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1.
Intern Med J ; 52(10): 1818-1820, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2052578

ABSTRACT

Previous anaphylaxis or immediate allergic reaction to polyethylene glycol (PEG; also known as macrogol) is considered a contraindication to the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, which contains 50 ug of PEG at a molecular weight of 2000, and this component is thought to account for the higher rate of anaphylaxis seen with this vaccine (4.7 per million doses) than with other non-mRNA vaccines. However, there is evidence that both anaphylaxis to PEG and anaphylaxis to the Pfizer COVID-19 reaction may not be IgE-mediated, with patients with anaphylaxis to first dose of the Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine receiving their second dose of vaccine without no or milder reactions in a high-risk clinic setting. In New Zealand, non-PEG-containing COVID-19 vaccines were not available until late 2021. Therefore, we offered patients with known or suspected PEG anaphylaxis their first dose of Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine in a high-risk hospital clinic. Eleven patients with previous hypersensitivity to PEG (including eight with anaphylaxis) successfully received their first dose with mild or no reactions; all have now had their second doses in the community without significant reaction. Record review also showed that most patients with previous hypersensitivity reactions to pegylated asparaginase have also been successfully vaccinated. This demonstrates that previous PEG hypersensitivity, including anaphylaxis, does not exclude immunisation with the Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , COVID-19 , Hypersensitivity, Immediate , Hypersensitivity , Vaccines , Humans , Anaphylaxis/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , BNT162 Vaccine , RNA, Messenger , COVID-19/prevention & control , Polyethylene Glycols/adverse effects , Immunoglobulin E
2.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 10(10): 2667-2676.e10, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028161

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the implementation of mass vaccination campaigns against COVID-19, the safety of vaccine needs to be evaluated. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the incidence and risk factors for immediate hypersensitivity reactions (IHSR) and immunization stress-related responses (ISRR) with the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine. METHODS: This nested case-control study included recipients who received the Moderna vaccine at a mass vaccination center, Japan. Recipients with IHSR and ISRR were designated as cases 1 and 2, respectively. Controls 1 and 2 were selected from recipients without IHSR or ISRR and matched (1 case: 4 controls) with cases 1 and cases 2, respectively. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors associated with IHSR and ISRR. RESULTS: Of the 614,151 vaccine recipients who received 1,201,688 vaccine doses, 306 recipients (cases 1) and 2478 recipients (cases 2) showed 318 events of IHSR and 2558 events of ISRR, respectively. The incidence rates per million doses were estimated as IHSR: 266 cases, ISRR: 2129 cases, anaphylaxis: 2 cases, and vasovagal syncope: 72 cases. Risk factors associated with IHSR included female, asthma, atopic dermatitis, thyroid diseases, and a history of allergy; for ISRR, the risk factors were younger age, female, asthma, thyroid diseases, mental disorders, and a history of allergy and vasovagal reflex. CONCLUSION: In the mass vaccination settings, the Moderna vaccine can be used safely owing to the low incidence rates of IHSR and anaphylaxis. However, providers should be aware of the occurrence of ISRR. Although recipients with risk factors are associated with slightly increased risks of IHSR and ISRR, this is not of sufficient magnitude to warrant special measures regarding their vaccination.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Anaphylaxis , COVID-19 , Hypersensitivity, Immediate , Humans , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , Anaphylaxis/chemically induced , Asthma , Case-Control Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hypersensitivity, Immediate/chemically induced , Incidence , Risk Factors , Vaccination/adverse effects , Japan
3.
Clin Drug Investig ; 42(10): 813-827, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000149

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2), Oxford-AstraZeneca (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19), Sinopharm (BBIBP-CorV), and Sputnik V coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines have been granted emergency approval in many nations, their safety has never been studied and compared in one community-based study. This study aimed to investigate and compare the incidence, nature, severity, and predictors of adverse events following immunization (AEFIs) with COVID-19 vaccines. METHOD: This was a prospective observational study conducted in Jordan between 1 January and 21 September 2021. A team of pharmacists and nurses (n = 407) collected the local and systemic AEFIs of four COVID-19 vaccines by prospectively contacting participants registered in the national vaccination program platform. A red-flag technology was inserted to classify and track rare and serious AEFIs. RESULTS: This study included 658,428 participants who were vaccinated with 1,032,430 doses; 610,591, 279,606, 140,843, and 1390 participants received the first and second doses of the BNT162b2, BBIBP-CorV, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, and Sputnik V vaccines, respectively. The overall incidence of AEFIs was 28.8%, and the overall rates of systemic, local, and immediate hypersensitivity AEFIs were 22.2%, 18.8%, and 0.5%, respectively. The highest proportions of immediate hypersensitivity AEFIs and systemic AEFIs were reported after administration of the Sputnik V vaccine and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 first dose, respectively. The most severe AEFIs were reported after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 first dose and BNT162b2 second dose. The hospitalization and mortality rates after vaccination were 20 in 10,000 and 1 in 10,000, respectively. Based on red-flag tracking, the top three outcome events were lymphadenopathy (157.9/100,000), anxiety disorders (136.6/100,000), and lower respiratory tract infection (100.9/100,000), with Guillain-Barré syndrome (1.8/100,000), vasculitis (3.0/100,000), and myopericarditis (4.8/100,000) being the least common. CONCLUSION: The incidence rates of local, systemic, and immediate hypersensitivity AEFIs of four COVID-19 vaccines occur frequently. High incidence rates of rare and serious AEFIs were reported in this study. Younger participants, females, those who had previously had COVID-19, and smokers were more likely to encounter AEFIs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Hypersensitivity, Immediate , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Female , Humans , Hypersensitivity, Immediate/chemically induced , Jordan/epidemiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines/adverse effects
4.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 10(10): 2677-2684, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1983323

