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1.
Med J Malaysia ; 78(3): 421-426, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235551

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Severe, acute, respiratory syndromecoronavirus- 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections can be complicated by central nervous system (CNS) disease. One of the CNS disorders associated with Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID- 19) is posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). This narrative review summarises and discusses previous and recent findings on SARS-CoV-2 associated PRES. METHODS: A literature search was carried out in PubMed and Google Scholar using suitable search terms and reference lists of articles found were searched for further articles. RESULTS: By the end of February 2023, 82 patients with SARS-CoV-2 associated PRES were recorded. The latency between the onset of COVID-19 and the onset of PRES ranged from 1 day to 70 days. The most common presentations of PRES were mental deterioration (n=47), seizures (n=46) and visual disturbances (n=18). Elevated blood pressure was reported on admission or during hospitalisation in 48 patients. The most common comorbidities were arterial hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. PRES was best diagnosed by multimodal cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Complete recovery was reported in 35 patients and partial recovery in 21 patients, while seven patients died. CONCLUSIONS: PRES can be a CNS complication associated with COVID-19. COVID-19 patients with mental dysfunction, seizures or visual disturbances should immediately undergo CNS imaging through multimodal MRI, electroencephalography (EEG) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies in order not to miss PRES.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome , Humans , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/diagnosis , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , Seizures/etiology , Electroencephalography/adverse effects , Electroencephalography/methods , Hypertension/complications , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods
2.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232184

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) patients may experience an acute ischemic stroke; however, risk factors, in-hospital deaths, and outcomes have not been thoroughly investigated. This study investigates the risk factors, comorbidities, and outcomes in patients with SARS-VoV-2 infection and acute ischemic stroke compared to patients without these conditions. The present retrospective study was conducted in the King Abdullah International Medical Research Centre (KAIMRC), Ministry of National Guard, Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the period from April 2020 to February 2022. This study investigates the risk variables among the individuals who were diagnosed with either SARS-CoV-2 with stroke or patients with stroke alone. A total of 42,688 COVID-19 patients were registered, 187 cases of strokes were listed in COVID-19 patients, however, 5395 cases with stroke without SARS-CoV-2 infection. The results revealed that factors including age, hypertension, deep vein thrombosis, and ischemic heart disease are associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke. The results also displayed an elevated frequency of in-hospital deaths in COVID-19 patients with acute ischemic stroke. The results also showed that SARS-CoV-2 together predicts the probability of stroke and death in the study sample. The study findings conclude that ischemic strokes were infrequent in patients with SARS-CoV-2 and usually occur in the presence of other risk factors. The risk factors of ischemic strokes in patients with SARS-CoV-2 are old age, male gender, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, DVT, ischemic heart disease, and diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, the results showed a higher frequency of in-hospital deaths in COVID-19 patients with stroke compared to COVID-19 patients without stroke.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Ischemic Stroke , Myocardial Ischemia , Stroke , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , Retrospective Studies , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology , Risk Factors , Hypertension/complications , Myocardial Ischemia/complications
3.
BMC Nephrol ; 24(1): 140, 2023 05 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322526

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with COVID-19 have a high incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI), which is associated with mortality. The objective of the study was to determine the factors associated with AKI in patients with COVID-19. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective cohort was established in two university hospitals in Bogotá, Colombia. Adults hospitalized for more than 48 h from March 6, 2020, to March 31, 2021, with confirmed COVID-19 were included. The main outcome was to determine the factors associated with AKI in patients with COVID-19 and the secondary outcome was estimate the incidence of AKI during the 28 days following hospital admission. RESULTS: A total of 1584 patients were included: 60.4% were men, 738 (46.5%) developed AKI, 23.6% were classified as KDIGO 3, and 11.1% had renal replacement therapy. The risk factors for developing AKI during hospitalization were male sex (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.73-2.99), age (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.03), history of chronic kidney disease (CKD) (OR 3.61, 95% CI 2.03-6.42), High Blood Pressure (HBP) (OR 6.51, 95% CI 2.10-20.2), higher qSOFA score to the admission (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.14-1.71), the use of vancomycin (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.05-2.37), piperacillin/tazobactam (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.2-2.31), and vasopressor support (CI 2.39, 95% CI 1.53-3.74). The gross hospital mortality for AKI was 45.5% versus 11.7% without AKI. CONCLUSIONS: This cohort showed that male sex, age, history of HBP and CKD, presentation with elevated qSOFA, in-hospital use of nephrotoxic drugs and the requirement for vasopressor support were the main risk factors for developing AKI in patients hospitalized for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Hypertension , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Adult , Humans , Male , Female , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Risk Factors , Hypertension/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Hospital Mortality
4.
J Med Life ; 16(3): 447-450, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315884

