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1.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261707, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623660

ABSTRACT

The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to describe pre-treatment characteristics, treatment patterns, health resource use, and clinical outcomes among adults hospitalized with COVID-19 in the United States (US) who initiated common treatments for COVID-19. The Optum® COVID-19 electronic health records database was used to identify patients >18 years, diagnosed with COVID-19, who were admitted to an inpatient setting and received treatments of interest for COVID-19 between September 2020 and January 2021. Patients were stratified into cohorts based on index treatment use. Patient demographics, medical history, care setting, medical procedures, subsequent treatment use, patient disposition, clinical improvement, and outcomes were summarized descriptively. Among a total of 26,192 patients identified, the most prevalent treatments initiated were dexamethasone (35.4%) and dexamethasone + remdesivir (14.9%), and dexamethasone was the most common subsequent treatment. At day 14 post-index, <10% of patients received any treatments of interest. Mean (standard deviation [SD]) patient age was 65.6 (15.6) years, and the most prevalent comorbidities included hypertension (44.8%), obesity (35.4%), and diabetes (25.7%). At the end of follow-up, patients had a mean (SD) 8.1 (6.6) inpatient days and 1.4 (4.1) days with ICU care. Oxygen supplementation, non-invasive, or invasive ventilation was required by 4.5%, 3.0%, and 3.1% of patients, respectively. At the end of follow-up, 84.2% of patients had evidence of clinical improvement, 3.1% remained hospitalized, 83.8% were discharged, 4% died in hospital, and 9.1% died after discharge. Although the majority of patients were discharged alive, no treatments appeared to alleviate the inpatient morbidity and mortality associated with COVID-19. This highlights an unmet need for effective treatment options for patients hospitalized with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Hypertension/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Patient Discharge , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alanine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
2.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 23(1): 10-14, 2022 Jan.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1609112

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) rapidly spread across the world, killing more than 4 million individuals globally, with 240 million individuals being confirmed by laboratory tests. Among different therapeutic strategies to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection, vaccines are the most promising approach for curbing the pandemic. They elicit an immune neutralizing response and thus offer protection against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, some questions regarding the safety of COVID-19 vaccines have been raised and based on sparse reports of severe systemic reactions after vaccination. Among these, evidences on the potential effect of vaccination on the acute rise in blood pressure have been recently accrued. Approved vaccines in Europe increase the endogenous synthesis of SARS-CoV-2 Spike proteins from a variety of cells. Once synthetized in the cells reached by the vaccine, the Spike proteins first assemble in the cytoplasm and then migrate to the cell surface to protrude with a native-like conformation. Spike proteins are recognized by the immune system which rapidly develops an immune response. Furthermore, the Spike proteins assembled in the cells which are eventually destroyed by the immune response circulate in the blood as free-floating forms. Free-floating Spike proteins may interact with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors leading to internalization, degradation, and dysregulation of the catalytic activities of these receptors. The consequent loss of ACE2 receptor activity leads to a rapid drop in the generation of angiotensin1,7 resulting from inactivation of angiotensin II. The imbalance between angiotensin II (overactivity) and of angiotensin1,7 (deficiency) might play a role in the genesis of acute elevation in blood pressure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
3.
Dis Markers ; 2021: 7686374, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595046

