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1.
Dis Markers ; 2021: 6304189, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1553755

ABSTRACT

Background: Early identification of patients with severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) at an increased risk of progression may promote more individualized treatment schemes and optimize the use of medical resources. This study is aimed at investigating the utility of the C-reactive protein to albumin (CRP/Alb) ratio for early risk stratification of patients. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 557 patients with COVID-19 with confirmed outcomes (discharged or deceased) admitted to the West Court of Union Hospital, Wuhan, China, between January 29, 2020 and April 8, 2020. Patients with severe COVID-19 (n = 465) were divided into stable (n = 409) and progressive (n = 56) groups according to whether they progressed to critical illness or death during hospitalization. To predict disease progression, the CRP/Alb ratio was evaluated on admission. Results: The levels of new biomarkers, including neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, CRP/Alb ratio, and systemic immune-inflammation index, were higher in patients with progressive disease than in those with stable disease. Correlation analysis showed that the CRP/Alb ratio had the strongest positive correlation with the sequential organ failure assessment score and length of hospital stay in survivors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that percutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2), D-dimer levels, and the CRP/Alb ratio were risk factors for disease progression. To predict clinical progression, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of Alb, CRP, CRP/Alb ratio, SpO2, and D-dimer were 0.769, 0.838, 0.866, 0.107, and 0.748, respectively. Moreover, patients with a high CRP/Alb ratio (≥1.843) had a markedly higher rate of clinical deterioration (log - rank p < 0.001). A higher CRP/Alb ratio (≥1.843) was also closely associated with higher rates of hospital mortality, ICU admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, and a longer hospital stay. Conclusion: The CRP/Alb ratio can predict the risk of progression to critical disease or death early, providing a promising prognostic biomarker for risk stratification and clinical management of patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronary Disease/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serum Albumin, Human/metabolism , Aged , Area Under Curve , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronary Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Disease/mortality , Coronary Disease/virology , Disease Progression , Early Diagnosis , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lymphocytes/pathology , Lymphocytes/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/pathology , Neutrophils/virology , Prognosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/mortality , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/virology , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
2.
Lab Med ; 52(5): 493-498, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526169

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the role of midregional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We included 110 patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Biochemical biomarkers, including MR-proADM, were measured at admission. The association of plasma MR-proADM levels with COVID-19 severity, defined as a requirement for mechanical ventilation or in-hospital mortality, was evaluated. RESULTS: Patients showed increased levels of MR-proADM. In addition, MR-proADM was higher in patients who died during hospitalization than in patients who survived (median, 2.59 nmol/L; interquartile range, 2.3-2.95 vs median, 0.82 nmol/L; interquartile range, 0.57-1.03; P <.0001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed good accuracy of MR-proADM for predicting mortality. A MR-proADM value of 1.73 nmol/L was established as the best cutoff value, with 90% sensitivity and 95% specificity (P <.0001). CONCLUSION: We found that MR-proADM could represent a prognostic biomarker of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adrenomedullin/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Protein Precursors/blood , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Interleukin-6/blood , Lung Diseases/blood , Lung Diseases/mortality , Lung Diseases/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Selection , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Triage/methods
3.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 34(6): 1071-1073, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515527

ABSTRACT

This issue of the JABFM features research on a broad array of clinical topics. The topics of 5 articles involve controlled substances, including a sobering article on the risks of amphetamines in older adults. An excellent quick reference guide for managing common COVID-19 symptoms is presented. Two other articles consider hypertension treatment in primary care, demonstrating that treating blood pressure is anything but straightforward. Several additional clinical topics include mononucleosis, influenza, and the impact of home life on childhood weight and eating habits. A study from Virginia underscores that primary care, as a system, is distressed. A review of the existing literature on "slow medicine" comes to important conclusions. Some health systems are partnering with local resources to practically address such social determinants as food insecurity. Not surprisingly, family physicians are filling gaps in emergency care around the country.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Aged , Child , Controlled Substances , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Physicians, Family , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Mol Med ; 27(1): 129, 2021 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477255