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the potential impact of this disease on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Patients with established cardiovascular (CV) disease are at increased risk of severe infection and hospital-acquired adverse outcomes. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of comorbidities in COVID-19 patients. We analyzed data from 220 patients who previously contracted COVID-19. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. The average age of the patients was 54.6 ± 11.4 years, and arterial hypertension (AH) was the most common comorbidity, affecting 55% of patients. Obesity was observed in one-third of patients, while coronary heart disease (CHD) and coronary heart failure (CHF) were reported in 17.7% and 11.8% of patients, respectively. Chronic kidney disease (CKD), atrial fibrillation (AF), and obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were less common. Cardiovascular diseases, particularly AH, were the most frequent comorbidities in COVID-19 patients. Understanding the prevalence and characteristics of comorbidities in COVID-19 patients is crucial for developing appropriate management strategies and improving clinical outcomes. Our findings highlight the importance of identifying and managing comorbidities in COVID-19 patients to reduce the risk of severe COVID-19 and improve clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Heart Failure , Hypertension , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Comorbidity , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology
5.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 120(4): e20220277, 2023 03.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303494

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) increase the expression of ACE2, which is a receptor for entry of SARS-CoV-2 into cells. Though evidence suggests that ARB/ACEI are safe among the general population with COVID-19, their safety in patients with overweight/obesity-related hypertension deserves further evaluation. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the association between ARB/ACEI use and COVID-19 severity in patients with overweight/obesity-related hypertension. METHODS: This study included 439 adult patients with overweight/obesity (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2) and hypertension, diagnosed with COVID-19 and admitted to University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinic from March 1 to December 7, 2020. Mortality and severity of COVID-19 were evaluated based on length of stay in hospital, intensive care unit admission, use of supplemental oxygen, mechanical ventilation, and vasopressors. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the associations of ARB/ACEI use with mortality and other markers of COVID-19 severity, with a two-sided alpha set at 0.05. RESULTS: Exposure to ARB (n = 91) and ACEI (n = 149) before hospitalization was significantly associated with lower mortality (odds ratio [OR] = 0.362, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.149 to 0.880, p = 0.025) and a shorter length of stay (95% CI -0.217 to -0.025, p = 0.015). Additionally, patients using ARB/ACEI showed a non-significant trend toward lower intensive care unit admission (OR = 0.727, 95% CI 0.485 to 1.090, p = 0.123), use of supplemental oxygen (OR = 0.929, 95% CI 0.608 to 1.421, p = 0.734), mechanical ventilation (OR = 0.728, 95% CI 0.457 to 1.161, p = 0.182), and vasopressors (OR = 0.677, 95% CI 0.430 to 1.067, p = 0.093). CONCLUSION: Results suggest that hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and overweight/obesity-related hypertension who were prescribed ARB/ACEI before admission to the hospital exhibit lower mortality and less severe COVID-19 than those who were not taking ARB/ACEI. The results also suggest that exposure to ARB/ACEI may protect patients with overweight/obesity-related hypertension from severe COVID-19 and death.


