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1.
Lab Med ; 52(5): 493-498, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526169

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the role of midregional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We included 110 patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Biochemical biomarkers, including MR-proADM, were measured at admission. The association of plasma MR-proADM levels with COVID-19 severity, defined as a requirement for mechanical ventilation or in-hospital mortality, was evaluated. RESULTS: Patients showed increased levels of MR-proADM. In addition, MR-proADM was higher in patients who died during hospitalization than in patients who survived (median, 2.59 nmol/L; interquartile range, 2.3-2.95 vs median, 0.82 nmol/L; interquartile range, 0.57-1.03; P <.0001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed good accuracy of MR-proADM for predicting mortality. A MR-proADM value of 1.73 nmol/L was established as the best cutoff value, with 90% sensitivity and 95% specificity (P <.0001). CONCLUSION: We found that MR-proADM could represent a prognostic biomarker of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adrenomedullin/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Protein Precursors/blood , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Interleukin-6/blood , Lung Diseases/blood , Lung Diseases/mortality , Lung Diseases/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Selection , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Triage/methods
2.
Biomark Med ; 15(17): 1581-1588, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496869

ABSTRACT

Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 requires angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) to enter the cell. In our study, we aimed to investigate the role of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and angiotensin II plasma levels on prognosis and mortality in patients with isolated hypertension, patients with chronic diseases in addition to hypertension and patients with COVID-19 without comorbidities, in accordance with the use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor. Materials & methods: In the study, patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were divided into three groups. Angiotensin II and ACE2 levels were compared by comorbidities, antihypertensive drugs used, intensive care hospitalization and termination of patients. The relationship between angiotensin II and ACE2 levels and service and intensive care times was investigated. Findings: A total of 218 patients were enrolled in our study, including 68 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 without comorbidities, 33 patients diagnosed with isolated hypertension and 117 patients with other chronic diseases in addition to hypertension. There was no statistically significant difference between the comorbid disease groups between angiotensin II and ACE2 levels of the patients enrolled in the study. The rate of patients admitted to the intensive care unit was 17.9%, and the mortality rate was 11.5%. Results: In our study, we did not obtain significant findings regarding angiotensin II and ACE2 levels on presentation that can be used in prognosis and mortality of COVID-19 patients and development of future treatment methods.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II/blood , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/blood , COVID-19 , Hypertension , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Survival Rate
3.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258684, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480452

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Patients with cardiovascular comorbidities have a significantly increased risk for a critical course of COVID-19. As the SARS-CoV2 virus enters cells via the angiotensin-converting enzyme receptor II (ACE2), drugs which interact with the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) were suspected to influence disease severity. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed 1946 consecutive patients with cardiovascular comorbidities or hypertension enrolled in one of the largest European COVID-19 registries, the Lean European Open Survey on SARS-CoV-2 (LEOSS) registry. Here, we show that angiotensin II receptor blocker intake is associated with decreased mortality in patients with COVID-19 [OR 0.75 (95% CI 0,59-0.96; p = 0.013)]. This effect was mainly driven by patients, who presented in an early phase of COVID-19 at baseline [OR 0,64 (95% CI 0,43-0,96; p = 0.029)]. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a significantly lower incidence of death in patients on an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) (n = 33/318;10,4%) compared to patients using an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) (n = 60/348;17,2%) or patients who received neither an ACE-inhibitor nor an ARB at baseline in the uncomplicated phase (n = 90/466; 19,3%; p<0.034). Patients taking an ARB were significantly less frequently reaching the mortality predicting threshold for leukocytes (p<0.001), neutrophils (p = 0.002) and the inflammatory markers CRP (p = 0.021), procalcitonin (p = 0.001) and IL-6 (p = 0.049). ACE2 expression levels in human lung samples were not altered in patients taking RAAS modulators. CONCLUSION: These data suggest a beneficial effect of ARBs on disease severity in patients with cardiovascular comorbidities and COVID-19, which is linked to dampened systemic inflammatory activity.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Hypertension , Registries , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/mortality , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
4.
Mol Med ; 27(1): 129, 2021 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477255