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Host inflammation contributes to determine whether SARS-CoV-2 infection causes mild or life-threatening disease. Tools are needed for early risk assessment. METHODS: We studied in 111 COVID-19 patients prospectively followed at a single reference Hospital fifty-three potential biomarkers including alarmins, cytokines, adipocytokines and growth factors, humoral innate immune and neuroendocrine molecules and regulators of iron metabolism. Biomarkers at hospital admission together with age, degree of hypoxia, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP) and creatinine were analysed within a data-driven approach to classify patients with respect to survival and ICU outcomes. Classification and regression tree (CART) models were used to identify prognostic biomarkers. RESULTS: Among the fifty-three potential biomarkers, the classification tree analysis selected CXCL10 at hospital admission, in combination with NLR and time from onset, as the best predictor of ICU transfer (AUC [95% CI] = 0.8374 [0.6233-0.8435]), while it was selected alone to predict death (AUC [95% CI] = 0.7334 [0.7547-0.9201]). CXCL10 concentration abated in COVID-19 survivors after healing and discharge from the hospital. CONCLUSIONS: CXCL10 results from a data-driven analysis, that accounts for presence of confounding factors, as the most robust predictive biomarker of patient outcome in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Chemokine CXCL10/blood , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Coronary Artery Disease/blood , Coronary Artery Disease/immunology , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Creatine/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/immunology , Hypertension/mortality , Immunity, Humoral , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation , Intensive Care Units , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocytes/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/pathology , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
5.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD013212, 2020 05 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453527

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a major public health challenge affecting more than one billion people worldwide; it disproportionately affects populations in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where health systems are generally weak. The increasing prevalence of hypertension is associated with population growth, ageing, genetic factors, and behavioural risk factors, such as excessive salt and fat consumption, physical inactivity, being overweight and obese, harmful alcohol consumption, and poor management of stress. Over the long term, hypertension leads to risk for cardiovascular events, such as heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, disability, and premature mortality. Cardiovascular events can be preventable when high-risk populations are targeted, for example, through population-wide screening strategies. When available resources are limited, taking a total risk approach whereby several risk factors of hypertension are taken into consideration (e.g. age, gender, lifestyle factors, diabetes, blood cholesterol) can enable more accurate targeting of high-risk groups. Targeting of high-risk groups can help reduce costs in that resources are not spent on the entire population. Early detection in the form of screening for hypertension (and associated risk factors) can help identify high-risk groups, which can result in timely treatment and management of risk factors. Ultimately, early detection can help reduce morbidity and mortality linked to it and can help contain health-related costs, for example, those associated with hospitalisation due to severe illness and poorly managed risk factors and comorbidities. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of different screening strategies for hypertension (mass, targeted, or opportunistic) to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with hypertension. SEARCH METHODS: An Information Specialist searched the Cochrane Register of Studies (CRS-Web), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) Bireme, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) without language, publication year, or publication status restrictions. The searches were conducted from inception until 9 April 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs (NRCTs), that is, controlled before and after (CBA), interrupted time series (ITS), and prospective analytic cohort studies of healthy adolescents, adults, and elderly people participating in mass, targeted, or opportunistic screening of hypertension. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Screening of all retrieved studies was done in Covidence. A team of reviewers, in pairs, independently assessed titles and abstracts of identified studies and acquired full texts for studies that were potentially eligible. Studies were deemed to be eligible for full-text screening if two review authors agreed, or if consensus was reached through discussion with a third review author. It was planned that at least two review authors would independently extract data from included studies, assess risk of bias using pre-specified Cochrane criteria, and conduct a meta-analysis of sufficiently similar studies or present a narrative synthesis of the results. MAIN RESULTS: We screened 9335 titles and abstracts. We identified 54 potentially eligible studies for full-text screening. However, no studies met the eligibility criteria. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is an implicit assumption that early detection of hypertension through screening can reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality, but this assumption has not been tested in rigorous research studies. High-quality evidence from RCTs or programmatic evidence from NRCTs on the effectiveness and costs or harms of different screening strategies for hypertension (mass, targeted, or opportunistic) to reduce hypertension-related morbidity and mortality is lacking.


Subject(s)
Hypertension/diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Mass Screening
6.
Am J Manag Care ; 27(9): 366-368, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1431298

ABSTRACT

Among a group of primary care accountable care organizations, patients with hypertension were 50% less likely to have a blood pressure recorded in April compared with February.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Blood Pressure , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Primary Health Care , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Hum Hypertens ; 35(9): 818-820, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428784

ABSTRACT

Sarah Bingham, a 45 year old carer for her grandmother who suffered a stroke 4 months ago, feels a buzz on her wrist. It's time for them both to take their medications. Sarah makes dinner and leaves for her evening run. Her smartwatch detects her exit and turns off her TV as advertisements for incentivised private health insurance commence.


