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1.
J Hum Hypertens ; 36(11): 945-951, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2151012

ABSTRACT

Out-of-office blood pressure (BP) measurement is considered an integral component of the diagnostic algorithm and management of hypertension. In the era of digitalization, a great deal of wearable BP measuring devices has been developed. These digital blood pressure monitors allow frequent BP measurements with minimal annoyance to the patient while they do promise radical changes regarding the diagnostic accuracy, as the importance of making an accurate diagnosis of hypertension has become evident. By increasing the number of BP measurements in different conditions, these monitors allow accurate identification of different clinical phenotypes, such as masked hypertension and pathological BP variability, that seem to have a negative impact on cardiovascular prognosis. Frequent measurements of BP and the incorporation of new features in BP variability, both enable well-rounded interpretation of BP data in the context of real-life settings. This article is a review of all different technologies and wearable BP monitoring devices.


Subject(s)
Hypertension , Wearable Electronic Devices , Humans , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Blood Pressure/physiology , Reproducibility of Results , Blood Pressure Determination , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/therapy
2.
Hypertension ; 76(5): 1368-1383, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2153222

ABSTRACT

Telemedicine allows the remote exchange of medical data between patients and healthcare professionals. It is used to increase patients' access to care and provide effective healthcare services at a distance. During the recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, telemedicine has thrived and emerged worldwide as an indispensable resource to improve the management of isolated patients due to lockdown or shielding, including those with hypertension. The best proposed healthcare model for telemedicine in hypertension management should include remote monitoring and transmission of vital signs (notably blood pressure) and medication adherence plus education on lifestyle and risk factors, with video consultation as an option. The use of mixed automated feedback services with supervision of a multidisciplinary clinical team (physician, nurse, or pharmacist) is the ideal approach. The indications include screening for suspected hypertension, management of older adults, medically underserved people, high-risk hypertensive patients, patients with multiple diseases, and those isolated due to pandemics or national emergencies.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Hypertension/drug therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Blood Pressure Determination/methods , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Management , Evidence-Based Medicine , Female , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Italy , Male , Occupational Health , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Patient Safety , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index
3.
J Cardiovasc Nurs ; 37(5): 475-481, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087884

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension eating plan is an evidence-based treatment of hypertension; however, adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension is low. To improve adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension among adults with hypertension, we designed Nourish, a 2-arm, 12-month randomized controlled trial. The COVID-19 pandemic necessitated a change from in-person to remotely delivered visits, requiring substantial protocol modifications to measure blood pressure accurately and safely for secondary outcome data. PURPOSE: The purpose of this article is to describe the implementation of an at-home blood pressure measurement protocol for the Nourish trial. CONCLUSION: Our investigator team and study staff developed and implemented a robust and feasible blood pressure measurement protocol to be executed within an at-home format. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: The described blood pressure measurement protocol provides a framework for use in future clinical trials and clinical settings in which a remote visit is preferred or required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Adult , Blood Pressure , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Cardiol J ; 29(5): 730-738, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2040289

ABSTRACT

Hypertension and lipid disorders are two of the main cardiovascular risk factors. Both risk factors - if detected early enough - can be controlled and treated with modern, effective drugs, devoid of significant side effects, available in four countries as different as Italy, Spain, Poland, and Uzbekistan. The aim herein, was to develop this TIMES TO ACT consensus to raise the awareness of the available options of the modern and intensified dyslipidemia and arterial hypertension treatments. The subsequent paragraphs involves consensus and discussion of the deleterious effects of COVID-19 in the cardiovascular field, the high prevalence of hypertension and lipid disorders in our countries and the most important reasons for poor control of these two factors. Subsequently proposed, are currently the most efficient and safe therapeutic options in treating dyslipidemia and arterial hypertension, focusing on the benefits of single-pill combination (SPCs) in both conditions. An accelerated algorithm is proposed to start the treatment with a PCSK9 inhibitor, if the target low-density-lipoprotein values have not been reached. As most patients with hypertension and lipid disorders present with multiple comorbidities, discussed are the possibilities of using new SPCs, combining modern drugs from different therapeutic groups, which mode of action does not confirm the "class effect". We believe our consensus strongly advocates the need to search for patients with cardiovascular risk factors and intensify their lipid-lowering and antihypertensive treatment based on SPCs will improve the control of these two basic cardiovascular risk factors in Italy, Spain, Poland and Uzbekistan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Dyslipidemias , Hypertension , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Dyslipidemias/diagnosis , Dyslipidemias/drug therapy , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Lipids , Lipoproteins , Poland , Proprotein Convertase 9 , Risk Factors
5.
Cardiovasc Ther ; 2022: 6006127, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009237

