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J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 10(10): 2667-2676.e10, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028161

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the implementation of mass vaccination campaigns against COVID-19, the safety of vaccine needs to be evaluated. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the incidence and risk factors for immediate hypersensitivity reactions (IHSR) and immunization stress-related responses (ISRR) with the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine. METHODS: This nested case-control study included recipients who received the Moderna vaccine at a mass vaccination center, Japan. Recipients with IHSR and ISRR were designated as cases 1 and 2, respectively. Controls 1 and 2 were selected from recipients without IHSR or ISRR and matched (1 case: 4 controls) with cases 1 and cases 2, respectively. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors associated with IHSR and ISRR. RESULTS: Of the 614,151 vaccine recipients who received 1,201,688 vaccine doses, 306 recipients (cases 1) and 2478 recipients (cases 2) showed 318 events of IHSR and 2558 events of ISRR, respectively. The incidence rates per million doses were estimated as IHSR: 266 cases, ISRR: 2129 cases, anaphylaxis: 2 cases, and vasovagal syncope: 72 cases. Risk factors associated with IHSR included female, asthma, atopic dermatitis, thyroid diseases, and a history of allergy; for ISRR, the risk factors were younger age, female, asthma, thyroid diseases, mental disorders, and a history of allergy and vasovagal reflex. CONCLUSION: In the mass vaccination settings, the Moderna vaccine can be used safely owing to the low incidence rates of IHSR and anaphylaxis. However, providers should be aware of the occurrence of ISRR. Although recipients with risk factors are associated with slightly increased risks of IHSR and ISRR, this is not of sufficient magnitude to warrant special measures regarding their vaccination.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Anaphylaxis , COVID-19 , Hypersensitivity, Immediate , Humans , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , Anaphylaxis/chemically induced , Asthma , Case-Control Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hypersensitivity, Immediate/chemically induced , Incidence , Risk Factors , Vaccination/adverse effects , Japan
2.
Clin Drug Investig ; 42(10): 813-827, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000149

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2), Oxford-AstraZeneca (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19), Sinopharm (BBIBP-CorV), and Sputnik V coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines have been granted emergency approval in many nations, their safety has never been studied and compared in one community-based study. This study aimed to investigate and compare the incidence, nature, severity, and predictors of adverse events following immunization (AEFIs) with COVID-19 vaccines. METHOD: This was a prospective observational study conducted in Jordan between 1 January and 21 September 2021. A team of pharmacists and nurses (n = 407) collected the local and systemic AEFIs of four COVID-19 vaccines by prospectively contacting participants registered in the national vaccination program platform. A red-flag technology was inserted to classify and track rare and serious AEFIs. RESULTS: This study included 658,428 participants who were vaccinated with 1,032,430 doses; 610,591, 279,606, 140,843, and 1390 participants received the first and second doses of the BNT162b2, BBIBP-CorV, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, and Sputnik V vaccines, respectively. The overall incidence of AEFIs was 28.8%, and the overall rates of systemic, local, and immediate hypersensitivity AEFIs were 22.2%, 18.8%, and 0.5%, respectively. The highest proportions of immediate hypersensitivity AEFIs and systemic AEFIs were reported after administration of the Sputnik V vaccine and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 first dose, respectively. The most severe AEFIs were reported after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 first dose and BNT162b2 second dose. The hospitalization and mortality rates after vaccination were 20 in 10,000 and 1 in 10,000, respectively. Based on red-flag tracking, the top three outcome events were lymphadenopathy (157.9/100,000), anxiety disorders (136.6/100,000), and lower respiratory tract infection (100.9/100,000), with Guillain-Barré syndrome (1.8/100,000), vasculitis (3.0/100,000), and myopericarditis (4.8/100,000) being the least common. CONCLUSION: The incidence rates of local, systemic, and immediate hypersensitivity AEFIs of four COVID-19 vaccines occur frequently. High incidence rates of rare and serious AEFIs were reported in this study. Younger participants, females, those who had previously had COVID-19, and smokers were more likely to encounter AEFIs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Hypersensitivity, Immediate , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Female , Humans , Hypersensitivity, Immediate/chemically induced , Jordan/epidemiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines/adverse effects
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