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Host inflammation contributes to determine whether SARS-CoV-2 infection causes mild or life-threatening disease. Tools are needed for early risk assessment. METHODS: We studied in 111 COVID-19 patients prospectively followed at a single reference Hospital fifty-three potential biomarkers including alarmins, cytokines, adipocytokines and growth factors, humoral innate immune and neuroendocrine molecules and regulators of iron metabolism. Biomarkers at hospital admission together with age, degree of hypoxia, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP) and creatinine were analysed within a data-driven approach to classify patients with respect to survival and ICU outcomes. Classification and regression tree (CART) models were used to identify prognostic biomarkers. RESULTS: Among the fifty-three potential biomarkers, the classification tree analysis selected CXCL10 at hospital admission, in combination with NLR and time from onset, as the best predictor of ICU transfer (AUC [95% CI] = 0.8374 [0.6233-0.8435]), while it was selected alone to predict death (AUC [95% CI] = 0.7334 [0.7547-0.9201]). CXCL10 concentration abated in COVID-19 survivors after healing and discharge from the hospital. CONCLUSIONS: CXCL10 results from a data-driven analysis, that accounts for presence of confounding factors, as the most robust predictive biomarker of patient outcome in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Chemokine CXCL10/blood , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Coronary Artery Disease/blood , Coronary Artery Disease/immunology , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Creatine/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/immunology , Hypertension/mortality , Immunity, Humoral , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation , Intensive Care Units , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocytes/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/pathology , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
5.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 26(10): 1380-1385, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439953

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim was to determine the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients because the SARS-CoV-2 virus continues to circulate in the population. METHODS: This is a retrospective, multicentre, cohort study. Adult COVID-19 cases from four hospitals in Zhejiang were enrolled and clustered into three groups based on epidemiological history. First-generation patients had a travel history to Hubei within 14 days before disease onset; second-generation patients had a contact history with first-generation patients; third-generation patients had a contact history with second-generation patients. Demographic, clinical characteristics, clinical outcomes and duration of viral shedding were analysed. RESULTS: A total of 171 patients were enrolled, with 83, 44 and 44 patients in the first-, second-, and third-generation, respectively. Compared with the first and second generations, third-generation patients were older (61.3 vs. 48.3 and 44.0 years, p < 0.001) and had more coexisting conditions (56.8% vs. 36.1% and 27.3%, p 0.013). At 7 ± 1 days from illness onset, third-generation patients had lower lymphocyte (0.6 vs. 0.8 and 0.8 × 109/L, p 0.007), higher C-reactive protein (29.7 vs. 17.1 and 13.8 mg/L, p 0.018) and D-dimer (1066 vs. 412.5 and 549 µg/L, p 0.002) and more lesions involving the pulmonary lobes (lobes ≥5, 81.8% vs. 53.0% and 34.1%, p < 0.001). The proportions of third-generation patients developing severe illness (72.7% vs. 32.5% and 27.3%, p < 0.001), critical illness (38.6% vs. 10.8% and 6.8%, p < 0.001) and receiving endotracheal intubation (20.5% vs. 3.6% and 2.3%, p 0.002) were higher than in the other two groups. DISCUSSION: Third-generation patients were older, had more underlying comorbidities and had a higher proportion of severe or critical illness than first- and second-generation patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/physiopathology , Interleukin-6/blood , Intubation, Intratracheal , Lymphocytes/pathology , Lymphocytes/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/blood , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Travel/statistics & numerical data , Virus Shedding
7.
Am J Hypertens ; 34(3): 278-281, 2021 04 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169620

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The role of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is controversially discussed. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) enters host cells by binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and activity of the RAAS may affect susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and outcome of patients with COVID-19. METHODS: In this prospective single-center study, we determined the serum levels of ACE2, angiotensin II, and aldosterone in patients with COVID-19 compared with control patients presenting with similar symptoms in the emergency unit. RESULTS: We analyzed serum samples from 24 SARS-CoV-2 positive and 61 SARS-CoV-2 negative patients. SARS-CoV-2 positive and control patients did not differ in baseline patients characteristics, symptoms, and clinical presentation. Mean serum concentrations of ACE2, angiotensin II, and aldosterone did not differ between the SARS-CoV-2 positive and the control group. In line with this, serum potassium as surrogate parameter for RAAS activity and blood pressure were similar in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, we did not find evidence for altered RAAS activity including angiotensin II, aldosterone, or potassium levels, and blood pressure in patients with COVID-19. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: Trial Number DRKS00021206.