FUNDAMENTO: Os bloqueadores dos receptores da angiotensina (BRA) e os inibidores da enzima conversora da angiotensina (IECA) aumentam a expressão de ACE2, que é um receptor para entrada de SARS-CoV-2 nas células. Embora as evidências sugiram que os IECA/BRA são seguros entre a população geral com COVID-19, sua segurança em pacientes com hipertensão relacionada ao sobrepeso/obesidade merece uma avaliação mais aprofundada. OBJETIVO: Avaliamos a associação entre o uso de IECA/BRA e a gravidade da COVID-19 em pacientes com hipertensão relacionada ao sobrepeso/obesidade. MÉTODOS: O presente estudo incluiu 439 pacientes adultos com sobrepeso/obesidade (índice de massa corporal ≥ 25 kg/m2) e hipertensão, diagnosticados com COVID-19 e internados no University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinic entre 1º de março e 7 de dezembro de 2020. Foram avaliadas a mortalidade e a gravidade da COVID-19 com base no tempo de internação hospitalar, internação em unidade de terapia intensiva, uso de oxigênio suplementar, ventilação mecânica e uso de vasopressores. A regressão logística multivariável foi usada para examinar as associações do uso de IECA/BRA com a mortalidade e outros marcadores de gravidade de COVID-19, com um alfa bilateral definido em 0,05. RESULTADOS: A exposição aos BRA (n = 91) e IECA (n = 149) antes da hospitalização foi significativamente associada a menor mortalidade ( odds ratio [OR] = 0,362, intervalo de confiança [IC] de 95% 0,149 a 0,880, p = 0,025) e menor tempo de internação hospitalar (IC 95% −0,217 a −0,025, p = 0,015). Adicionalmente, os pacientes em uso de IECA/BRA apresentaram uma tendência não significativa de menor internação em unidade de terapia intensiva (OR = 0,727, IC 95% 0,485 a 1,090, p = 0,123), uso de oxigênio suplementar (OR = 0,929, IC 95% 0,608 a 1,421,p = 0,734), ventilação mecânica (OR = 0,728, IC 95% 0,457 a 1,161, p = 0,182) e vasopressores (OR = 0,677, IC 95% 0,430 a 1,067, p = 0,093). CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados sugerem que pacientes internados com COVID-19 e hipertensão relacionada ao sobrepeso/obesidade que receberam IECA/BRA antes da internação apresentam menor mortalidade e COVID-19 menos grave do que aqueles que não estavam tomando IECA/BRA. Os resultados também sugerem que a exposição aos IECA/BRA pode proteger pacientes com hipertensão relacionada ao sobrepeso/obesidade de COVID-19 grave e morte.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Renin-Angiotensin System , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Overweight/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/complications , Obesity/complications , Oxygen
6.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0279619, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298440

ABSTRACT

Depressive disorders are a leading cause of global morbidity and remain disproportionately high in low- and middle-income settings. Stressful life events (SLEs) are known risk factors for depressive episodes and worsened depressive severity, yet are under-researched in comparison to other depression risk factors. As depression is often comorbid with hypertension, diabetes, and other noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), research into this relationship among patients with NCDs is particularly relevant to increasing opportunities for integrated depression and NCD care. This study aims to estimate the cross-sectional association between SLEs in the three months preceding baseline interviews and baseline depressive severity among patients with at least mild depressive symptoms who are seeking NCD care at 10 NCD clinics across Malawi. SLEs were measured by the Life Events Survey and depressive severity (mild vs. moderate to severe) was measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. The study population (n = 708) was predominately currently employed, grand multiparous (5-8 children) women with a primary education level. Two thirds (63%) had mild depression while 26%, 8%, and 3% had moderate, moderately severe, and severe depression, respectively. Nearly all participants (94%) reported at least one recent SLE, with the most common reported SLEs being financial stress (48%), relationship changes (45%), death of a family member or friend (41%), or serious illness of a family member or friend (39%). Divorce/separation, estrangement from a family member, losing source of income, and major new health problems were significant predictors of greater (moderate or severe) depressive severity compared to mild severity. Having a major new health problem or experiencing divorce/separation resulted in particularly high risk of more severe depression. After adjustment, each additional SLE was associated with a 9% increased risk of moderate or worse depressive severity compared to mild depressive severity (RR: 1.09; (95% CI: 1.05, 1.13), p<0.0001). Among patients with NCDs with at least mild depressive symptoms, SLEs in the prior 3 months were associated with greater depressive severity. While many SLEs may not be preventable, this research suggests that assessment of SLEs and teaching of positive coping strategies when experiencing SLEs may play an important role in integrated NCD and depression treatment models.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension , Noncommunicable Diseases , Stress, Psychological , Child , Female , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/complications , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/diagnosis , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology , Life Change Events , Malawi/epidemiology
7.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 69(4): e20221271, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304848

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease pandemic has become a major global health crisis since 2019. Recent data show the association of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity with poor related outcomes in coronavirus disease infection. This descriptive study aimed to identify the clinical and laboratory parameters in patients with acute respiratory syndrome and confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed data of 409 patients admitted to a referral hospital in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, with coronavirus disease infection confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Clinical, laboratory, and imaging data were collected retrospectively from electronic medical records using a template with the variables of interest. RESULTS: The average age was 64 years (52-73), and the body mass index was 27 kg/m² (22.1-31.2). Hypertension, diabetes, and obesity were observed in 58, 33, and 32% of the patients, respectively. Patients admitted to an intensive care unit were older [66 years (53-74) vs. 59 years (42.2-71.7)], with significantly higher impairment on chest computed tomography [75% (50-75) vs. 50% (25-60)] and received higher doses of corticosteroid therapy [39.4 mg (14.3-70.3) vs. 6 mg (6-14.7)]. Hematological parameters were lower in critically ill patients, with greater differences observed on the fifth day of hospitalization [hemoglobin 11.5 g/dL (9.5-13.1) vs. 12.8 g/dL (11.5-14.2), platelets 235,000 µL (143,000-357,000) vs. 270,000 µL (192,000-377,000), and lymphocytes 900 µL (555-1,500) vs. 1,629 µL (1,141-2,329)]. C-reactive protein levels and kidney function were also worse in intensive care unit patients. The mortality rate was significantly higher in the intensive care unit compared to the basic care unit (62.8 vs. 12.2%). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that metabolic and cardiovascular comorbidities, as well as abnormal hematological parameters, are common findings among patients with severe respiratory syndrome related to coronavirus disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension , Humans , Middle Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Brazil/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology
8.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 92(1)2021 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2276235