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Allergic reactions to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines have raised concerns, particularly as repeated doses are required. Skin tests with the vaccines excipient were found to be of low value, whereas the utility of skin tests with the whole vaccine is yet to be determined. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a panel of skin tests and the outcomes of subsequent doses of immunization among subjects who suffered an immediate allergic reaction to the BioNTech (BNT162b2) COVID-19 vaccine. METHODS: Between March and December 2021, patients who experienced symptoms consistent with immediate allergic reactions to the BNT162b2 vaccine and were referred to the Sheba Medical Center underwent skin testing with polyethylene glyol (PEG)-containing medicines, Pfizer-BNT162b2, and Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine (AZD1222). Further immunization was performed accordingly and under medical observation. RESULTS: A total of 51 patients underwent skin testing for suspected allergy to the COVID vaccines, of which 38 of 51 (74.5%) were nonreactive, 7 of 51(13.7%) had no skin sensitization but suffered a clinical reaction during skin testing (mainly cough), and 6 of 51 (11.7%) exhibited immediate skin sensitization. Both skin sensitization and cough during testing were related to a higher use of adrenaline following immunization (P = .08 and P = .024, respectively). Further immunization with the BNT162b2 vaccine was recommended unless sensitization or severe reaction to previous immunization was evident. The latter were referred to be tested/receive the alternative AZD1222 vaccine. Ten patients underwent skin testing with AZD1222: 2 of 10 (20%) demonstrated skin sensitization to both vaccines; thus, 8 of 10 were immunized with the AZD1222, of which 2 of 8 (25%) had allergic reactions. CONCLUSIONS: Immediate allergic reactions to COVID-19 vaccines are rare but can be severe and reoccur. Intradermal testing with the whole vaccine may discriminate sensitized subjects, detect cross-sensitization between vaccines, and enable estimation of patients at higher risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Hypersensitivity, Immediate , Hypersensitivity , Vaccines , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Cough , Epinephrine , Excipients , Humans , Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Hypersensitivity, Immediate/diagnosis , Immunization , Vaccines/adverse effects
5.
Allergol Int ; 71(4): 512-519, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944051

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The mechanism of allergic reactions to COVID-19 mRNA vaccines has not been clarified. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a potential antigen in the components of vaccines. However, there is little evidence that allergy after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination is related to PEG. Furthermore, the role of polysorbate (PS) as an antigen has also not been clarified. The objective of this study was to investigate whether PEG and PS allergies are reasonable causes of allergic symptoms after vaccination by detecting PEG-specific and PS-specific antibodies. METHODS: Fourteen patients who developed immediate allergic reactions to BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccines and nineteen healthy controls who did not present allergic symptoms were recruited. Serum PEG-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) and PS-specific IgE and IgG were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Skin tests using PEG-2000 and PS-80 were applied to five patients and three controls. RESULTS: Serum levels of PEG-specific IgE and IgG in patients with immediate allergic reactions to the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine were higher than those in the control group. Serum levels of PS-specific IgE in patients with allergy to the vaccine were higher than those in patients of the control group. Intradermal tests using PEG verified the results for PEG-specific IgE and IgG. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that PEG is one of the antigens in the allergy to COVID-19 mRNA vaccines. Cross-reactivity between PEG and PS might be crucial for allergy to the vaccines. PEG-specific IgE and IgG may be useful in diagnosing allergy to COVID-19 mRNA vaccines.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Hypersensitivity , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Hypersensitivity, Immediate , Immunoglobulin E/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Polyethylene Glycols , Polysorbates , RNA, Messenger , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
6.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 10(7): 1889-1902.e9, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1921008