ABSTRACT

Objective: S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) are indicators of global transmethylation and may play an important role as markers of severity of COVID-19. Methods: The levels of plasma SAM and SAH were determined in patients admitted with COVID-19 (n = 56, mean age = 61). Lung injury was identified by computed tomography (CT) in accordance with the CT0-4 classification. Results: SAM was found to be a potential marker of lung damage risk in COVID-19 patients (SAM > 80 nM; CT3,4 vs. CT 0-2: relative ratio (RR) was 3.0; p = 0.0029). SAM/SAH > 6.0 was also found to be a marker of lung injury (CT2-4 vs. CT0,1: RR = 3.47, p = 0.0004). There was a negative association between SAM and glutathione level (ρ = -0.343, p = 0.011). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were associated with SAM (ρ = 0.44, p = 0.01) and SAH (ρ = 0.534, p = 0.001) levels. Conclusions: A high SAM level and high methylation index are associated with the risk of lung injury in patients with COVID-19. The association of SAM with IL-6 and glutathione indicates an important role of transmethylation in the development of cytokine imbalance and oxidative stress in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lung Injury/blood , S-Adenosylhomocysteine/blood , S-Adenosylmethionine/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Atherosclerosis/epidemiology , Biomarkers , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Glutathione/blood , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Interleukin-6/blood , Lung Injury/diagnostic imaging , Lung Injury/etiology , Male , Methylation , Middle Aged , Military Personnel , Risk , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 734065, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591400

ABSTRACT

Background: In an elderly population with hypertension, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is associated with a higher incidence of mortality and a protracted course of clinical symptoms. Objective: To assess the perceived risk of infection and complications due to COVID-19 in people with hypertension living in a semi-urban city of Ecuador. Methods: A cross-sectional telephone survey of adult outpatients with a previous diagnosis of hypertension in the semi-urban community of Conocoto in Quito, Ecuador was conducted from August to December 2020. Results: A total of 260 adult outpatients, aged 34-97 years, completed telephone surveys. Of total, 71.5% (n = 186) of respondents were women and 28.5% (n = 74) of respondents were men. Overall, 18.1% believe that their risk of infection is "very high," 55.4% believe that their risk of infection is "high," 21.5% believe that their risk of infection is "low," and 5% believe that their risk of infection is "very low." The perceived risk of complications, if infected by COVID-19, revealed that 21.9% believe that their risk of complication is "very high," 65.0% believe that their risk of complication is "high," 10.4% believe that their risk of complication is "low," and 2.7% believe that their risk of complication is "very low." Conclusion: Patients with hypertension are aware of the risks posed by COVID-19 infection and its impact on their health. However, the health system must educate the population on health practices and behaviors to avoid COVID-19 infection until the majority of the population of Ecuador can be vaccinated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ecuador/epidemiology , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Perception , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(11): 786-798, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586178

ABSTRACT

Up to 50% of the people who have died from COVID-19 had metabolic and vascular disorders. Notably, there are many direct links between COVID-19 and the metabolic and endocrine systems. Thus, not only are patients with metabolic dysfunction (eg, obesity, hypertension, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and diabetes) at an increased risk of developing severe COVID-19 but also infection with SARS-CoV-2 might lead to new-onset diabetes or aggravation of pre-existing metabolic disorders. In this Review, we provide an update on the mechanisms of how metabolic and endocrine disorders might predispose patients to develop severe COVID-19. Additionally, we update the practical recommendations and management of patients with COVID-19 and post-pandemic. Furthermore, we summarise new treatment options for patients with both COVID-19 and diabetes, and highlight current challenges in clinical management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Disease Management , Metabolic Diseases/epidemiology , Metabolic Diseases/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/metabolism , Hypertension/therapy , Metabolic Diseases/therapy , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/therapy , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/metabolism , Obesity/therapy
6.
Drugs ; 82(1): 43-54, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588657

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) use and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity and outcomes in US veterans. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively examined 27,556 adult US veterans who tested positive for COVID-19 between March to November 2020. Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models using propensity score (PS) for weight, adjustment, and matching were used to examine the odds of an event within 60 days following a COVID-19-positive case date and time to death, respectively, according to ACEI and/or ARB prescription within 6 months prior to the COVID-19-positive case date. RESULTS: The overlap PS weighted logistic regression model showed lower odds of an intensive care unit (ICU) admission (odds ratio [OR] 95% CI 0.77, 0.61-0.98) and death within 60 days (0.87, 0.79-0.97) with an ACEI or ARB prescription. Veterans with an ARB-only prescription also had lower odds of an ICU admission (0.64, 0.44-0.92). The overlap PS weighted model similarly showed a lower risk of time to all-cause mortality in veterans with an ACEI or ARB prescription (HR [95% CI]: 0.87, 0.79-0.97) and an ARB only prescription (0.78, 0.67-0.91). Veterans with an ACEI prescription had higher odds of experiencing a septic event within 60 days after the COVID-19-positive case date (1.22, 1.02-1.46). CONCLUSION: In this study of a national cohort of US veterans, we found that the use of an ACEI/ARB in patients with COVID-19 was not associated with increased mortality and other worse outcomes. Future studies should examine underlying pathways and further confirm the relationship of ACEI prescription with sepsis.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/epidemiology , Veterans
8.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e057632, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583090

