BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases including arterial hypertension are common comorbidities among patients hospitalized due to COVID-19. We assessed the influence of preexisting hypertension and its pharmacological treatment on in-hospital mortality in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS: We studied all consecutive patients who were admitted to the University Hospital in Krakow, Poland, due to COVID-19 between March 2020 and May 2021. Data of 5191 patients (mean age 61.9±16.7 years, 45.2% female) were analyzed. RESULTS: The median hospitalization time was 14 days, and the mortality rate was 18.4%. About a quarter of patients had an established cardiovascular disease including coronary artery disease (16.6%) or stroke (7.6%). Patients with hypertension (58.3%) were older and had more comorbidities than patients without hypertension. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, age above median (64 years), male gender, history of heart failure or chronic kidney disease, and higher C-reactive protein level, but not preexisting hypertension, were independent risk factors for in-hospital death in the whole study group. Patients with hypertension already treated (n=1723) with any first-line antihypertensive drug (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, or thiazide/thiazide-like diuretics) had a significantly lower risk of in-hospital death (odds ratio, 0.25 [95% CI, 0.2-0.3]; P<0.001) compared to nontreated hypertensives (n=1305). CONCLUSIONS: Although the diagnosis of preexisting hypertension per se had no significant impact on in-hospital mortality among patients with COVID-19, treatment with any first-line blood pressure-lowering drug had a profound beneficial effect on survival in patients with hypertension. These data support the need for antihypertensive pharmacological treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Hypertension , Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Pandemics , Hospital Mortality , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/chemically induced , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Thiazides/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Hospitalization
Diuretic-induced hypokalaemia is a common and potentially life-threatening adverse drug reaction in clinical practice. Previous studies revealed a prevalence of 7%-56% of hypokalaemia in patients taking thiazide diuretics. The clinical manifestations of hypokalaemia due to diuretics are non-specific, varying from asymptomatic to fatal arrhythmia. Diagnosis of hypokalaemia is based on the level of serum potassium. ECG is useful in identifying the more severe consequences. A high dosage of diuretics and concomitant use of other drugs that increase the risk of potassium depletion or cardiac arrhythmias can increase the risk of cardiovascular events and mortality. Thiazide-induced potassium depletion may cause dysglycaemia. The risk of thiazide-induced hypokalaemia is higher in women and in black people. Reducing diuretic dose and potassium supplementation are the most direct and effective therapies for hypokalaemia. Combining with a potassium-sparing diuretic or blocker of the renin-angiotensin system also reduces the risk of hypokalaemia. Lowering salt intake and increasing intake of vegetables and fruits help to reduce blood pressure as well as prevent hypokalaemia.
Subject(s)Hypertension , Hypokalemia , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/chemically induced , Diuretics/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Hypertension/chemically induced , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypokalemia/chemically induced , Hypokalemia/complications , Hypokalemia/drug therapy , Potassium/adverse effects , Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors/adverse effects , Thiazides/adverse effects
PURPOSE: Hypertension is an important risk factor for severe outcomes in patients with COVID-19, and antihypertensive drugs may have a protective effect. However, the pandemic may have negatively impacted health care services for chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to assess initiations of antihypertensive medicines in patients infected by COVID-19. METHODS: A cohort study including all Swedish residents 20-80 years old with a COVID-19 positive test compared with an unexposed group without COVID-19 matched for age, sex, and index date (date of confirmed COVID-19). Data were collected within SCIFI-PEARL, a study including linked data on COVID tests, hospital diagnoses, dispensed prescriptions, and socioeconomic data from Swedish national registers. Initiations of different antihypertensive drugs were studied from March 2020 until October 2020. Associations between COVID-19 and initiation of antihypertensives were assessed by a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: A total of 224 582 patients (exposed and unexposed) were included. After adjusting for cardiovascular comorbidities and education level, ACEi was the most commonly initiated antihypertensive agent to patients with COVID-19. Hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval for initiation of drug therapy was 1.83 [1.53-2.19] for ACEi, followed by beta-blockers 1.74 [1.55-1.95], calcium channel blockers 1.61 [1.41-1.83], angiotensin receptor blockers 1.61 [1.40-1.86], and diuretics 1.53 [1.32-1.77]. CONCLUSION: All antihypertensive medicines were initiated more frequently in COVID-19 patients. This can either be associated with hypertension caused by the COVID-19 infection, more frequent diagnosis of hypertension among people with COVID-19 since they consult health care, or residual confounding factors not adjusted for in the study.
Subject(s)COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Hypertension , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Cohort Studies , Humans , Hypertension/chemically induced , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Sweden/epidemiology , Young Adult
AIM: The effect of hypertension (HT) and antihypertensive therapies such as renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockers on the disease course in COVID-19 patients is controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of HT and antihypertensive therapies on the course of COVID-19 disease. METHOD: The age, sex, comorbid diseases, and antihypertensive therapies of 132,790 patients with positive COVID-19 real-time transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests in the Turkish Health Ministry National COVID-19 database between 11 March and 31 May 2020, were examined and analyzed. RESULTS: Forty-one percent of the 132,790 patients in this study (median age: 40, 47.3% female) were hospitalized for treatment, and 4.5% were followed-up in the intensive care unit (ICU). The most frequent comorbid disease, at 19.5%, was HT (n = 25,863). Mortality was determined in 4.9% of HT patients and 1.9% of non-HT patients (p < .001). HT, age, and male gender emerged as independent predictors of hospitalization and admission to the ICU, while HT was not a predictor of mortality. In addition, no adverse effect of any antihypertensive treatment, including RAAS inhibitors, on mortality was detected. CONCLUSION: Based on Turkish national data, HT is common in COVID-19 patients, but does not appear to be an independent predictor of mortality, and no adverse effect of RAAS inhibitors on COVID-19-related mortality was observed.