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Functional iron deficiency facilitates allergy development and amplifies the symptom burden in people experiencing allergies. Previously we selectively delivered micronutrients to immune cells with ß-lactoglobulin as carrier (holoBLG), resulting in immune resilience and allergy prevention. OBJECTIVE: The clinical efficacy of a food for special medical purposes-lozenge containing ß-lactoglobulin with iron, polyphenols, retinoic acid, and zinc (holoBLG lozenge) was assessed in allergic women. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study, grass- and/or birch pollen-allergic women (n = 51) were given holoBLG or placebo lozenges over 6 months. Before and after dietary supplementation, participants were nasally challenged and the blood was analyzed for immune and iron parameters. Daily symptoms, medications, pollen concentrations, and well-being were recorded by an electronic health application. RESULTS: Total nasal symptom score after nasal provocations improved by 42% in the holoBLG group versus 13% in the placebo group. The combined symptom medication score during the birch peak and entire season as well as the entire grass pollen season improved in allergic subjects supplemented with the holoBLG lozenge by 45%, 31%, and 40%, respectively, compared with the placebo arm. Participants ingesting the holoBLG lozenge had improved iron status with increased hematocrit values, decreased red cell distribution width, and higher iron levels in circulating CD14+ cells compared with the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: Targeted micronutrition with the holoBLG lozenge seemed to be effective in elevating the labile iron levels in immune cells and reducing the symptom burden in allergic women in this pilot study. The underlying allergen-independent mechanism provides evidence that dietary nutritional supplementation of the immune system is one of the ways to combat atopy.


Subject(s)
Conjunctivitis, Allergic , Hypersensitivity, Immediate , Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal , Allergens , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Iron/therapeutic use , Lactoglobulins/therapeutic use , Pilot Projects , Poaceae , Tablets/therapeutic use
14.
Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol ; 21(6): 569-575, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356717

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Molecular forms of allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) are continuously emerging to improve the efficacy of the treatment, to shorten the duration of protocols and to prevent any side effects. The present review covers the recent progress in the development of AIT based on nucleic acid encoding allergens or CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN). RECENT FINDINGS: Therapeutic vaccinations with plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) encoding major shrimp Met e 1 or insect For t 2 allergen were effective for the treatment of food or insect bite allergy in respective animal models. DNA expressing hypoallergenic shrimp tropomyosin activated Foxp3+ T regulatory (Treg) cells whereas DNA encoding For t 2 down-regulated the expression of pruritus-inducing IL-31. Co-administrations of major cat allergen Fel d 1 with high doses of CpG-ODN reduced Th2 airway inflammation through tolerance induction mediated by GATA3+ Foxp3hi Treg cells as well as early anti-inflammatory TNF/TNFR2 signaling cascade. Non-canonical CpG-ODN derived from Cryptococcus neoformans as well as methylated CpG sites present in the genomic DNA from Bifidobacterium infantis mediated Th1 or Treg cell differentiation respectively. SUMMARY: Recent studies on plasmid DNA encoding allergens evidenced their therapeutic potential for the treatment of food allergy and atopic dermatitis. Unmethylated or methylated CpG-ODNs were shown to activate dose-dependent Treg/Th1 responses. Large clinical trials need to be conducted to confirm these promising preclinical data. Moreover, tremendous success of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 must encourage as well the re-exploration of mRNA vaccine platform for innovative AIT.


Subject(s)
Desensitization, Immunologic/methods , Hypersensitivity, Immediate/therapy , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides/administration & dosage , Vaccines, DNA/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Allergens/administration & dosage , Allergens/genetics , Allergens/immunology , Animals , Clinical Trials as Topic , Desensitization, Immunologic/trends , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Humans , Hypersensitivity, Immediate/immunology , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides/genetics , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides/immunology , Plasmids/administration & dosage , Plasmids/genetics , Plasmids/immunology , Treatment Outcome , Vaccines, DNA/genetics , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
15.
ILAR J ; 62(1-2): 232-237, 2021 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280105