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To characterise patients with and without prevalent hypertension and COVID-19 and to assess adverse outcomes in both inpatients and outpatients. DESIGN AND SETTING: This is a retrospective cohort study using 15 healthcare databases (primary and secondary electronic healthcare records, insurance and national claims data) from the USA, Europe and South Korea, standardised to the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership common data model. Data were gathered from 1 March to 31 October 2020. PARTICIPANTS: Two non-mutually exclusive cohorts were defined: (1) individuals diagnosed with COVID-19 (diagnosed cohort) and (2) individuals hospitalised with COVID-19 (hospitalised cohort), and stratified by hypertension status. Follow-up was from COVID-19 diagnosis/hospitalisation to death, end of the study period or 30 days. OUTCOMES: Demographics, comorbidities and 30-day outcomes (hospitalisation and death for the 'diagnosed' cohort and adverse events and death for the 'hospitalised' cohort) were reported. RESULTS: We identified 2 851 035 diagnosed and 563 708 hospitalised patients with COVID-19. Hypertension was more prevalent in the latter (ranging across databases from 17.4% (95% CI 17.2 to 17.6) to 61.4% (95% CI 61.0 to 61.8) and from 25.6% (95% CI 24.6 to 26.6) to 85.9% (95% CI 85.2 to 86.6)). Patients in both cohorts with hypertension were predominantly >50 years old and female. Patients with hypertension were frequently diagnosed with obesity, heart disease, dyslipidaemia and diabetes. Compared with patients without hypertension, patients with hypertension in the COVID-19 diagnosed cohort had more hospitalisations (ranging from 1.3% (95% CI 0.4 to 2.2) to 41.1% (95% CI 39.5 to 42.7) vs from 1.4% (95% CI 0.9 to 1.9) to 15.9% (95% CI 14.9 to 16.9)) and increased mortality (ranging from 0.3% (95% CI 0.1 to 0.5) to 18.5% (95% CI 15.7 to 21.3) vs from 0.2% (95% CI 0.2 to 0.2) to 11.8% (95% CI 10.8 to 12.8)). Patients in the COVID-19 hospitalised cohort with hypertension were more likely to have acute respiratory distress syndrome (ranging from 0.1% (95% CI 0.0 to 0.2) to 65.6% (95% CI 62.5 to 68.7) vs from 0.1% (95% CI 0.0 to 0.2) to 54.7% (95% CI 50.5 to 58.9)), arrhythmia (ranging from 0.5% (95% CI 0.3 to 0.7) to 45.8% (95% CI 42.6 to 49.0) vs from 0.4% (95% CI 0.3 to 0.5) to 36.8% (95% CI 32.7 to 40.9)) and increased mortality (ranging from 1.8% (95% CI 0.4 to 3.2) to 25.1% (95% CI 23.0 to 27.2) vs from 0.7% (95% CI 0.5 to 0.9) to 10.9% (95% CI 10.4 to 11.4)) than patients without hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients with hypertension were more likely to suffer severe outcomes, hospitalisations and deaths compared with those without hypertension.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Hum Hypertens ; 35(10): 828-836, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575511