ABSTRACT

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is one of the most common and serious sleep-related breathing disorders with a high prevalence among patients with cardiovascular (CV) diseases. Despite its widespread presence, OSA remains severely undiagnosed and untreated. CV mortality and morbidity are significantly increased in the presence of OSA as it is associated with an increased risk of resistant hypertension, heart failure, arrhythmias, and coronary artery disease. Evaluation and treatment of OSA should focus on recognizing patients at risk of developing OSA. The use of screening questionnaires should be routine, but a formal polysomnography sleep study is fundamental in establishing and classifying OSA. Recognition of OSA patients will allow for the institution of appropriate therapy that should alleviate OSA-related symptoms with the intent of decreasing adverse CV risk. In this review, we focus on the impact OSA has on CV disease and evaluate contemporary OSA treatments. Our goal is to heighten awareness among CV practitioners.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Heart Failure , Hypertension , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Polysomnography/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology
6.
J Hypertens ; 40(9): 1702-1712, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1985146

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Home blood pressure (BP) telemonitoring combined with case management leads to BP reductions in individuals with hypertension. However, its benefits are less clear in older (age ≥ 65 years) adults. METHODS: Twelve-month, open-label, randomized trial of community-dwelling older adults comparing the combination of home BP telemonitoring (HBPM) and pharmacist-led case management, vs. enhanced usual care with HBPM alone. The primary outcome was the proportion achieving systolic BP targets on 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). Changes in HBPM were also examined. Logistic and linear regressions were used for analyses, adjusted for baseline BP. RESULTS: Enrollment was stopped early due to coronavirus disease 2019. Participants randomized to intervention (n = 61) and control (n = 59) groups were mostly female (77%), with mean age 79.5 years. The adjusted odds ratio for ABPM BP target achievement was 1.48 (95% confidence interval 0.87-2.52, P = 0.15). At 12 months, the mean difference in BP changes between intervention and control groups was -1.6/-1.1 for ABPM (P-value 0.26 for systolic BP and 0.10 for diastolic BP), and -4.9/-3.1 for HBPM (P-value 0.04 for systolic BP and 0.01 for diastolic BP), favoring the intervention. Intervention group participants had hypotension (systolic BP < 110) more frequently (21% vs. 5%, P = 0.009), but no differences in orthostatic symptoms, syncope, non-mechanical falls, or emergency department visits. CONCLUSIONS: Home BP telemonitoring and pharmacist case management did not improve achievement of target range ambulatory BP, but did reduce home BP. It did not result in major adverse consequences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Aged , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Pressure/physiology , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Case Management , Female , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Independent Living , Male
7.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 19: E47, 2022 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975268

ABSTRACT

Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, but 3 of 4 US adults do not have their blood pressure adequately controlled. Million Hearts (US Department of Health and Human Services) is a national initiative that promotes a set of priorities and interventions to optimize delivery of evidence-based strategies to manage cardiovascular disease, including hypertension. The COVID-19 pandemic, however, has disrupted routine care and preventive service delivery. We identified examples of clinical and health organizations that adapted services and care processes to continue a focus on monitoring and controlling hypertension during the pandemic. Eight Hypertension Control Exemplars were identified and interviewed. They reported various adapted care strategies including telemedicine, engaging patients in self-measured blood pressure monitoring, adapting or implementing medication management services, activating partnerships to respond to patient needs or expand services, and implementing unique patient outreach approaches. Documenting these hypertension control strategies can help increase adoption of adaptive approaches during public health emergencies and routine care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Adult , Blood Pressure , Blood Pressure Determination , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control
8.
Pregnancy Hypertens ; 30: 7-12, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967012