ABSTRACT

We report a COVID-19 case with acute heart and kidney failure in a healthy young male. Echocardiography showed severe systolic and diastolic left ventricle dysfunction, with diffuse myocardial thickening. Cardiac MRI showed aspects of focal myocarditis, and hypertensive cardiomyopathy. Renal biopsy demonstrated limited acute tubular injury, and hypertensive kidney disease. Coronary angiography excluded critical stenoses. Unlike what we initially suspected, myocardial inflammation had a limited extent in our patient; severe hypertension causing cardiomyopathy and multi-organ damage, not diagnosed before, was primarily responsible for severe illness. Correct diagnosis and guidelines-directed treatment allowed a favorable course.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiomyopathies , Heart Failure , Hypertension , Myocarditis , COVID-19/complications , Cardiomyopathies/diagnosis , Cardiomyopathies/diagnostic imaging , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/etiology , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Male , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/etiology
9.
Hypertens Res ; 46(5): 1188-1194, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2284200

ABSTRACT

Frailty is a state of increased vulnerability to stress resulting from physiological decline associated with aging. Topics of hypertension management and its association with frailty and cognitive function, recent studies of coronavirus disease 2019 infection (COVID-19) in elderly is discussed in this narrative review. While various guidelines for hypertension recommend that frailty is taken into account in treatment decisions, specific assessment tools and clinical decision criteria have not been explicitly established. Hypertension is prevalent in frail individuals, although a direct association has not been reported. Therefore, optimal blood pressure (BP) control is critical for managing cardiovascular risk reduction and preserving quality of life in frail hypertensive patients. BP typically decreases in later life or situations in which patients are dependent on nursing care. Mortality is reported to be high among frail patients with lower BP, raising questions about appropriate BP targets for frail patients. Cognitive decline is one of the domains of frailty, and is associated with a loss of autonomy, lack of self-management, and compromised quality of life. It remains to be clarified whether antihypertensive treatment is beneficial for cognitive function especially in older individuals. Increased severity and mortality of COVID-19 infection has been reported in older people. Clinical manifestations and biomarkers particular to older patients, and lifestyle changes including social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic is reported. From the knowledge from recent literatures, future perspectives for holistic approach and management of frail older people is addressed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Hypertension , Humans , Aged , Frailty/complications , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Frail Elderly , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology
10.
Hypertens Res ; 46(3): 589-600, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2281149

ABSTRACT

The number of reported cases with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has exceeded 620 million worldwide, still having a profound impact on people's health and daily lives since its occurrence and outbreak in December 2019. From the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been a concern that the rapid spread of this communicable disease can negatively influence non-communicable diseases. Accumulating data indicate that the restriction on the access to medical care, psychological distress, and life-style changes triggered by the pandemic have indeed affected blood pressure control in hypertensive patients. Since our previous report in 2020 that summarized the findings of the literature related to COVID-19 and hypertension, there has been a considerable progress in our understanding of the association between these two disorders; nonetheless, there are remaining challenges and emerging questions in the field. In this article, we aim to summarize the latest information on the impact of the pandemic on blood pressure control, the use of the renin-angiotensin system inhibitors in patients with COVID-19, and the blood pressure changes as one of the possible post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (also known as long COVID). We also summarize the evidence of telemedicine and COVID-19 vaccination in hypertensive subjects, based on data available as of June 2022.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines , Hypertension/complications , Pandemics , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Drugs Aging ; 40(4): 377-390, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2272541