Subject(s)
Hypertension , Female , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Middle Aged
8.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 688071, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399132

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection continues to scale and threaten human health and public safety. It is essential to identify those risk factors that lead to a poor prognosis of the disease. A predisposing host genetic background could be one of these factors that explain the interindividual variability to COVID-19 severity. Thus, we have studied whether the rs4341 and rs4343 polymorphisms of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene, key regulator of the renin-aldosterone-angiotensin system (RAAS), could explain the different outcomes of 128 COVID-19 patients with diverse degree of severity (33 asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic, 66 hospitalized in the general ward, and 29 admitted to the ICU). We found that G allele of rs4341 and rs4343 was associated with severe COVID-19 in hypertensive patients, independently of gender (p<0.05). G-carrier genotypes of both polymorphisms were also associated with higher mortality (p< 0.05) and higher severity of COVID-19 in dyslipidemic (p<0.05) and type 2 diabetic patients (p< 0.01). The association of G alleles with disease severity was adjusted for age, sex, BMI and number of comorbidities, suggesting that both the metabolic comorbidities and the G allele act synergistically on COVID-19 outcome. Although we did not find a direct association between serum ACE levels and COVID-19 severity, we found higher levels of ACE in the serum of patients with the GG genotype of rs4341 and rs4343 (p<0.05), what could explain the higher susceptibility to develop severe forms of the disease in patients with the GG genotype, in addition to hypertension and dyslipidemia. In conclusion, our preliminary study suggests that the G-containing genotypes of rs4341 and rs4343 confer an additional risk of adverse COVID-19 prognosis. Thus, rs4341 and rs4343 polymorphisms of ACE could be predictive markers of severity of COVID-19 in those patients with hypertension, dyslipidemia or diabetes. The knowledge of these genetic data could contribute to precision management of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients when admitted to hospital.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus/genetics , Dyslipidemias/genetics , Genetic Variation/genetics , Hypertension/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Dyslipidemias/diagnosis , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Spain/epidemiology
9.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(6): e2288, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384306

ABSTRACT

SARS Coronavirus-2 is one of the most widespread viruses globally during the 21st century, whose severity and ability to cause severe pneumonia and death vary. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of all studies that met our standardised criteria and then extracted data on the age, symptoms, and different treatments of Covid-19 patients and the prognosis of this disease during follow-up. Cases in this study were divided according to severity and death status and meta-analysed separately using raw mean and single proportion methods. We included 171 complete studies including 62,909 confirmed cases of Covid-19, of which 148 studies were meta-analysed. Symptoms clearly emerged in an escalating manner from mild-moderate symptoms, pneumonia, severe-critical to the group of non-survivors. Hypertension (Pooled proportion (PP): 0.48 [95% Confident interval (CI): 0.35-0.61]), diabetes (PP: 0.23 [95% CI: 0.16-0.33]) and smoking (PP: 0.12 [95% CI: 0.03-0.38]) were highest regarding pre-infection comorbidities in the non-survivor group. While acute respiratory distress syndrome (PP: 0.49 [95% CI: 0.29-0.78]), (PP: 0.63 [95% CI: 0.34-0.97]) remained one of the most common complications in the severe and death group respectively. Bilateral ground-glass opacification (PP: 0.68 [95% CI: 0.59-0.75]) was the most visible radiological image. The mortality rates estimated (PP: 0.11 [95% CI: 0.06-0.19]), (PP: 0.03 [95% CI: 0.01-0.05]), and (PP: 0.01 [95% CI: 0-0.3]) in severe-critical, pneumonia and mild-moderate groups respectively. This study can serve as a high evidence guideline for different clinical presentations of Covid-19, graded from mild to severe, and for special forms like pneumonia and death groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cough/pathology , Dyspnea/pathology , Fatigue/pathology , Fever/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Cough/drug therapy , Cough/mortality , Cough/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Dyspnea/drug therapy , Dyspnea/mortality , Dyspnea/virology , Fatigue/drug therapy , Fatigue/mortality , Fatigue/virology , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/mortality , Fever/virology , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/physiopathology , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Prognosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Smoking/physiopathology , Survival Analysis
10.
Korean J Intern Med ; 36(Suppl 1): S123-S131, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369806

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: There are concerns that the use of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers may increase the risk of being infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or progressing to a severe clinical course after infection. This this study aimed to investigate the influence of RAS blockers on the risk and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study analyzing nationwide claims data of 215,184 adults who underwent SARS-CoV-2 tests in South Korea. The SARS-CoV-2 positive rates and clinical outcomes were evaluated according to the use of RAS blockers in patients with hypertension (n = 64,243). RESULTS: In total, 38,919 patients with hypertension were on RAS blockers. The SARS-CoV-2 positive rates were significantly higher in the RAS blocker group than in the control group after adjustments (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10 to 1.36; p < 0.001), and matching by propensity score (adjusted OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.32; p = 0.017). Among the 1,609 SARS-CoV-2-positive patients with hypertension, the use of RAS blockers was not associated with poor outcomes, such as mortality (adjusted OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.56 to 1.17; p = 0.265), and a composite of admission to the intensive care unit and mortality (adjusted OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.22; p = 0.669). Analysis in the propensity scorematched population showed consistent results. CONCLUSION: In this Korean nationwide claims dataset, the use of RAS blockers was associated with a higher risk to SARS-CoV-2 infection but not with higher mortality or other severe clinical courses.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Hypertension/drug therapy , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Administrative Claims, Healthcare , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Antihypertensive Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
11.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 142: 112067, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363885