ABSTRACT

Concern has arisen about the role played in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs). This study was designed to assess the practice behaviors of physicians toward hypertension treatment with ACE-i or ARBs during the COVID-19 pandemic. A self-administered survey questionnaire consisting of 26 questions about current hypertension treatment with ACE-i/ ARBs was applied to cardiologists, internists, and family physicians in central and western Turkey, between 01 and 19 May 2020. A total of 460 physicians were approached, and 220 (47.8%) participated in the study. Of the total respondents, 78.7% reported that they had not changed their antihypertensive medication prescribing pattern, 8.6% of clinicians had changed ACE-i/ ARBs medicine of patients during the COVID-19 pandemic and 12.7% of them were undecided. The median (±interquartile range) score indicating general reliance level of physicians in ACE-i/ARBs therapy was 8 ± 4 (range, 1-10). In multiple comparison analyses, the general reliance level in ACE-i/ARBs, reliance level when starting a new ACEi/ARBs and changing behavior in heart failure patients were significantly different with regard to the specialties (p:0.02, p:0.009, p:0.005 respectively). Although most of the physicians found the publications about ACE-i/ ARBs during the COVID-19 pandemic untrustworthy, there were variable levels of knowledge and reliance among different physicians and specialty groups. In general, the ACE-i/ ARBs prescribing habits were not affected by safety concerns during the COVID-19 pandemic in Turkey.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Attitude , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Pandemics , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 257-266, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574445

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To appraise effective predictors for COVID-19 mortality in a retrospective cohort study. METHODS: A total of 1270 COVID-19 patients, including 984 admitted in Sino French New City Branch (training and internal validation sets randomly split at 7:3 ratio) and 286 admitted in Optical Valley Branch (external validation set) of Wuhan Tongji hospital, were included in this study. Forty-eight clinical and laboratory features were screened with LASSO method. Further multi-tree extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) machine learning-based model was used to rank importance of features selected from LASSO and subsequently constructed death risk prediction model with simple-tree XGBoost model. Performances of models were evaluated by AUC, prediction accuracy, precision, and F1 scores. RESULTS: Six features, including disease severity, age, levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ferritin, and interleukin-10 (IL-10), were selected as predictors for COVID-19 mortality. Simple-tree XGBoost model conducted by these features can predict death risk accurately with >90% precision and >85% sensitivity, as well as F1 scores >0.90 in training and validation sets. CONCLUSION: We proposed the disease severity, age, serum levels of hs-CRP, LDH, ferritin, and IL-10 as significant predictors for death risk of COVID-19, which may help to identify the high-risk COVID-19 cases. KEY MESSAGES A machine learning method is used to build death risk model for COVID-19 patients. Disease severity, age, hs-CRP, LDH, ferritin, and IL-10 are death risk factors. These findings may help to identify the high-risk COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Clinical Decision Rules , Hospitalization , Machine Learning , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Ferritins/metabolism , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Interleukin-10/metabolism , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
11.
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 82, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574806

ABSTRACT

Background: Hypertension is the leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease in India, but less than 10% of the estimated people with hypertension have blood pressure under control. The India Hypertension Control Initiative (IHCI) was implemented to strengthen hypertension management and control in public sector health facilities. Since late March 2020, lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic limited healthcare access and disrupted the provision of essential health services. IHCI quickly implemented adaptive interventions to improve access to medications. Objectives: To estimate the availability of antihypertensive drugs in peripheral public sector facilities during the lockdown and the proportion of patients who received drugs through community drug distribution, i.e., through Health and Wellness Centers (HWCs)/Sub-Centers (SCs), the most peripheral public sector health facilities for primary care, and home delivery. Methods: We collected data from 29 IHCI districts of 5 states (Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, and Telangana) during April-May 2020. The population included individuals diagnosed with hypertension and enrolled under IHCI in all public sector primary care health facilities. We contacted a convenience sample of more than one-third of the functional HWC/SC and analyzed the proportion of facilities and patients who received drugs. We also contacted a convenience sample of patients telephonically to estimate their self-reported availability of drugs. Conclusion: Of the 4245 HWC/SC, more than one-third were contacted telephonically, and 85-88% had received antihypertensive medications for community-level distribution. Among 721,675 patients registered until March 2020, 38.4% had received drug refills through HWC/SC or home delivery by frontline workers during the lockdown. We demonstrated the feasibility of community-level drug distribution for patients with hypertension during the COVID-19 lockdown in India. The adaptive strategy of community-based drug distribution through HWC/SC and home delivery appears feasible and may help improve access to hypertension care during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Communicable Disease Control , Continuity of Patient Care , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , India/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Dis Markers ; 2021: 6304189, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1553755