Subject(s)
Aldosterone/blood , Angiotensin II/blood , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/blood , COVID-19 , Hypertension , Potassium/blood , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Blood Pressure Determination/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Prospective Studies , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
8.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4334-4341, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130629

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are new global problems. The understanding of the host immune response in COVID-19 and its implications in the development of therapeutic agents are new challenges. Here, we evaluated the development of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and neutralizing (Nt) antibodies in symptomatic hospitalized COVID-19 patients. We followed up 117 COVID-19 confirmed patients from a reference health center for COVID-19 during the epidemic in Santiago de Chile. One and two sequential blood samples from 117 to 68 cases were, respectively, obtained to evaluate the immune response. Immunofluorescence and neutralization assays in Vero E6 cells with a Chilean SARS-CoV-2 strain were performed. Out of the 68 patients, 44% were women and 56% men, and the most frequent comorbidities were hypertension (47.7%) and diabetes (27.4%). The most frequent symptoms or signs related to COVID-19 were dyspnea, cough, fever, myalgia, and headache. In all the study population, 76.1% and 60.7% of patients were positive for IgG and Nt antibodies in the first blood sample. All patients except one were positive for IgG and Nt antibodies in the second sample. IgG and Nt antibodies positivity increased significantly according to the disease evolution periods. Higher Nt antibody titers were observed in the first sample in patients under 60 years of age. Obese and diabetic patients had no increase in Nt antibodies, unlike normal weight and diabetes-free patients. Both hypertensive and normotensive patients showed a significant increase in Nt antibodies. These results show an early and robust immune response against SARS-CoV-2 infection during severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Cell Line , Chile , Chlorocebus aethiops , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Female , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/blood , Vero Cells
10.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(6): 1951-1954, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059584

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: - COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 leads to myriad range of organ involvement including liver dysfunction. AIM: To analyse the liver function in patients with COVID-19 and their association with respect to age, sex, severity of disease and clinical features. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional study done at Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences, Ranchi. 91 patients admitted with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were included in this study and divided into asymptomatic, mild, moderate and severe groups. Liver function tests were compared among different severity groups. RESULTS: Of 91 patients with COVID-19, 70 (76.9%) had abnormal liver function. Aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin levels was 1-2 × ULN in 33(36.3%), 34(37.3%), 12(13.2%), 6(6.6%) cases and >2 × ULN in 20(22%), 18(19.8%), 7(7.7%) and 2 (2.2%) cases respectively. Mean AST and ALP levels among different severity groups of COVID-19 was statistically significant (p < 0.05) whereas mean ALT and total bilirubin levels was statistically non-significant (p > 0.05). There was no statistical difference between males and females with regard to abnormal liver function. Liver injury was seen in 64.3% cases of hypertension and 73.3% cases of diabetes. Fever, myalgia, headache and breathlessness were found to be correlated significantly with severity of disease. CONCLUSION: Liver injury is common in SARS-CoV-2 infection and is more prevalent in the severe disease group. Aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase are better indicators of covid-19 induced liver injury than alanine transaminase and total bilirubin.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Liver Diseases/blood , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Bilirubin/blood , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Complications/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Female , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/complications , India , Liver Diseases/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
11.
Ann Hematol ; 100(3): 675-689, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1055999

ABSTRACT

2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) presents as a newly recognized pneumonia that has brought about a global pandemic and is increasingly considered as a systemic illness. We investigated the clinical and laboratory features of recovered COVID-19 patients without pre-existing hematologic diseases at Wuhan No. 1 Hospital. Fifty-nine male and 68 female Chinese patients were included with the median age at 64 years in the present study. Eosinopenia (37.80%), monocytosis (51.97%), lymphocytopenia (25.20%), and anemia (51.97%) were the most common hematologic findings in our cohort, particularly in severe or critically ill COVID-19. The levels of changes in leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, platelets, hemoglobin levels, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) are overall associated with lung involvement, oxygen demand, and disease activity. However, changes of eosinophils (end hospitalization-baseline) (coefficients = 10.32; 95% CI = 1.03-19.60, P = 0.03) and basophils (Max - Min) (coefficients = 71.43; 95% CI = 8.55-134.31, P = 0.03) were independent predictors of delayed recovery in the hospital by the multivariate analysis in this recovered population. A variety of hematologic changes are associated with the severity and clinical outcome of recovered COVID-19 patients, which warrants further exploration of their underlying mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Blood Cell Count , COVID-19/blood , Convalescence , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Basophils , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , China , Combined Modality Therapy , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Eosinophils , Female , Hemoglobins/analysis , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/epidemiology , Interleukin-6/blood , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Prognosis , Treatment Outcome
12.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(1): 169-175, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-996840