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypertension and diabetes mellitus are independent risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Due to the cardioprotective nature of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), they are recommended for patients with comorbid hypertension and diabetes. However, poor adherence to ACEIs/ARBs among older adults is a major public health concern. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a telephonic motivational interviewing (MI) intervention conducted by pharmacy students among a nonadherent older population (≥ 65 years old) with diabetes and hypertension. METHODS: Patients continuously enrolled in a Medicare Advantage Plan who received an ACEI/ARB prescription between July 2017 and December 2017 were identified. Group-based trajectory modeling (GBTM) was used to identify distinct patterns of ACEI/ARB adherence during the 1-year baseline period: adherent, gaps in adherence, gradual decline, and rapid decline in adherence. Patients from the three nonadherent trajectories were randomized into MI intervention or control group. The intervention consisted of an initial call and five follow-up calls administered by MI-trained pharmacy students and tailored to the baseline ACEI/ARB adherence trajectories. The primary outcome was adherence to ACEI/ARB during the 6- and 12-month periods post-MI implementation. The secondary outcome was discontinuation, defined as no refills for ACEI/ARB during the 6- and 12-month periods post-MI implementation. Multivariable regression analyses examined the impact of MI intervention on ACEI/ARB adherence and discontinuation while adjusting for baseline covariates. RESULTS: A total of 240 patients in the intervention group and 480 patients as randomly selected controls were included in this study. At 6 months, patients receiving the MI intervention had significantly better adherence (ß = 0.06; p = 0.03) compared with the controls. Linear and logistic regression models also showed patients in the intervention group were more likely to be adherent than controls within 12 months of intervention implementation (ß = 0.06; p = 0.02 and OR: 1.46; 95% CI 1.05-2.04, respectively). MI intervention did not have any significant impact on the ACEI/ARB discontinuation. CONCLUSION: Patients who received the MI intervention were more likely to be adherent at 6 and 12 months following the intervention initiation, despite gaps in the follow-up calls due to COVID-19. Pharmacist-led MI intervention is an effective behavioral strategy to improve medication adherence among older adults and tailoring the intervention to past adherence patterns may enhance the intervention effectiveness. This study was registered with the United States National Institutes of Health (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT03985098).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension , Medicare Part C , Motivational Interviewing , Humans , Aged , United States , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
12.
BMC Nephrol ; 24(1): 39, 2023 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252732

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been a global public health problem and a major source of suffering and poor quality of life for those afflicted. Using data from the global burden of disease (GBD) study 2019, we estimated the magnitude of the burden of CKD as well as the underlying causes of CKD in the Zambian population. METHOD: The data used for this study were extracted from the GBD 2019 study. The GBD 2019 provides estimates of several metrics of disease burden including the commonly used disability-adjusted life year (DALYs) for over 369 diseases and injuries, and 87 risk factors and combinations of these in 204 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019. We estimated the burden of CKD as the number and rates (per 100,000 population) of DALYs, disaggregated by year, sex, and age group. We examined the underlying causes of CKD by estimating the population attributable fraction as the percentage contributions of risk factors to CKD DALY. RESULTS: The number of DALYs for CKD was estimated as 76.03 million (95% UI: 61.01 to 93.36) in 2019 compared to 39.42 million (95% UI: 33.09 to 45.90) in 1990, representing 93% increase whereas the DALYs rate per 100,000 population was estimated as 416.89 (95% UI: 334.53 to 511.93) in 2019 compared to 496.38 (95% UI: 416.55 to 577.87) in 1990, representing 16% reduction. CKD due to hypertension accounted for 18.7% of CKD DALYs and CKD due to diabetes (types 1 and 2) accounted for 22.7%, while CKD from glomerulonephritis accounted for the most DALYs at 33%. The age group most impacted from CKD were adolescents and young adults. CONCLUSION: The burden of CKD remains high in the Zambian population with diabetes, high blood pressure, and glomerulonephritis as important causes. The results highlight the need to develop a comprehensive action plan to prevent and treat kidney disease. Increasing the awareness of CKD among the public as well as adaptation of guidelines for treating patients with end stage kidney disease are important considerations.


Subject(s)
Hypertension , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Adolescent , Young Adult , Humans , Global Burden of Disease , Zambia/epidemiology , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Quality of Life , Risk Factors , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/etiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/complications , Global Health
13.
Enferm Intensiva (Engl Ed) ; 34(2): 70-79, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2251275