ABSTRACT

Background: Early identification of patients with severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) at an increased risk of progression may promote more individualized treatment schemes and optimize the use of medical resources. This study is aimed at investigating the utility of the C-reactive protein to albumin (CRP/Alb) ratio for early risk stratification of patients. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 557 patients with COVID-19 with confirmed outcomes (discharged or deceased) admitted to the West Court of Union Hospital, Wuhan, China, between January 29, 2020 and April 8, 2020. Patients with severe COVID-19 (n = 465) were divided into stable (n = 409) and progressive (n = 56) groups according to whether they progressed to critical illness or death during hospitalization. To predict disease progression, the CRP/Alb ratio was evaluated on admission. Results: The levels of new biomarkers, including neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, CRP/Alb ratio, and systemic immune-inflammation index, were higher in patients with progressive disease than in those with stable disease. Correlation analysis showed that the CRP/Alb ratio had the strongest positive correlation with the sequential organ failure assessment score and length of hospital stay in survivors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that percutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2), D-dimer levels, and the CRP/Alb ratio were risk factors for disease progression. To predict clinical progression, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of Alb, CRP, CRP/Alb ratio, SpO2, and D-dimer were 0.769, 0.838, 0.866, 0.107, and 0.748, respectively. Moreover, patients with a high CRP/Alb ratio (≥1.843) had a markedly higher rate of clinical deterioration (log - rank p < 0.001). A higher CRP/Alb ratio (≥1.843) was also closely associated with higher rates of hospital mortality, ICU admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, and a longer hospital stay. Conclusion: The CRP/Alb ratio can predict the risk of progression to critical disease or death early, providing a promising prognostic biomarker for risk stratification and clinical management of patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronary Disease/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serum Albumin, Human/metabolism , Aged , Area Under Curve , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronary Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Disease/mortality , Coronary Disease/virology , Disease Progression , Early Diagnosis , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lymphocytes/pathology , Lymphocytes/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/pathology , Neutrophils/virology , Prognosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/mortality , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/virology , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
13.
Ann Saudi Med ; 41(5): 268-273, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551771

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are widely used for the treatment of hypertension (HT). Whether the use of these drugs increases the infectivity of novel coronavirus and results in an additional risk for morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 is a matter of interest. OBJECTIVES: Assess the effect of ACEI/ARBs compared with other hypertensives on the clinical course and outcome in COVID-19 pneumonia. DESIGN: Retrospective. SETTINGS: Tertiary care hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We collected data on adult inpatients with COVID-19 pneumonia using ACEI/ARBs versus other antihypertensives between 15 March 2020, and 15 February 2021. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Severity, clinical course, mortality, and time to PCR negativity between patients using ACEI/ARBs and other antihypertensives. SAMPLE SIZE: 435 RESULTS: ACEI/ARBs were used by 203 patients (46.6%) (median age: 71 [41-94] years), while 232 patients (53.4%) were using other antihypertensives (median age: 69 [22-93] years, P=.645 vs age of ACEI/ARB users). There were no statistically significant differences between the ACEI/ARBs users and non-users in the number of patients admitted to intensive care (65 cases [32%] vs. 74 cases [31.9%], P=.978), the median duration of stay in hospital (8 [1-54] days vs.7 [1-55] days, P=.806) the median duration of ICU stay (8 [1-40] days vs. 6 [1-25] days), and the mortality rate (48 cases [23.6%] vs. 61 [26.3%], P=.525). While the median days before transfer to the ICU was shorter in ACE/ARBI non-users (2 [1-15] days vs. 3 [1-21] days, P=.02), the difference was not important clinically. The median time to PCR negativity was similar in ACEI/ARBs users and non-users (13 [7-34] days for users and 13 [5-45] days for non-users), (P=.083). CONCLUSIONS: ACEI/ARB use is probably unrelated to poor prognosis in COVID-19 pneumonia inpatients. ACEI/ARBs did not prolong the time to PCR negativity. We conclude that using ACEI/ARBs probably does not increase the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2. LIMITATIONS: Pharmacological therapies were not discussed in detail. The use of corticosteroids may affect the time to PCR negativity. We could not analyze the effect of obesity because of a lack of data. CONFLICT OF INTEREST: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Adult , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Antihypertensive Agents , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 77, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551787