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To study the prevalence and impact of diabetes mellitus and other comorbidities among hospitalized patients with COVID-19. METHODS: In a prospective, observational study including consecutive adults hospitalized with COVID-19, clinical outcomes and inflammatory markers were compared in those with and without diabetes. Participants were classified as having mild or severe COVID-19 disease using the WHO ordinal scale. RESULTS: 401 patients (125 females) with median age of 54 years (range 19-92) were evaluated. Of them 189 (47.1%) had pre-existing diabetes and21 (5.2%) had new-onset hyperglycaemia. Overall, 344 (85.8%) and 57 (14.2%) cases had mild and severe COVID-19 disease respectively. The group with diabetes had a higher proportion of severe cases (20.1% vs 9%, p-0.002), mortality (6.3 vs 1.4%, p-0.015), ICU admission (24.3 vs 12.3%, p-0.002), and oxygen requirement (53.4 vs 28.3%, p < 0.001). Baseline Hba1c (n = 331) correlated significantly with outcome severity scores (r 0.136, p-0.013) and 12/15 (80%) of those who succumbed had diabetes. Hypertension, coronary artery disease, and chronic kidney disease were present in 164 (40.9%), 35 (8.7%) and 12 (2.99%) patients respectively. Hypertension was associated with a higher proportion of severe cases, mortality, ICU admission and oxygen administration. CONCLUSIONS: We report a high prevalence of diabetes in a hospitalized COVID-19 population. Patients with diabetes or hypertension had more severe disease and greater mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hospitalization/trends , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Hyperglycemia/blood , Hyperglycemia/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/epidemiology , India/epidemiology , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
13.
Perm J ; 242020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-931342

ABSTRACT

Furin is a protease that is ubiquitous in mammalian metabolism. One of the innovations that make sudden acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) more infectious than its ancestor viruses is the addition of a furin cleavage site. Conditions associated with elevated furin levels, including diabetes, obesity, and hypertension, overlap greatly with vulnerability to the severe form of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We suggest that diet and lifestyle modifications that reduce the associated comorbidities may prevent the development of severe COVID-19 by, in part, lowering circulating furin levels. Likewise, natural and pharmaceutical inhibitors of furin may be candidate prophylactic interventions or, if used early in the COVID-19, may prevent the development of critical symptoms.


Subject(s)
Anthrax/blood , COVID-19/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Furin/blood , Hypertension/blood , SARS Virus/metabolism , Anthrax/enzymology , COVID-19/enzymology , Diabetes Mellitus/enzymology , Humans , Hypertension/enzymology , SARS Virus/enzymology
14.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 560899, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895292

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a current global public health emergency. However, current research on the blood test results of pregnant women with COVID-19 is insufficient. Methods: A case-control study was carried out based on clinical blood test results. Pregnant COVID-19 patients, pregnant COVID-19 patients with diabetes, and pregnant COVID-19 patients with hypertension, were assessed in this study. Also, 120 controls were matched by age, parity, fetus number, and presence of chronic disease. T-tests, Chi-square tests, Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare data from the blood tests and liver function indices among the selected groups. Results: Between January 24 and March 14, 2020, 60 pregnant COVID-19 patients delivered at the Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Hubei Province. The average maternal age of pregnant COVID-19 patients was 30.97 years and the mean gestational period was 37.87 weeks. 71.67% (43/60) of pregnant COVID-19 patients gave birth by cesarean delivery. In total, 21.67% (13/60) were diagnosed with diabetes and 18.33% (11/60) were diagnosed with hypertension during pregnancy. Compared to controls, pregnant COVID-19 patients showed significantly lower numbers of blood lymphocytes and higher numbers of neutrophils, as well as higher levels of C-reactive protein and total bilirubin. Among the three groups, pregnant COVID-19 patients with diabetes had significantly higher levels of neutrophils and lower levels of total protein. Aspartate transaminase levels were higher in pregnant COVID-19 patients with hypertension than in pregnant COVID-19 patients with no comorbidities and controls with hypertension. Interpretations: Blood and liver function indices indicate that chronic complications, including hypertension and diabetes, could increase the risk of inflammation and liver injury in pregnant COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Adult , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Betacoronavirus , Bilirubin/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Female , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Liver/physiology , Liver Function Tests , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocytes/cytology , Neutrophils/cytology , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
15.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 20(1): 373, 2020 08 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-714180