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how English maternity units implemented self-monitoring of blood pressure (SMBP) in pregnancy in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: Mixed methods including surveys, anonymised patient data and in-depth interviews with women. SETTING: Maternity units across England. PARTICIPANTS: 45 maternity units completed a survey about the implementation of SMBP (supported by the provision of guidance and blood pressure monitors) during the pandemic, 166 women completed a survey about their experiences of SMBP, and 23 women took part in in-depth interviews. Clinical data from 627 women undertaking SMBP were available from 13 maternity units. RESULTS: SMBP was predominantly used to provide additional BP monitoring for hypertensive or high-risk pregnant women. Overall maternity units and women were positive about its use in terms of reducing the need for additional face-to-face contacts and giving women more control and insight into their own BP. However, there were challenges in setting up SMBP services rapidly and embedding them within existing care pathways, particularly around interpreting readings and managing the provision of monitors. CONCLUSIONS: A considerable proportion of maternity units in England commenced a SMBP service for hypertensive or high-risk women from March 2020. There is a need for further research into appropriate care pathways, including guidance around white coat or masked hypertension and the use of SMBP postnatally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Pre-Eclampsia , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Blood Pressure/physiology , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory/methods , Pandemics , Pre-Eclampsia/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/epidemiology
9.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) ; 62(4S): S41-S46.e1, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936708

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease in the United States and is costing the health care system billions of dollars annually. A health program that combines education, empowerment, and monitoring has shown to improve clinical outcomes and decrease overall health care costs. OBJECTIVE: To describe the implementation and effectiveness of a self-measured blood pressure (SMBP) program in a community pharmacy. PRACTICE DESCRIPTION: An independent community pharmacy located within rural Southeast Missouri. On-site community pharmacists provide medication therapy management, adherence monitoring, immunizations, and reimbursed clinical services. PRACTICE INNOVATION: Patients were eligible if they were older than 18 years of age and fell into one of the following categories: self-reported a new hypertension diagnosis, self-reported a desire to SMBP, were referred by a provider, or had a medication change within the 3 months before enrollment. The program consisted of 4 patient sessions. The first session obtained an initial blood pressure and provided patient education and behavior counseling. Follow-up sessions obtained average SMBP readings and reinforced previously learned concepts. EVALUATION METHODS: Implementation was evaluated using time and patient satisfaction. Effectiveness was evaluated using number and type of clinical problems identified, BP measurements, and test scores. RESULTS: A total of 20 patients enrolled and completed the study. The program took 63 minutes (SD ± 18) of staff time per patient for recruitment, sessions, reminder calls, and documentation. All patients received education and monitoring and 11 additional clinical problems were documented. Systolic BP decreased an average of 17 mm Hg (P = 0.002), and diastolic BP decreased an average of 12 mm Hg (P < 0.001). Patient confidence scores increased by 14%, and 7 more patients correctly answered the post-test knowledge question. All patients reported overall satisfaction with the program as "satisfied" or "very satisfied." CONCLUSION: This standardized SMBP program effectively improved hypertension control and patient confidence in managing BP.