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic presents a challenge to health care for patients with chronic diseases, especially hypertension, because of the important association and increased risk of these patients with a severe presentation of COVID-19 disease. The Guatemalan Ministry of Health has been implementing a multi-component program aimed at improving hypertension control in rural communities since 2019 as a part of an intervention research cluster randomized trial. When the first cases of COVID-19 were reported (March 13, 2020) in Guatemala, our study paused all study field activities, and began monitoring participants through phone calls. The objective of this paper is to describe the approach used to monitor study participants during the COVID-19 pandemic and compare data obtained during phone calls for intervention and control group participants. Methods: We developed a cross-sectional study within the HyTREC (Hypertension Outcomes for T4 Research within Lower Middle-Income Countries) project 'Multicomponent Intervention to Improve Hypertension Control in Central America: Guatemala' in which phone calls were made to participants from both intervention and control groups to monitor measures important to the study: delivery of antihypertensive medications in both groups, receipt of coaching sessions and use of a home blood pressure monitor by intervention group participants, as well as reasons that they were not implemented. Results: Regarding the delivery of antihypertensive drugs by the MoH to participants, those in the intervention group had a higher level of medication delivery (73%) than the control group (51%), p<0.001. Of the total participants in the intervention group, 62% had received at least one health coaching session in the previous three months and 81% used a digital home blood pressure monitor at least twice a week. Intervention activities were lower than expected due to restricted public transportation on top of decreased availability of health providers. Conclusion: In Guatemala, specifically in rural settings, access to antihypertensive medications and health services during pandemic times was impaired and less than expected, even after accounting for the program's implementation activities and actions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Cross-Sectional Studies , Guatemala/epidemiology , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/prevention & control , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Lab Med ; 52(5): 493-498, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526169

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the role of midregional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We included 110 patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Biochemical biomarkers, including MR-proADM, were measured at admission. The association of plasma MR-proADM levels with COVID-19 severity, defined as a requirement for mechanical ventilation or in-hospital mortality, was evaluated. RESULTS: Patients showed increased levels of MR-proADM. In addition, MR-proADM was higher in patients who died during hospitalization than in patients who survived (median, 2.59 nmol/L; interquartile range, 2.3-2.95 vs median, 0.82 nmol/L; interquartile range, 0.57-1.03; P <.0001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed good accuracy of MR-proADM for predicting mortality. A MR-proADM value of 1.73 nmol/L was established as the best cutoff value, with 90% sensitivity and 95% specificity (P <.0001). CONCLUSION: We found that MR-proADM could represent a prognostic biomarker of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adrenomedullin/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Protein Precursors/blood , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Interleukin-6/blood , Lung Diseases/blood , Lung Diseases/mortality , Lung Diseases/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Selection , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Triage/methods
16.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(10): 1396-1403, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518656