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is the most frequent co-morbidity in patients with covid-19 infection, and we might speculate that a specific blood group could play a key role in the clinical outcome of hypertensive patients with covid-19. METHODS: In this prospective study, we compared 0 vs. non-0 blood group in hypertensive patients with covid-19 infection. In these patients, we evaluated inflammatory and thrombotic status, cardiac injury, and death events. RESULTS: Patients in non-0 (n = 92) vs. 0 blood group (n = 72) had significantly different values of activated pro-thrombin time, D-dimer, and thrombotic indexes as Von Willebrand factor and Factor VIII (p < 0.05). Furthermore, patients in non-0 vs. 0 blood group had higher rate of cardiac injury (10 (13.9%) vs. 27 (29.3%)) and death, (6 (8.3%) vs. 18 (19.6%)), (p < 0.05). At the multivariate analysis, Interleukin-6 (1.118, CI 95% 1.067-1.171) and non-0 blood group (2.574, CI 95% 1.207-5.490) were independent predictors of cardiac injury in hypertensive patients with covid-19. D-dimer (1.082, CI 95% 1.027-1.140), Interleukin-6 (1.216, CI 95% 1.082-1.367) and non-0 blood group (3.706, CI 95% 1.223-11.235) were independent predictors of deaths events in hypertensive patients with covid-19. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our data indicate that non-0 covid-19 hypertensive patients have significantly higher values of pro-thrombotic indexes, as well as higher rate of cardiac injury and deaths compared to 0 patients. Moreover, AB0 blood type influences worse prognosis in hypertensive patients with covid-19 infection.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Blood Pressure , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Hypertension/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation , Blood Coagulation Factors/analysis , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Biosci Rep ; 40(8)2020 08 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690426

ABSTRACT

The new 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19), according to the World Health Organization (WHO), has been characterized as a pandemic. As more is being discovered about this virus, we aim to report findings of the complete blood count (CBC) of COVID-19 patients. This would serve in providing physicians with important knowledge on the changes that can be expected from the CBC of mild and normal COVID-19 patients. A total of 208 mild and common patients were admitted at the Dongnan Hospital located in the city of Xiaogan, Hubei, China. The CBCs of these patients, following a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19, were retrospectively analyzed and a significant P<0.05 was found after a full statistical analysis was conducted using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (IBM SPSS). CBC analysis revealed changes in the levels of red blood cells (RBCs), hemoglobin (HGB), hematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Clinicians should expect similar findings when dealing with the new COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronary Disease/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Asymptomatic Diseases , Blood Cell Count , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronary Disease/blood , Coronary Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Disease/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Erythrocyte Indices , Erythrocytes/pathology , Erythrocytes/virology , Female , Hematocrit , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/blood , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
17.
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 110127, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-663015

ABSTRACT

Fenofibrate, which is a PPAR-alfpha agonist, increases the level of sulfatide. In this letter we hypothesize on the background of various findings that this is beneficial against COVID-19. Fenofibrate has been used for decades against hypercholesterolemia and has no serious side effects. Therefore, a trial giving fenofibrate to patients with corona virus infection is recommended.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Fenofibrate/pharmacology , Hypolipidemic Agents/pharmacology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Sulfoglycosphingolipids/blood , Adult , Aging/blood , COVID-19 , Child , Drug Repositioning , Fenofibrate/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypercholesterolemia/blood , Hypercholesterolemia/complications , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/complications , Hypolipidemic Agents/therapeutic use , PPAR alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Internalization
18.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 8(9): 782-792, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-651329