ABSTRACT

Respiratory symptoms are one of COVID-19 manifestations, and the metalloproteinases (MMPs) have essential roles in the lung physiology. We sought to characterize the plasmatic levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and 9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9) in patients with severe COVID-19 and to investigate an association between plasma MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels and clinical outcomes and mortality. MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels in plasma from patients with COVID-19 treated in the ICU (COVID-19 group) and Control patients were measured with the zymography. The study groups were matched for age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, BMI, and obesity profile. MMP-2 levels were lower and MMP-9 levels were higher in a COVID-19 group (p < 0.0001) compared to Controls. MMP-9 levels in COVID-19 patients were not affected by comorbidity such as hypertension or obesity. MMP-2 levels were affected by hypertension (p < 0.05), but unaffected by obesity status. Notably, hypertensive COVID-19 patients had higher MMP-2 levels compared to the non-hypertensive COVID-19 group, albeit still lower than Controls (p < 0.05). No association between MMP-2 and MMP-9 plasmatic levels and corticosteroid treatment or acute kidney injury was found in COVID-19 patients. The survival analysis showed that COVID-19 mortality was associated with increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels. Age, hypertension, BMI, and MMP-2 and MMP-9 were better predictors of mortality during hospitalization than SAPS3 and SOFA scores at hospital admission. In conclusion, a significant association between MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels and COVID-19 was found. Notably, MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels predicted the risk of in-hospital death suggesting possible pathophysiologic and prognostic roles.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospital Mortality , Hypertension , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Age Factors , Body Mass Index , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/analysis , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/blood , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/analysis , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/blood , Middle Aged , Mortality , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
13.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 23(9): 1675-1680, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334477

ABSTRACT

In a retrospective analysis, the authors investigated day-by-day blood pressure variability (BPV) and its association with clinical outcomes (critical vs. severe and discharged) in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. The study participants were hospitalized in Tongji Hospital, Guanggu Branch, Wuhan, China, between February 1 and April 1, 2020. BPV was assessed as standard derivation (SD), coefficient of variation (CV), and variability independent of mean (VIM). The 79 participants included 60 (75.9%) severe patients discharged from the hospital after up to 47 days of hospitalization, and 19 (24.1%) critically ill patients transferred to other hospitals for further treatment (n = 13), admitted to ICU (n = 3) or died (n=3). Despite similar use of antihypertensive medication (47.4% vs. 41.7%) and mean levels of systolic/diastolic blood pressure (131.3/75.2 vs. 125.4/77.3 mmHg), critically ill patients, compared with severe and discharged patients, had a significantly (p ≤ .04) greater variability of systolic (SD 14.92 vs. 10.84 mmHg, CV 11.39% vs. 8.56%, and VIM 15.15 vs. 10.75 units) and diastolic blood pressure (SD 9.38 vs. 7.50 mmHg, CV 12.66% vs. 9.80%, and VIM 9.33 vs. 7.50 units). After adjustment for confounding factors, the odds ratios for critical versus severe and discharged patients for systolic BPV were 3.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20-9.66, p = .02), 4.09 (95% CI 1.14-14.67, p = .03), and 2.81 (95% CI 1.12-7.05, p = .03) for each 5-mmHg increment in SD, 5% increment in CV, and 5-unit increment in VIM, respectively. Similar trends were observed for diastolic BPV indices (p ≤ .08). In conclusion, in patients with COVID-19, BPV was greater and associated with worse clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Blood Pressure , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(5): 102210, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313054

ABSTRACT

AIMS: This meta-analysis aims to analyze the association of calcium channel blocker (CCB) use with COVID-19 clinical outcomes. METHODS: PubMed, ProQuest, Science Direct, Scopus, and medRxiv databases were searched systematically in a limited period. The primary outcome was mortality. RESULTS: A total of 119,298 patients from 31 eligible studies were included. Pooled analysis of the random-effect model revealed CCB was not associated with reduced mortality (OR = 1.21 [95%CI: 0.98-1.49], p = 0.08). Interestingly, subgroup analysis in hypertensive patients revealed significantly reduced mortality (OR = 0.69 [95%CI: 0.52-0.91], p = 0.009). CONCLUSION: CCB usage was not associated with the outcome of COVID-19. However, CCB was associated with a decreased mortality rate in hypertensive COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Virus Internalization/drug effects
16.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(5): 102204, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1306924