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Mortality rates associated with COVID-19 vary widely between countries and, within countries, between regions. These differences might be explained by population susceptibility, environmental factors, transmission dynamics, containment strategies, and diagnostic approaches. We aimed to analyze if obesity and diabetes prevalence are associated with higher COVID-19 mortality rates in Mexico. METHODOLOGY: We analyzed the mortality rate for each of the 2,457 municipalities in Mexico, one of the countries with highest COVID-19 mortality rate, during the first seven months of the pandemic to identify factors associated with higher mortality, including demographic, health-related characteristics (prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and hypertension in adults older than 20 years old), and altitude. RESULTS: During the first seven months of the COVID-19 pandemic there were 85,666 deaths reported in Mexico, with a cumulative mortality rate of 67 per 100,000 population. The mean mortality rate for the 2,457 municipalities in Mexico was 33.9 per 100,000 population. At a municipal level, the prevalence of diabetes and obesity, as well as high human development index, and location at < 500 or > 2000 above sea level were associated with higher mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated obesity and diabetes prevalence explain, in part, high COVID-19 mortality rates registered in certain municipalities in Mexico. These results suggest that a regionalized approach should be considered to successfully limit the impact of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Ecology , Obesity/epidemiology , Adult , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Obesity/virology , Prevalence , Young Adult
17.
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi ; 49(11): 1089-1093, 2021 Nov 24.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518648

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the effect of remote "Internet+" interactive management strategy on blood pressure control in patients with hypertension during normalized epidemic prevention and control of COVID-19. Methods: This is a randomized controlled study. A total of 394 patients with hypertension who were treated in Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital from October 2019 to December 2020 were randomly divided into experimental group (197 cases) and control group (197 cases). The experimental group adopted remote "Internet+" interaction mode to carry out remote blood pressure intervention, and the control group received traditional blood pressure control mode, and the intervention time was 6 months. Evaluation indicators included blood pressure level, blood pressure lowering speed, time to target blood pressure, blood pressure measurement times, communication times with doctors, medication compliance, blood pressure measurement compliance and disease awareness after 6 months of intervention. The evaluation indexes of the two groups were compared, and the bivariate Pearson correlation analysis was used to explore the relationship between the speed of blood pressure reduction and the times of blood pressure measurement and doctor communication in all patients. Results: A total of 394 patients with hypertension were included in this study, including 209 males, aged (67.6±2.8) years old. After 6 months of intervention, the systolic and diastolic blood pressure of the two groups were both lower than the baseline blood pressure before intervention (both P<0.05), the systolic blood pressure ((125.7±11.7) mmHg (1 mmHg=0.133 kPa) vs. (132.6±12.9) mmHg, P<0.001) and diastolic blood pressure ((72.4±10.7) mmHg vs. (79.8±11.6) mmHg, P<0.001) in the experimental group were lower than those in the control group. The blood pressure reduction speed of the experimental group was faster than that of the control group ((18.63±1.59) mmHg/d vs. (13.26±2.85) mmHg/d, P<0.001), and the time to reach the target blood pressure in the experimental group was shorter than that in the control group ((23.69±2.93) d vs. (47.12±5.81) d, P<0.001). Compared with the control group, the blood pressure measurement times ((0.98±0.13) times/d vs. (0.20±0.40) times/d, P<0.05) and the number of communications with doctors ((0.97±0.16) times/week vs. (0.12±0.32) times/week, P<0.05) were significantly higher in the experimental group. Correlation analysis showed that the speed of blood pressure reduction was positively correlated with the number of blood pressure measurements (r=0.419, P<0.01) and the number of communications with doctors (r=0.857, P<0.01). The proportion of standardized medication (93.91% (185/197) vs. 51.78% (102/197), P<0.001), timely measurement (97.46% (192/197) vs. 47.21% (93/197), P<0.001) and high-degree disease awareness (94.42% (186/197) vs. 49.24% (97/197), P<0.001) were significantly higher in the experimental group than those in the control group. Conclusions: The remote "Internet+" interactive management strategy can effectively improve patients' blood pressure control. The doctor-patient interaction can improve medication compliance and measurement compliance of patients, and help shorten the time to reach the target blood pressure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Hypertension , Aged , Blood Pressure , Humans , Hypertension/prevention & control , Internet , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
18.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 21(1): 228, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518273

