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, especially those with pre-existing cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes. Methods This multicenter retrospective cohort study included all patients who were hospitalized due to COVID-19 from 21 hospitals in Hubei province, China between December 31, 2019 and April 21, 2020. Patients who were aged < 18 or ≥ 85 years old, in pregnancy, with acute lethal organ injury (e.g., acute myocardial infarction, severe acute pancreatitis, acute stroke), hypothyroidism, malignant diseases, severe malnutrition, and those with normal lipid profile under lipid-lowering medicines (e.g., statin, niacin, fenofibrate, gemfibrozil, and ezetimibe) were excluded. Propensity score matching (PSM) analysis at 1:1 ratio was performed to minimize baseline differences between patient groups of hyperlipidemia and non-hyperlipidemia. PSM analyses with the same strategies were further conducted for the parameters of hyperlipidemia in patients with increased triglyceride (TG), increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Mixed-effect Cox model analysis was performed to investigate the associations of the 28-days all-cause deaths of COVID-19 patients with hyperlipidemia and the abnormalities of lipid parameters. The results were verified in male, female patients, and in patients with pre-existing CVDs and type 2 diabetes. Results Of 10 945 inpatients confirmed as COVID-19, there were 9822 inpatients included in the study, comprising 3513 (35.8%) cases without hyperlipidemia and 6309 (64.2%) cases with hyperlipidemia. Based on a mixed-effect Cox model after PSM at 1:1 ratio, hyperlipidemia was not associated with increased or decreased 28-day all-cause death [adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 1.17 (95% CI, 0.95-1.44), P =0.151]. We found that the parameters of hyperlipidemia were not associated with the risk of 28-day all-cause mortality [adjusted HR, 1.23 (95% CI, 0.98-1.55), P = 0.075 in TG increase group; 0.78 (95% CI, 0.57-1.07), P = 0.123 in LDL-C increase group; and 1.12 (95% CI, 0.9-1.39), P = 0.299 in HDL-C decrease group, respectively]. Hyperlipidemia was also not significantly associated with the increased mortality of COVID-19 in patients accompanied with CVDs or type 2 diabetes, and in both male and female cohorts. Conclusion Our study support that the imbalanced lipid profile is not significantly associated with the 28-day all-cause mortality of COVID-19 patients, even in those accompanied with CVDs or diabetes. Similar results were also obtained in subgroup analyses of abnormal lipid parameters. Therefore, hyperlipidemia might be not a major causative factor for poor outcome of COVID-19, which provides guidance for the intervention of inpatients during the epidemic of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hyperlipidemias/complications , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Case-Control Studies , Cause of Death , China/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Propensity Score , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
4.
Am J Forensic Med Pathol ; 41(4): e61-e63, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-791494

ABSTRACT

The autopsy findings for 3 cases of SARS-(CoV-2) pneumonia-related deaths are reported with pulmonary histology and immunohistochemistry findings. In 2 cases (cases 1 and 2), the time interval from presentation to death was approximately 1 week, whereas for case 3, the time interval from presentation to death was hours. Case 1 and case 2 presented with shortness of breath, cough, and flu-like symptoms. The decedent from case 3 died shortly after presenting to a local emergency room with high fever, chest and abdominal pain, and shortness of breath. All 3 cases had 1 or more comorbidities. The postmortem interval for cases 1 and 2 was 2 weeks as they died at sea and were stored on board within the respective cruise ships' refrigeration units, whereas case 3 was examined within 24 hours of death. The autopsies were conducted at the Miami-Dade County Medical Examiners Department under routine infectious precautions. Salient clinical history and autopsy findings are summarized. Microscopic examination revealed pneumonia with associated atypical endovascular cells.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Autopsy , COVID-19 , Cardiomegaly/complications , Cardiomegaly/pathology , Circle of Willis/pathology , Comorbidity , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Diabetes Complications/pathology , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Hyperlipidemias/complications , Hyperlipidemias/pathology , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Obesity/complications , Obesity/pathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pulmonary Edema/complications , Pulmonary Edema/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tobacco Use/pathology
5.
Atherosclerosis ; 313: 126-136, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-758580

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which causes Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in a pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 is highly contagious and its severity highly variable. The fatality rate is unpredictable but is amplified by several factors including advancing age, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and obesity. A large proportion of patients with these conditions are treated with lipid lowering medication and questions regarding the safety of continuing lipid-lowering medication in patients infected with COVID-19 have arisen. Some have suggested they may exacerbate their condition. It is important to consider known interactions with lipid-lowering agents and with specific therapies for COVID-19. This statement aims to collate current evidence surrounding the safety of lipid-lowering medications in patients who have COVID-19. We offer a consensus view based on current knowledge and we rated the strength and level of evidence for these recommendations. Pubmed, Google scholar and Web of Science were searched extensively for articles using search terms: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, coronavirus, Lipids, Statin, Fibrates, Ezetimibe, PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies, nicotinic acid, bile acid sequestrants, nutraceuticals, red yeast rice, Omega-3-Fatty acids, Lomitapide, hypercholesterolaemia, dyslipidaemia and Volanesorsen. There is no evidence currently that lipid lowering therapy is unsafe in patients with COVID-19 infection. Lipid-lowering therapy should not be interrupted because of the pandemic or in patients at increased risk of COVID-19 infection. In patients with confirmed COVID-19, care should be taken to avoid drug interactions, between lipid-lowering medications and drugs that may be used to treat COVID-19, especially in patients with abnormalities in liver function tests.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Hyperlipidemias/complications , Hyperlipidemias/drug therapy , Hypolipidemic Agents/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Hyperlipidemias/diagnosis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom
9.
Circulation ; 141(23): 1930-1936, 2020 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-32308
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