Subject(s)COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Hypertension , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/chemically induced , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Renin-Angiotensin System , Retrospective Studies
OBJECTIVES: The effect of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RASIs) on mortality in patients with coronavirus disease (Covid-19) is debated. From a cohort of 1352 consecutive patients admitted with Covid-19 to Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital in Bergamo, Italy, between February and April 2020, we selected and studied hypertensive patients to assess whether antecedent (prior to hospitalization) use of RASIs might affect mortality from Covid-19 according to age. METHODS AND RESULTS: Arterial hypertension was present in 688 patients. Overall mortality (in-hospital or shortly after discharge) was 35% (Nâ=â240). After adjusting for 26 medical history variables via propensity score matching, antecedent use of RASIs (Nâ=â459, 67%) was associated with a lower mortality in older hypertensive patients (age above the median of 68 years in the whole series), whereas no evidence of a significant effect was found in the younger group of the same population (P interactionâ=â0.001). In an analysis of the subgroup of 432 hypertensive patients older than 68âyears, we considered two RASI drug subclasses, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs, Nâ=â156) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs, Nâ=â140), and assessed their respective effects by taking no-antecedent-use of RASIs as reference. This analysis showed that both antecedent use of ACEIs and antecedent use of ARBs were associated with a lower Covid-19 mortality (odds ratioACEIâ=â0.57, 95% confidence interval 0.36--0.91, Pâ=â0.018) (odds ratioARBâ=â0.49, 95% confidence interval 0.29--0.82, Pâ=â0.006). CONCLUSION: In the population of over-68 hypertensive Covid-19 patients, antecedent use of ACEIs or ARBs was associated with a lower all-cause mortality, whether in-hospital or shortly after discharge, compared with no-antecedent-use of RASIs.
Subject(s)COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Hypertension , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypertension/chemically induced , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Renin-Angiotensin System , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
BACKGROUND: Some studies have speculated that patients on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are more susceptible to adverse outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the safety and efficacy of administering ACEIs and ARBs to patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Studies of COVID-19 were collected from the PubMed, Embase, medRxiv and BioRxiv databases. The pooled relative risk odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated. Subgroup analyses were conducted by medication (ACEIs and ARBs) and geographical location (China and outside China). Inter-study heterogeneity was assessed using meta-regression. Begg's test, Egger's test and funnel plots were adopted to evaluate possible publication bias. RESULTS: Thirty studies containing 10,434 adult patients were included in our meta-analysis. The pooled result indicated that the administration of ACEIs or ARBs reduced the risk of severe/death outcomes for COVID-19 patients. Meanwhile, a significant reduction in the risk of severe/death outcomes was observed to be associated with the administration of ACEIs or ARBs among COVID-19 patients in China, but this association was weaker for studies outside China. Furthermore, ACEI therapy was found to carry a significantly lower risk of an adverse clinical outcome. DISCUSSION: Our systematic review and meta-analysis found that neither ACEIs nor ARBs worsen the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients. On the contrary, we found that patients treated with ACEIs or ARBs have a reduced risk of severe/death outcomes, especially in Asia. Furthermore, ACEIs may reduce the risk of severe/death outcomes. Therefore, treatment interruption of ACEI or ARB therapy during COVID-19 infection is not recommended.
Subject(s)COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Hypertension , Adult , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypertension/chemically induced , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a highly contagious respiratory infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 outbreak has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 2020. The pandemic has affected the management of psoriasis not only for those who are under treatment but also for those who are about to begin a new therapy to control their disease. An increasing number of studies in the current literature have focused on the relationship between psoriasis and COVID-19 from different perspectives. This narrative review includes searching the PubMed and Web of Science databases using the keywords "psoriasis," "psoriatic arthritis," "coronavirus," "COVID-19," and "SARS-CoV-2." The search was supplemented by manual searching of reference lists of included articles. A total of 11 relevant original investigations and 6 case studies was identified. The search was updated in May 2019. Due to the absence of randomized controlled trials, it is not likely to have a robust evidence-based approach to psoriasis management in the era of COVID-19. However, the current literature may provide some clues for safety considerations. Conventional immunosuppressive therapies such as methotrexate and cyclosporine, and anti-tumor necrosis factor agents should not be preferred due to increased risk of infection, especially in high-risk areas. The use of cyclosporine may pose additional risk due to the side effect of hypertension, which has been reported to be associated with susceptibility to severe COVID-19. Considering that the current literature has provided no conclusive evidence that biologics increase the risk of COVID-19, withdrawal of these agents should be reserved for patients with COVID-19 symptoms. The treatment approach should be personalized, considering the advantages and disadvantages for each case separately.