Subject(s)
Community Pharmacy Services , Hypertension , Pharmacies , Blood Pressure/physiology , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Pharmacists , Pilot Projects , United States
10.
Hipertens Riesgo Vasc ; 39(3): 121-127, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936480

ABSTRACT

Hypertension (HYP) is the first cause of death and disability worldwide. In Spain, one in 3 adults was hypertensive in 2010 (62% in those >65 years in 2017). Despite improvement in HYP management over time, only half of treated hypertensive patients are adequately controlled, which translates in 30,000 annual cardiovascular deaths attributable to HYP. Among modifiable determinants of lack of blood pressure (BP) control in Spain are: (a) the white-coat phenomenon (accounting for 20-50% of apparent lack of control) due to not using ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM, use ≈20%) or self-measurement of home BP (HBPM, use ≈60%) for confirming HYP diagnosis; (b) insufficient patients adherence to BP-lowering lifestyles (e.g., only 40% of hypertensive patients have a sodium intake <2.4g/day, or follow a weight reduction advice), and (c) use of drug monotherapy (≈50% currently), usually insufficient to achieve an optimal control. It is necessary to implement strategies to monitor the evolution of the proportion of subjects with HYP with reasonable national update, to promote population's knowledge of their BP figures and of other cardiovascular risk factors, to improve the degree of HYP control and vascular risk in Spain.


Subject(s)
Hypertension , Adult , Blood Pressure , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology
11.
J Hum Hypertens ; 36(9): 852-859, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1935408

ABSTRACT

The study was conducted to identify the impact of the pandemic on hypertensive older people's COVID-19 fear, blood pressure control, and medication adherence. In this descriptive, correlational study, mean medication adherence was taken as 45.6 ± 6.06% based on the literature, with a 5% margin of error, and the sample size was determined as 292 with 95% confidence interval and 80% power. Data were collected from 419 older individuals using a sociodemographic information form, an infodemic-related questionnaire, Fear of COVID-19 Scale, and Medication Adherence Self-Efficacy Scale via Google Forms. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics 23 software via independent sample t test, one-way variance analysis, χ2 analysis, and the Pearson correlation coefficient. It was found that, rather than avoiding hospitals during a pandemic, one out of two older people had had their blood pressure checked. One out of every five had abnormal/uncontrolled blood pressure during the pandemic. The infodemic was found to increase concern levels, and those with high fear scores had abnormal/uncontrolled levels of blood pressure. Moreover, a low-level positive correlation was found between medication adherence and the level of fear of COVID-19. As the pandemic continues, older people with hypertension need support in terms of monitoring blood pressure and medication adherence as well as increased awareness about the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Aged , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Pressure , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fear , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Medication Adherence , Pandemics , Turkey/epidemiology
12.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 18: 507-515, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938529

ABSTRACT

Hypertension represents a major common cardiovascular risk factor. Optimal control of high blood pressure levels is recommended to reduce the global burden of hypertensive-mediated organ damage and cardiovascular (CV) events. Among the first-line drugs recommended in international guidelines, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system antagonists [angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs)] have long represented a rational, effective, and safe anti-hypertensive pharmacological strategy. In fact, current US and European guidelines recommend ACEi and ARBs as a suitable first choice for hypertension treatment together with calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and thiazide diuretics. Different studies have demonstrated that ARBs and ACEi exert a comparable effect in lowering blood pressure levels. However, ARBs are characterized by better pharmacological tolerability. Most importantly, the clinical evidence supports a relevant protective role of ARBs toward the CV and renal damage development, as well as the occurrence of major adverse CV events, in hypertensive patients. Moreover, a neutral metabolic effect has been reported upon ARBs administration, in contrast to other antihypertensive agents, such as beta-blockers and diuretics. These properties highlight the use of ARBs as an excellent pharmacological strategy to manage hypertension and its dangerous consequences. The present review article summarizes the available evidence regarding the beneficial effects and current recommendations of ARBs in hypertension. The specific properties performed by these agents in various clinical subsets are discussed, also including an overview of their implications for the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Antihypertensive Agents/adverse effects , Calcium Channel Blockers/adverse effects , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Pandemics
14.
Cardiovasc Ther ; 2022: 5978314, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909897