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome novel coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread rapidly worldwide. SARS-CoV-2 has been found to cause multiple organ damage; however, little attention has been paid to the damage to the endocrine system caused by this virus, and the subsequent impact on prognosis. This may be the first research on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis and prognosis in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, 235 patients were admitted to the hospital with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection from 22 January to 17 March 2020. Clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, and treatments were obtained from electronic medical records with standard data collection forms and compared among patients with different thyroid function status. RESULTS: Among 235 patients, 17 (7.23%) had subclinical hypothyroidism, 11 (4.68%) severe non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS), and 23 (9.79%) mild to moderate NTIS. Composite endpoint events of each group, including mortality, admission to the ICU, and using IMV were observed. Compared with normal thyroid function, the hazard ratios (HRs) of composite endpoint events for mild to moderate NTIS, severe NTIS, subclinical hypothyroidism were 27.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.07-105.7), 23.1 (95% CI 5.75-92.8), and 4.04 (95% CI 0.69-23.8) respectively. The multivariate-adjusted HRs for acute cardiac injury among patients with NTF, subclinical hypothyroidism, severe NTIS, and mild to moderate NTIS were 1.00, 1.68 (95% CI 0.56-5.05), 4.68 (95% CI 1.76-12.4), and 2.63 (95% CI 1.09-6.36) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that the suppression of the HPT axis could be a common complication in COVID-19 patients and an indicator of the severity of prognosis. Among the three different types of thyroid dysfunction with COVID-19, mild to moderate NTIS and severe NTIS have a higher risk of severe outcomes compared with subclinical hypothyroidism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Euthyroid Sick Syndromes/etiology , Hypertension/etiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Retrospective Studies , Sex Factors
19.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6671291, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518179

ABSTRACT

Background: With the COVID-19 epidemic breakout in China, up to 25% of diagnosed cases are considered to be severe. To effectively predict the progression of COVID-19 via patients' clinical features at an early stage, the prevalence of these clinical factors and their relationships with severe illness were assessed. Methods: In this study, electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Chinese database) were searched to obtain relevant studies, including information on severe patients. Publication bias analysis, sensitivity analysis, prevalence, sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratio, diagnosis odds ratio calculation, and visualization graphics were achieved through software Review Manager 5.3, Stata 15, Meta-DiSc 1.4, and R. Results: Data of 3.547 patients from 24 studies were included in this study. The results revealed that patients with chronic respiratory system diseases (pooled positive likelihood 6.07, 95% CI: 3.12-11.82), chronic renal disease (4.79, 2.04-11.25), cardiovascular disease (3.45, 2.19-5.44), and symptoms of the onset of chest tightness (3.8, 1.44-10.05), shortness of breath (3.18, 2.24-4.51), and diarrhea (2.04, 1.38-3.04) exhibited increased probability of progressing to severe illness. C-reactive protein, ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate increased a lot in severe patients compared to nonsevere. Yet, it was found that clinical features including fever, cough, and headache, as well as some comorbidities, have little warning value. Conclusions: The clinical features and laboratory examination could be used to estimate the process of infection in COVID-19 patients. The findings contribute to the more efficient prediction of serious illness for patients with COVID-19 to reduce mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cough/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Fever/virology , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Severity of Illness Index
20.
Kardiologiia ; 61(10): 99-103, 2021 Oct 30.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515681

ABSTRACT

The article presents recent data on possibilities of a broader use of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists for existing indications and of expanding indications for the use of this pharmaceutical group in the context of the novel coronavirus infection COVID-19. The authors discussed prospects for expanded detection of aldosteronism using a new diagnostic approach, including an additional evaluation of blood pressure response to spironolactone.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Expert Testimony , Humans , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists , SARS-CoV-2 , Spironolactone
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