ABSTRACT

This case report discusses Type I hypersensitivity in ferrets following exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) inoculum, observed during a study investigating the efficacy of candidate COVID-19 vaccines. Following a comprehensive internal root-cause investigation, it was hypothesized that prior prime-boost immunization of ferrets with a commercial canine C3 vaccine to protect against the canine distemper virus had resulted in primary immune response to fetal bovine serum (FBS) in the C3 preparation. Upon intranasal exposure to SARS-CoV-2 virus cultured in medium containing FBS, an allergic airway response occurred in 6 out of 56 of the ferrets. The 6 impacted ferrets were randomly dispersed across study groups, including different COVID-19 vaccine candidates, routes of vaccine candidate administration, and controls (placebo). The root-cause investigation and subsequent analysis determined that the allergic reaction was unrelated to the COVID-19 vaccine candidates under evaluation. Histological assessment suggested that the allergic response was characterized by eosinophilic airway disease; increased serum immunoglobulin levels reactive to FBS further suggested this response was caused by immune priming to FBS present in the C3 vaccine. This was further supported by in vivo studies demonstrating ferrets administered diluted FBS also presented clinical signs consistent with a hyperallergic response, while clinical signs were absent in ferrets that received a serum-free SARS-CoV-2 inoculum. It is therefore recommended that vaccine studies in higher order animals should consider the impact of welfare vaccination and use serum-free inoculum whenever possible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypersensitivity, Immediate , Viral Vaccines , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines , Dogs , Ferrets , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 127(4): 446-450.e1, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230347

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has highlighted the importance of accurate capture of vaccine, and vaccine component, allergy. There remains a gap in the prevalence literature from the perspective of direct primary care provider (PCP) reporting at a population level. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of PCP-documented vaccine and polyethylene glycol (PEG) allergy using electronic medical record data from the Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study using the Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network repository. Machine learning algorithms were applied to evaluate for vaccine allergy documentation, and Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical codes were used for PEG allergy or allergy to common injectable medications containing PEG (CIMCP). RESULTS: The prevalence of PCP-documented vaccine allergy in Canada was 0.037% (395/1,055,677) and of PEG allergy was 0.0009% (10/1,055,677). In total, 0.01% of patients had a documented allergy to either PEG or CIMCP (135/1,055,677). None of the patients with PEG allergy had a documented allergy to a CIMCP. Patients with vaccine allergy and PEG allergy were significantly more likely to have other atopic comorbidities, including asthma (P < .001 for both), eczema (P < .001 and P = .001, respectively), rhinitis (P = .002 and P < .001, respectively), and food allergy (P < .001 for both). Significantly higher rates of depression (P < .001 and P < .001, respectively) and anxiety (P = .003 and P < .001, respectively) were found in those with vaccine allergy, or PEG allergy, than those without vaccine allergy or PEG allergy. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to estimate the prevalence of vaccine and PEG allergy in a national cohort that uses PCP documentation, revealing a low reported rate of vaccine allergy and PEG allergy.


Subject(s)
Hypersensitivity, Immediate/epidemiology , Hypersensitivity, Immediate/immunology , Hypersensitivity/immunology , Polyethylene Glycols/adverse effects , Vaccines/adverse effects , Adult , Algorithms , Anxiety/immunology , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Canada/epidemiology , Documentation/methods , Eczema/epidemiology , Eczema/immunology , Electronic Health Records , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prevalence , Primary Health Care/methods , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines/immunology
18.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 182(7): 631-636, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197289

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy (SCIT) is an effective treatment for allergic rhinitis, asthma, and venom allergy. Compliance is essential for SCIT to obtain maximal benefit as it is a long-term treatment. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the level of real-life SCIT compliance in pediatric patients and the associated factors. Additional aims were to determine how SCIT compliance was affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and why some patients dropped out SCIT. METHOD: Pediatric patients diagnosed with allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma, or venom allergy that received SCIT between September 2012 and July 2020 were analyzed. RESULTS: The study included 201 children (66.7% male) with a median (interquartile range) age of 12.8 years (9.4-15.2) at the time of the first SCIT injection. The overall compliance rate before COVID-19 pandemic was 86.1%. Short SCIT follow-up time and venom anaphylaxis were found to be risk factors for drop out. The leading causes of drop outs were moving to another city/country (32.1%), symptom improvement (17.8%), treatment ineffectiveness (14.2%), and adverse reactions (14.2%). Among the 108 patients that were still receiving SCIT during the COVID-19 pandemic, 31 (28.7%) dropped out the therapy. The most frequent reasons for drop-out were fear of being infected with COVID-19 (35.4%) and thinking that the AIT practise stopped due to COVID-19 pandemic (29%). Male gender and older age were found to be the independent risk factors for drop-out of SCIT. CONCLUSIONS: Real life compliance in children was found 13.9% and it was higher than adults. Nearly one-third of children dropped out during the CO-VID-19 pandemic. Male gender and older age are associated with SCIT drop-out during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Desensitization, Immunologic , Hypersensitivity, Immediate/therapy , Patient Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Desensitization, Immunologic/adverse effects , Desensitization, Immunologic/methods , Desensitization, Immunologic/psychology , Desensitization, Immunologic/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Injections, Subcutaneous , Logistic Models , Male , Patient Compliance/psychology , Patient Dropouts/psychology , Patient Dropouts/statistics & numerical data , Turkey
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