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been a global threat that pushes healthcare to its limits. Hypertension is one of the most common risk factors for cardiovascular complications in COVID-19 and is strongly associated with disease severity and mortality. To date, clinical mechanisms by which hypertension leads to increased risk in COVID-19 are still unclear. Furthermore, additional factors might increase these risks, such as the consideration of age and sex, which are of interest when in search of personalized treatments for hypertensive COVID-19 patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 543 COVID-19 patients in seven provinces of China to examine the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in this population and to determine risk factors of hypertensive COVID-19 patients. We also used univariable and multivariable logistic regression methods to explore the risk factors associated with hypertensive COVID-19 patients in different age and sex subgroups. Results: Among the enrolled COVID-19 patients, the median age was 47 years (interquartile range (IQR) 34.0-57.0), and 99 patients (18.23%) were over 60 years old. With regard to comorbidities, 91 patients (16.75%) were diagnosed with hypertension, followed by diabetes, coronary disease, and cerebrovascular disease. Of the hypertensive COVID-19 patients, 51 (56.04%) were male. Multivariable analysis showed that old age, comorbid diabetes or coronary heart disease on admission, increased D-dimer, increased glucose, and decreased lymphocyte count were independent risk factors associated with hypertensive COVID-19 patients. Elevated total bilirubin (odds ratio [OR]: 1.014, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.23-1.05; p = 0.043) and triglycerides (OR: 1.173, 95% CI: 0.049-1.617; p = 0.007) were found to be associated with elderly hypertensive COVID-19 patients. In addition, we found that decreased lymphocytes, basophil, high-density lipoprotein, and increased fibrinogen and creatinine were related to a higher risk of disease severity in male patients. The most common abnormal clinical findings pertaining to female hypertensive COVID-19 patients were hemoglobin, total bile acid, total protein, and low-density lipoprotein. Conclusions: Factors associated with increased risk of hypertensive COVID-19 patients were identified. Results to the different age and sex subgroups in our study will allow for better possible personalized care and also provide new insights into specific risk stratification, disease management, and treatment strategies for COVID-19 patients with hypertension in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Disease , Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension , Aged , Aging , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Open Heart ; 9(1)2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909813

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 may lead to long-term endothelial consequences including hypertension, stroke and myocardial infarction. A pilot study 'COVID-19 blood pressure endothelium interaction study', which found that patients with normal blood pressure (BP) at the time of hospital admission with COVID-19 showed an 8.6 mm Hg higher BP ≥12 weeks after recovery, compared with a group without COVID-19. The 'LOnger-term effects of SARS-CoV-2 INfection on blood Vessels And blood pRessure'(LOCHINVAR) study is designed to provide definitive evidence of the long-term impact of COVID-19 on BP. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The LOCHINVAR study is an observational clinical phenotyping study comparing longitudinal BP change between individuals with and without COVID-19 infection. 150 participants (30-60 years) with no history of hypertension and not on BP lowering medications will be recruited to the study to attend three visits (baseline, 12 months, 18 months). Cases will be patients who were admitted to the Queen Elizabeth University Hospital (QEUH), Glasgow, UK, with suspected/confirmed COVID-19 until 31 December 2021 and who were alive at discharge. Controls will be those who have never had confirmed COVID-19 infection. All participants will undergo clinical and vascular phenotyping studies which will include 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring systolic BP (ABPM SBP), brachial flow-mediated dilatation urine and blood samples to assess the renin-angiotensin system, vascular inflammation and immune status. The primary outcome is the change in systolic 24-hour ABPM (ABPM SBP) between the cases and controls. Sample size was calculated to detect a mean difference of 5 mm Hg ABPM SBP at 80% power. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The protocol of this study has been approved by the West of Scotland Research Ethics Committee 5 (21/WS/0075), Scotland, UK. Written informed consent will be provided by all study participants. Study findings will be submitted to international peer-reviewed hypertension journals and will be presented at international scientific meetings. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT05087290.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Blood Pressure , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Pilot Projects , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Curr Hypertens Rev ; 18(1): 78-84, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902800