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify adverse events related to prone positioning in COVID-19 patients with severe disease and acute respiratory distress syndrome, to analyze the risk factors associated with the development of anterior pressure ulcers, to determine whether the recommendation of prone positioning is associated with improved clinical outcomes. METHODS: Retrospective study performed in 63 consecutive patients with COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to intensive care unit on invasive mechanical ventilation and treated with prone positioning between March and April 2020. Association between prone-related pressure ulcers and selected variables was explored by the means of logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 139 proning cycles were performed. The mean number of cycles were 2 [1-3] and the mean duration per cycle was of 22h [15-24]. The prevalence of adverse events this population was 84.9 %, being the physiologic ones (i.e., hypo/hypertension) the most prevalent. 29 out of 63 patients (46%) developed prone-related pressure ulcers. The risk factors for prone-related pressure ulcers were older age, hypertension, levels of pre-albumin <21mg/dl, the number of proning cycles and severe disease. We observed a significant increase in the PaO2/FiO2 at different time points during the prone positioning, and a significant decrease after it. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high incidence of adverse events due to PD, with the physiological type being the most frequent. The identification of the main risk factors for the development of prone-related pressure ulcers will help to prevent the occurrence of these lesions during the prone positioning. Prone positioning offered an improvement in the oxygenation in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Pressure Ulcer , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Prone Position/physiology , Pressure Ulcer/epidemiology , Pressure Ulcer/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Hypertension/complications
14.
J Med Virol ; 95(4): e28698, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2251206

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the genetic relationship between hypertension and COVID-19 and explore the molecular pathways linking hypertension to COVID-19. We performed genetic correlation and Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to assess potential associations between hypertension and hospitalized COVID-19. We compared genome-wide association signals to reveal shared genetic variation between hypertension and hospitalized COVID-19. Moreover, hypertension-driven molecular pathways were constructed based on large-scale literature data to understand the influence of hypertension on COVID-19 at the molecular level. Hypertension has a positive genetic correlation with COVID-19 (rg = 0.19). The MR analyses indicate that genetic liability to hypertension confers a causal effect on hospitalized COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR]: 1.05, confidence interval [CI]: 1.00-1.09, p = 0.030). Hypertension and hospitalized COVID-19 have three overlapping loci and share eight protein-coding risk genes, including ABO, CSF2, FUT2, IZUMO1, MAMSTR, NPNT, RASIP1, and WNT3. Molecular pathway analysis suggests that hypertension may promote the development of COVID-19 through the induction of inflammatory pathways. Our study suggests that genetically determined hypertension may increase the risk for severe COVID-19. The shared genetic variation and the connecting molecular pathways may underline causal links between hypertension and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/genetics , Odds Ratio , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
15.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 26(5): 870-877, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2247862

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: People with rheumatic diseases are particularly concerned with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Our work aimed to study the impact of pre-existing autoimmune rheumatic disease (AIRD) and its immunosuppressive drugs on COVID-19 severity and outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a multicenter case-control study performed between September 2020 and February 2021 on 130 adults with COVID-19, including 66 patients with AIRD and 64 without AIRD, who served as a control group. RESULTS: Regarding COVID-19 clinical manifestations; diarrhea, fatigue, and headache were found with significantly higher frequency in the AIRD group while a higher frequency of cough was found in the control group. Comparing COVID-19 complications, only septic shock was significantly higher in the AIRD group (P = 0.013). Both groups were treated with similar COVID-19 drugs except for tocilizumab and anticoagulants, which were statistically significantly more frequently used in the control group (P < 0.001 for both). No statistically significant difference was found between the groups in the outcome or severity of COVID-19. There was no impact of previous immunosuppressive drugs before COVID-19 on the severity of the disease except for a longer duration of recovery in patients on steroids (P < 0.001). Patients with hypertension had severe COVID-19 compared with those without (odds ratio 2.8, 95% confidence interval 1.2-6.9; P = 0.020). CONCLUSION: AIRD may not affect COVID-19 severity and outcome. Similarly, immunosuppressive medications had no effect; except that patients on systemic steroids had longer duration for recovery. Comorbid conditions, such as hypertension, may be associated with more severe COVID-19 disease course.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Hypertension , Rheumatic Diseases , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Hypertension/complications , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use
16.
Wiad Lek ; 76(2): 311-319, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2281811