ABSTRACT

Since the initial COVID-19 outbreak in China, much attention has focused on people with diabetes because of poor prognosis in those with the infection. Initial reports were mainly on people with type 2 diabetes, although recent surveys have shown that individuals with type 1 diabetes are also at risk of severe COVID-19. The reason for worse prognosis in people with diabetes is likely to be multifactorial, thus reflecting the syndromic nature of diabetes. Age, sex, ethnicity, comorbidities such as hypertension and cardiovascular disease, obesity, and a pro-inflammatory and pro-coagulative state all probably contribute to the risk of worse outcomes. Glucose-lowering agents and anti-viral treatments can modulate the risk, but limitations to their use and potential interactions with COVID-19 treatments should be carefully assessed. Finally, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection itself might represent a worsening factor for people with diabetes, as it can precipitate acute metabolic complications through direct negative effects on ß-cell function. These effects on ß-cell function might also cause diabetic ketoacidosis in individuals with diabetes, hyperglycaemia at hospital admission in individuals with unknown history of diabetes, and potentially new-onset diabetes.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Humans , Hyperglycemia/blood , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Hyperglycemia/therapy , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/therapy , Obesity/blood , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
19.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 39(12): 2279-2287, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-638599

ABSTRACT

Recent reports have showed that a proportion of patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) presented elevated leukocyte count. Clinical data about these patients is scarce. We aimed to evaluate the clinical findings of patients with COVID-19 who have increased leukocyte at admission. We retrospectively collected the clinical data on the 52 patients who have increased leukocyte count at admission from the 619 patients with confirmed COVID-19 who had pneumonia with abnormal features on chest CT scan in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University in Wuhan, China, from February 3 to March 3, 2020. The mean age of the 52 patients with increased leukocyte count was 64.7 (SD 11.4) years, 32 (61.5%) were men and 47 (90.4%) had fever. Compared with the patients with non-increased leukocyte count, the patients with increased leukocyte count were significantly older (P < 0.01), were more likely to have underlying chronic diseases (P < 0.01), more likely to develop critically illness (P < 0.01), more likely to admit to an ICU (P < 0.01), more likely to receive mechanical ventilation (P < 0.01), had higher rate of death (P < 0.01) and the blood levels of neutrophil count and the serum concentrations of CRP and IL-6 were significantly increased, (P < 0.01). The older patients with COVID-19 who had underlying chronic disorders are more likely to develop leukocytosis. These patients are more likely to develop critical illness, with a high admission to an ICU and a high mortality rate.


Subject(s)
Coronary Disease/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis , Leukocytes/pathology , Leukocytosis/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Aged , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronary Disease/blood , Coronary Disease/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Illness , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/physiopathology , Intensive Care Units , Interleukin-6/blood , Leukocyte Count , Leukocytes/virology , Leukocytosis/blood , Leukocytosis/mortality , Leukocytosis/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
20.
Hypertension ; 76(1): 51-58, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611682

ABSTRACT

With the capability of inducing elevated expression of ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2), the cellular receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) or ACE inhibitors treatment may have a controversial role in both facilitating virus infection and reducing pathogenic inflammation. We aimed to evaluate the effects of ARBs/ACE inhibitors on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a retrospective, single-center study. One hundred twenty-six patients with COVID-19 and preexisting hypertension at Hubei Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Wuhan from January 5 to February 22, 2020, were retrospectively allocated to ARBs/ACE inhibitors group (n=43) and non-ARBs/ACE inhibitors group (n=83) according to their antihypertensive medication. One hundred twenty-five age- and sex-matched patients with COVID-19 without hypertension were randomly selected as nonhypertension controls. In addition, the medication history of 1942 patients with hypertension that were admitted to Hubei Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine from November 1 to December 31, 2019, before the COVID-19 outbreak were also reviewed for external comparison. Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected, analyzed, and compared between these groups. The frequency of ARBs/ACE inhibitors usage in patients with hypertension with or without COVID-19 were comparable. Among patients with COVID-19 and hypertension, those received either ARBs/ACE inhibitors or non-ARBs/ACE inhibitors had comparable blood pressure. However, ARBs/ACE inhibitors group had significantly lower concentrations of hs-CRP (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; P=0.049) and PCT (procalcitonin, P=0.008). Furthermore, a lower proportion of critical patients (9.3% versus 22.9%; P=0.061) and a lower death rate (4.7% versus 13.3%; P=0.216) were observed in ARBs/ACE inhibitors group than non-ARBs/ACE inhibitors group, although these differences failed to reach statistical significance. Our findings thus support the use of ARBs/ACE inhibitors in patients with COVID-19 and preexisting hypertension.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections , Hypertension , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/virology , Male , Medication Therapy Management/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Procalcitonin/analysis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
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