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a leading risk factor for morbidity and mortality around the world. Preventing this health problem is considered an important priority. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive factors for care and control of hypertension (CCH) according to the health belief model (HBM), in patients with hypertension during the COVID-19 epidemic in Sirjan, Iran. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, participants were chosen by simple random sampling. Data were collected by a valid and reliable researcher-made questionnaire from 200 patients with high blood pressure aged 30-60 years. Data were analyzed by SPSS21 and analysis based on descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficients, and linear regression was conducted. RESULTS: The results of Pearson correlation coefficients showed that there was a significant correlation among almost all constructs of the Health Belief Model (HBM), but the strongest correlations were between self-efficacy and perceived susceptibility (r = 0.940, P ≤ 0.001), and between perceived barriers with perceived benefits (r = -0.615, P ≤ 0.001). According to linear regression, perceived barriers (ß = -0.291), cues to action (ß = -0.590), and knowledge (ß = 0.973) predicted more than 26% of CCH variability. Knowledge had a stronger role than other variables. CONCLUSION: The results of this study show that the constructs of the Health Belief Model can predict CCH in hypertensive patients. This model can be used as a tool for designing and implementing educational interventions to increase CCH among hypertensive patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Belief Model , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/therapy , Iran/epidemiology
17.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 133(1): 183-190, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902130

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have reported detrimental effects of COVID-19 on the peripheral vasculature. However, reports on blood pressure (BP) are inconsistent, and measurements are made only in the laboratory setting. To date, no studies have measured ambulatory BP. In addition, in previous studies, time since COVID-19 diagnosis among participants varied across a wide range, potentially contributing to the inconsistent BP results. Thus, we aimed to perform a comprehensive assessment of BP and BP variability using ambulatory and laboratory (brachial and central) measurements in young adults who had COVID-19. We hypothesized that ambulatory BP would be elevated post-COVID-19 and that measures of BP would be inversely related with time since diagnosis. Twenty-eight young adults who had COVID-19 [11 ± 6 (range 3-22) wk since diagnosis] and 10 controls were studied. Ambulatory daytime, nighttime, and 24-h systolic BP, diastolic BP, and mean BP were not different between the control and COVID groups (e.g., daytime systolic BP: control, 122 ± 12 mmHg; COVID, 122 ± 10 mmHg; P = 0.937). Similar results were observed for laboratory BPs (all P > 0.05). However, ambulatory daytime, nighttime, and 24-h BPs as well as laboratory brachial BPs were inversely correlated with time since COVID-19 diagnosis (e.g., daytime systolic BP: r = -0.444; P = 0.044, nighttime systolic BP: r = -0.518; P = 0.016). Ambulatory and laboratory-measured BP variability were not different between groups nor correlated with time since diagnosis. Collectively, these data suggest that adverse effects of COVID-19 on BP in young adults are minimal and likely transient.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We report for the first time that ambulatory daytime, nighttime, and 24-h blood pressure (BP), as well as laboratory BP, were not different between control and COVID participants. However, a significant inverse relationship with time since COVID-19 diagnosis was found (i.e., greater BP with more recent infection). Ambulatory and laboratory BP variability were unaffected and not related with diagnosis time. These findings suggest that COVID-19 may exert only short-lasting effects on BP in young adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Blood Pressure/physiology , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Young Adult
18.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 280: 121523, 2022 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895420