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To assess the impact of statins on the severity and lethality rate in hypertensive patients with COVID-19-associated pneumonia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: 106 unvaccinated hypertensive patients were enrolled in the study. 29 (27.4%) patients took statins. RESULTS: Results: Statins were not associated with reduced risks of lethality (relative risk (RR), 0.24; [95%CI, 0.03-1.79], p=0.16), decline in oxygen saturation <92% during the inpatient stay (RR, 0.70 [95%CI, 0.39-1.28], p=0.25) and need for supplemental oxygen (RR, 0.84; [95%CI, 0.51-1.37], p=0.48). There was no significant difference in the median length of in-hospital stay between the patients taking statins (14.0 [10.0-15.0] days) and patients, which didn't take statins (13.0 [9.0-18.0] days) (p=0.76). However, subgroup analysis showed that statins reduced the risk of decline in oxygen saturation <92% in patients aged 65 years and older with body mass index $ 25.0 kg/m2 (RR, 0.33 [95%CI, 0.11-0.92], p=0.03). CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Statins didn't a#ect the severity and lethality rate in hypertensive patients with COVID-19-associated pneumonia. Subgroup analysis showed that statin use was associated with a decrease in morbidity of patients aged 65 years and older with BMI $25.0 kg/m2 hospitalized for COVID-19-associated pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Hypertension , Pneumonia , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/etiology , Disease Progression
17.
Cardiovasc Ther ; 2022: 5978314, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288694

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been a global threat that pushes healthcare to its limits. Hypertension is one of the most common risk factors for cardiovascular complications in COVID-19 and is strongly associated with disease severity and mortality. To date, clinical mechanisms by which hypertension leads to increased risk in COVID-19 are still unclear. Furthermore, additional factors might increase these risks, such as the consideration of age and sex, which are of interest when in search of personalized treatments for hypertensive COVID-19 patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 543 COVID-19 patients in seven provinces of China to examine the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in this population and to determine risk factors of hypertensive COVID-19 patients. We also used univariable and multivariable logistic regression methods to explore the risk factors associated with hypertensive COVID-19 patients in different age and sex subgroups. Results: Among the enrolled COVID-19 patients, the median age was 47 years (interquartile range (IQR) 34.0-57.0), and 99 patients (18.23%) were over 60 years old. With regard to comorbidities, 91 patients (16.75%) were diagnosed with hypertension, followed by diabetes, coronary disease, and cerebrovascular disease. Of the hypertensive COVID-19 patients, 51 (56.04%) were male. Multivariable analysis showed that old age, comorbid diabetes or coronary heart disease on admission, increased D-dimer, increased glucose, and decreased lymphocyte count were independent risk factors associated with hypertensive COVID-19 patients. Elevated total bilirubin (odds ratio [OR]: 1.014, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.23-1.05; p = 0.043) and triglycerides (OR: 1.173, 95% CI: 0.049-1.617; p = 0.007) were found to be associated with elderly hypertensive COVID-19 patients. In addition, we found that decreased lymphocytes, basophil, high-density lipoprotein, and increased fibrinogen and creatinine were related to a higher risk of disease severity in male patients. The most common abnormal clinical findings pertaining to female hypertensive COVID-19 patients were hemoglobin, total bile acid, total protein, and low-density lipoprotein. Conclusions: Factors associated with increased risk of hypertensive COVID-19 patients were identified. Results to the different age and sex subgroups in our study will allow for better possible personalized care and also provide new insights into specific risk stratification, disease management, and treatment strategies for COVID-19 patients with hypertension in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Disease , Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension , Aged , Aging , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Stat Methods Med Res ; 31(9): 1803-1816, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252013

ABSTRACT

At the break of a pandemic, the protective efficacy of therapeutic interventions needs rapid evaluation. An experimental approach to the problem will not always be appropriate. An alternative route are observational studies, whether based on regional health service data or hospital records. In this paper, we discuss the use of methods of causal inference for the analysis of such data, with special reference to causal questions that may arise in a pandemic. We apply the methods by using the aid of a directed acyclic graph (DAG) representation of the problem, to encode our causal assumptions and to logically connect the scientific questions. We illustrate the usefulness of DAGs in the context of a controversy over the effects of renin aldosterone system inhibitors (RASIs) in hypertensive individuals at risk of (or affected by) severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 disease. We consider questions concerning the existence and the directions of those effects, their underlying mechanisms, and the possible dependence of the effects on context variables. This paper describes the cognitive steps that led to a DAG representation of the problem, based on background knowledge and evidence from past studies, and the use of the DAG to analyze our hospital data and assess the interpretive limits of the results. Our study contributed to subverting early opinions about RASIs, by suggesting that these drugs may indeed protect the older hypertensive Covid-19 patients from the consequences of the disease. Mechanistic interaction methods revealed that the benefit may be greater (in a sense to be made clear) in the older stratum of the population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Aldosterone , Hospitals , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Pandemics , Protective Agents , Renin
19.
J Arthroplasty ; 38(6): 1010-1015.e2, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2238282