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Identify the prevalence, risk factors and outcomes of lower extremity ischemic complications. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted by searching PubMed and SCOPUS databases for SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19 and peripheral arterial complications. RESULTS: Overall 476 articles were retrieved and 31 articles describing 133 patients were included. The mean age was 65.4 years. Pain and gangrene were the most common presentation. Hypertension (51.3%), diabetes (31.9%) and hypercholesterolemia (17.6%) were associated co-morbidities. Overall, 30.1% of patients died and amputation was required in 11.8% patients. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients with diabetes or hypertension are susceptible for lower limb complications and require therapeutic anti-coagulation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetic Angiopathies , Hypertension , Aged , Amputation/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Diabetic Angiopathies/complications , Diabetic Angiopathies/diagnosis , Diabetic Angiopathies/epidemiology , Diabetic Angiopathies/therapy , Female , Gangrene/diagnosis , Gangrene/epidemiology , Gangrene/etiology , Gangrene/therapy , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/therapy , Lower Extremity , Male , Middle Aged , Peripheral Arterial Disease/diagnosis , Peripheral Arterial Disease/epidemiology , Peripheral Arterial Disease/etiology , Peripheral Arterial Disease/therapy , Prevalence , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
17.
Clin Exp Hypertens ; 43(7): 683-689, 2021 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294601

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the C-reactive protein/albumin ratio and the prognosis of hypertensive COVID-19 patients. METHODS: It was designed as a single center retrospective study. PCR positive COVID-19 patients who were followed up in the intensive care unit (ICU) and received antihypertensive treatment were included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups as survivor and non-survivor. C-reactive protein/albumin (CAR) ratios of the patients were compared. The cut-off value was determined as a mortality predictor. The effect of CAR on mortality was evaluated using Logistic Regression analysis. RESULTS: 281 patients were included in the study. Groups consisted of 135 (non-survivor) and 146 (survivor) patients. CAR was significantly higher in the non-survivor group (p<0.001). The area under the ROC curve for CAR for mortality was 0.807, with sensitivity of 0.71 and specificity of 0.71. The cut-off value for CAR was calculated as 56.62. In logistic regression analysis, CAR increases mortality 4.9 times compared to the cut-off value. CONCLUSION: CAR is a powerful and independent prognostic marker for predicting mortality and disease progression in hypertensive COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/virology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Serum Albumin, Human
19.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 14(5): e007098, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232381

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted clinical care worldwide. Evidence of how this health crisis affected common conditions like blood pressure (BP) control is uncertain. METHODS: We used longitudinal BP data from an ongoing randomized clinical trial to examine variations in home BP monitored via a smartphone-based application (app) in a total of 7394 elderly patients with hypertension aged 60 to 80 years stratified by their location in Wuhan (n=283) compared with other provinces of China (n=7111). Change in morning systolic BP (SBP) was analyzed for 5 30-day phases during the pandemic, including preepidemic (October 21 to November 20, 2019), incubation (November 21 to December 20, 2019), developing (December 21, 2019 to January 20, 2020), outbreak (January 21 to February 20, 2020), and plateau (February 21 to March 21, 2020). RESULTS: Compared with non-Wuhan areas of China, average morning SBP (adjusted for age, sex, body mass index) in Wuhan patients was significantly higher during the epidemic growth phases, which returned to normal at the plateau. Between-group differences in ΔSBP were +2.5, +3.0, and +2.1 mm Hg at the incubation, developing, and outbreak phases of COVID-19 (P<0.001), respectively. Sensitivity analysis showed a similar trend in trajectory pattern of SBP in both the intensive and standard BP control groups of the trial. Patients in Wuhan also had an increased regimen change in antihypertensive drugs during the outbreak compared with non-Wuhan patients. Expectedly, Wuhan patients were more likely to check their BP via the app, while doctors were less likely to monitor the app for BP control during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a short-term increase in morning SBP among elderly patients with hypertension in Wuhan but not other parts of China. Further study will be needed to understand if these findings extended to other parts of the world substantially affected by the virus. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03015311.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure Determination , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/physiopathology , Smartphone , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , China , Female , Humans , Hypertension/therapy , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Self Care
20.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 23(6): 1099-1103, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216746
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