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have reported that using certain antihypertensive therapies such as angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) and calcium channel blocker (CCBs) is associated with reduction of fatal outcomes and improving clinical characteristics of patients suffering from hypertension during coronavirus pandemic. Thus, in the current work an effective, innovative and eco-friendly spectrophotometric manner namely, parent spectrum extraction (PSE)was established for evaluation of recommended triple antihypertensive combination therapies incorporate valsartan (VAL) as ARBs, amlodipine besylate as CCBs (AML) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCT)as diuretic into single-pill in challengeable ratio. PSE manner composed of two complementary steps, auxiliary resolution coupled with data analysis resolution(DAR)and it is characterized by resolving the spectral bands of the drugs and extraction of their discrete parent spectra (D0); accordingly, enabling determination of each analyte at its λmax. Auxiliary resolution of AML in triple mixture was applied to decrease complexity of overlapped spectra via constant multiplication (CM) followed by spectrum subtraction (SS) to obtain resolved mixture of VAL and HCT while data analysis resolution (DAR) of this binary mixture was applied via one of three novel methods namely, absorbance extraction (AE), peak-amplitude extraction (PE) and ratio extraction (RE) along with SS method. The proposed methods had analyzed VAL, AML and HCT in the range of 4.0-44.0 µg/mL, 4.0-40.0 µg/mL and 2.0-24.0 µg/mL, respectively with an excellent correlation coefficient (r ≥ 0.9999). Further, the proposed methods in PSR manner were validated as stated by ICH guidelines and it was found that accuracy and precision results are within the acceptable limit. The suggested procedures were effectively utilized for the concurrent quantification of VAL, AML and HCT in synthetic mixtures and tablets. The greenness of the proposed spectrophotometric methods was evaluated by National Environmental Methods Index (NEMI), the Analytical Eco-Scale, the Green Analytical Procedure Index (GAPI) and Analytical greenness metric (AGREE) where the four tools affirmed the eco-friendly nature of the proposed methods. A comparison between the outcomes of the studied methods with the official and reported ones was performed and no statistical difference was arisen between the methods regarding to accuracy and precision.The achieved results along with the simplicity, affordability and low-cost of the proposed methods recommended their appropriateness for the regular quality control examination and analysis of pure materials and pharmaceutical formulations as well as their applicability for the spectralprint recognition of the studied drugs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , Hypertension , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Amlodipine/analysis , Amlodipine/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/analysis , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydrochlorothiazide/analysis , Hydrochlorothiazide/therapeutic use , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/chemically induced , Pandemics , Spectrophotometry/methods , Valsartan
19.
20.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 32(8): 1998-2009, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867633

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) poses significant health risks for seniors, especially among low-income and minority communities. Senior centers offer multiple services. We tested whether implementing two evidence-based interventions- DASH-aligned meals provided through an existing congregate meal program, and support for home Self-Measured Blood Pressure (SMBP) monitoring-lowers blood pressure among participants at two senior centers serving low-income, racially diverse communities. METHODS AND RESULTS: Open-label study, enrolling clients aged ≥60, eating ≥4 meals/week at two NYC senior centers. Participants received DASH-aligned congregate meals, and training in nutrition, BP management education, and personal SMBP device. Co-Primary outcomes: a) change in systolic BP measured by independent health professionals, and b) change in percent with "controlled BP" (Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC-8) Guidelines), at Month 1 compared to Baseline. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: Changes in BP at Months 3 and 5/6 (last measure). We enrolled 94 participants; COVID closures interrupted implementation mid-study. Mean systolic BP at Month-1 changed by -4.41 mmHg (n = 61 p = 0.07) compared to Baseline. Participants with controlled BP increased (15.7%) at Month 1. Change in mean BP at Month 1 was significantly correlated with BMI (p = 0.02), age (p = 0.04), and baseline BP (p < 0.001). Mean systolic SMBP changed by -6.9 mmHg (p = 0.004) at Months 5/6. CONCLUSIONS: Implementing an evidence-based multi-component BP-lowering intervention within existing congregate meal programs at senior centers serving minority and low-income communities is feasible, and early findings show promising evidence of effectiveness. This approach to cardiovascular risk reduction should be further tested for widespread adoption and impact. Registered on ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03993808 (June 21st, 2019).


Subject(s)
Dietary Approaches To Stop Hypertension , Hypertension , Aged , Blood Pressure , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/prevention & control , Male , Meals , Self Efficacy
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