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic caused a surge of same-day discharge (SDD) for total joint arthroplasty. However, SDD may not be beneficial for all patients. Therefore, continued investigation into the safety of SDD is necessary as well as risk stratification for improved patient outcomes. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study examined 31,851 elective SDD hip and knee arthroplasties from 2016 to 2020 in a large national database. Logistic regression models were used to identify patient variables and preoperative comorbidities that contribute to postoperative complication or readmission with SDD. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. RESULTS: SDD increased from 1.4% in 2016 to 14.6% in 2020. SDD is associated with lower odds of readmission (AOR: 0.994, CI: 0.992-0.996) and postoperative complications (AOR: 0.998, CI: 0.997-1.000). Patients who have preoperative dyspnea (AOR: 1.03, CI: 1.02-1.04, P < .001), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AOR: 1.02, CI: 1.01-1.03, P = .002), and hypoalbuminemia (AOR: 1.02, CI: 1.00-1.03, P < .001), had higher odds of postoperative complications. Patients who had preoperative dyspnea (AOR: 1.02, CI: 1.01-1.03), hypertension (AOR: 1.01, CI: 1.01-1.03, P = .003), chronic corticosteroid use (AOR: 1.02, CI: 1.01-1.03, P < .001), bleeding disorder (AOR: 1.02; CI: 1.01-1.03, P < .001), and hypoalbuminemia (AOR: 1.01, CI: 1.00-1.02, P = .038), had higher odds of readmission. CONCLUSION: SDD is safe with certain comorbidities. Preoperative screening for cardiopulmonary comorbidities (eg, dyspnea, hypertension, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), chronic corticosteroid use, bleeding disorder, and hypoalbuminemia may improve SDD outcomes.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , COVID-19 , Hypertension , Hypoalbuminemia , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Patient Discharge , Patient Readmission , Hypoalbuminemia/complications , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Dyspnea/complications , Length of Stay , Hypertension/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/adverse effects
20.
Obes Res Clin Pract ; 17(1): 47-57, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2245798

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a major risk factor for adverse outcomes after COVID-19 infection. However, it is unknown if the worse outcomes are due to the confounding effect of demographic and obesity-related comorbidities. The study objective is to analyze associations between body mass index, patient characteristics, obesity-related comorbidity, and clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, we chose patient records between March 1st, 2020, and December 1st, 2022, in a large tertiary care center in southeast Wisconsin in the United States. Patients over the age of 18 who tested positive were included in the study. Clinical outcomes included hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation, and mortality rates. We examined the characteristics of patients who had positive clinical outcomes. We created unadjusted logistic regression models, sequentially adjusting for demographic and comorbidity variables, to assess the independent associations between BMI, patient characteristics, obesity-related comorbidities, and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: From a record of 1.67 million inpatients and outpatients at Froedtert Health Center, 55,299 (BMI: 30.5 ± 7.4 kg/m2, 62.5 % female) tested COVID-19 positive during the study period. 17,580 (31.8 %) patients were admitted to hospitals, and of hospitalized patients required ICU admission. 1038 (36.3 %) required mechanical ventilation, and 462 (44.5 %) died after a positive test for COVID-19. We found female patients show a higher hospitalization rate, while male patients have a higher rate of ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and mortality. Obesity-related comorbidities are associated with worse outcomes compared to simple obesity without comorbidities. In logistic regression models, we found four similar V-shaped associations between BMI and four clinical outcomes. Patients with a BMI of 25 kg/m2 are at the lowest risk for clinical outcomes. Patients with a BMI lower than 18 kg/m2 or higher than 30 kg/m2 are associated with a higher risk of hospitalization, ICU, mechanical ventilation, and death. After adjusting the model for demographic factors and hypertension and diabetes as two common comorbidities, we found that demographic factors do not significantly increase the risk. Obesity alone does not significantly increase the risk of severe clinical outcomes. Obesity-related comorbidities, on the other hand, resulted in a significantly higher risk of outcomes. CONCLUSION: Obesity alone does not increase the risk of worse clinical outcomes after COVID-19 infection. It may suggest that the worse clinical outcomes of patients with obesity are mediated via hypertension and type 2 diabetes. Patients with obesity and comorbidities have a higher risk of poor outcomes. Obesity-related comorbidities, including hypertension and diabetes, are independently associated with poorer clinical outcomes among COVID-19 patients. At a BMI of more than 30 kg/m2 or less than 18 kg/m2, we found an increase in the risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes leading to hospitalization, ICU, mechanical ventilation, and death. The increased risk of severe outcomes is not attributed to patient characteristics but can be attributed to hypertension and diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hypertension , Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Risk Factors , Hospitalization , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
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