Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 347
Filter
1.
Hypertension ; 76(5): 1368-1383, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2153222

ABSTRACT

Telemedicine allows the remote exchange of medical data between patients and healthcare professionals. It is used to increase patients' access to care and provide effective healthcare services at a distance. During the recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, telemedicine has thrived and emerged worldwide as an indispensable resource to improve the management of isolated patients due to lockdown or shielding, including those with hypertension. The best proposed healthcare model for telemedicine in hypertension management should include remote monitoring and transmission of vital signs (notably blood pressure) and medication adherence plus education on lifestyle and risk factors, with video consultation as an option. The use of mixed automated feedback services with supervision of a multidisciplinary clinical team (physician, nurse, or pharmacist) is the ideal approach. The indications include screening for suspected hypertension, management of older adults, medically underserved people, high-risk hypertensive patients, patients with multiple diseases, and those isolated due to pandemics or national emergencies.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Hypertension/drug therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Blood Pressure Determination/methods , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Management , Evidence-Based Medicine , Female , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Italy , Male , Occupational Health , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Patient Safety , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143219

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 is caused by SARS-CoV-2 and is more severe in the elderly, racial minorities, and those with comorbidities such as hypertension and diabetes. These pathologies are often controlled with medications involving the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). RAAS is an endocrine system involved in maintaining blood pressure and blood volume through components of the system. SARS-CoV-2 enters the cells through ACE2, a membrane-bound protein related to RAAS. Therefore, the use of RAAS inhibitors could worsen the severity of COVID-19's symptoms, especially amongst those with pre-existing comorbidities. Although a vaccine is currently available to prevent and reduce the symptom severity of COVID-19, other options, such as nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide, may also have utility to prevent and treat this virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydrogen Sulfide , Hypertension , Humans , Aged , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Hydrogen Sulfide/therapeutic use , Nitric Oxide , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Hypertension/drug therapy
3.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276781, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117546

ABSTRACT

Hypertension appears to be one of the commonest comorbidities in COVID-19 patients, although whether hypertensive individuals have a higher risk of severe COVID-19 compared with non-hypertensives is unclear. It is also unclear whether the absolute level of systolic blood pressure, or the type of anti-hypertensive medication is related to this risk. Analyses were conducted using data from the UK Biobank and linked health records. Logistic regression models were fitted to assess the impact of hypertension, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and medications on the risk of severe COVID-19. 16,134 individuals tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus, 22% (n = 3,584) developed severe COVID-19 and 40% (n = 6,517) were hypertensive. Hypertension was associated with 22% higher odds of severe COVID-19 (Odds ratio (OR) 1.22; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12, 1.33), compared with normotension after adjusting for confounding variables. In those taking anti-hypertensive medications, elevated SBP showed a dose-response relationship with severe COVID-19 (150-159mmHg versus 120-129mmHg (OR 1.91; 95% CI 1.44, 2.53), >180+mmHg versus 120-129mmHg (OR 1.93; 95% CI 1.06, 3.51)). SBP <120mmHg was associated with greater odds of severe COVID-19 (OR 1.40; 95% CI 1.11, 1.78). Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-II receptor blockers were not associated with altered risk of severe COVID-19. Hypertension is an important risk factor for COVID-19. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms is warranted in case of more severe strains or other viruses in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Humans , Antihypertensive Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Biological Specimen Banks , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
4.
Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets ; 22(2): 104-117, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098958

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypertension and heart failure are known risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity and mortality outcomes. Beta-blocker is one of the drugs of choice to treat these conditions. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between preadmission beta-blocker use and COVID-19 outcomes. METHODS: PubMed and Europe PMC were used as the database for our search strategy by using combined keywords related to our aims until December 10th, 2020. All articles related to COVID- 19 and beta-blocker were retrieved. Review Manager 5.4 and Comprehensive Meta-Analysis 3 software were used to perform statistical analysis. RESULTS: A total of 43 studies consisting of 11,388,556 patients were included in our analysis. Our meta-analysis showed that the use of beta-blocker was associated with increased risk of COVID-19 [OR 1.32 (95% CI 1.02 - 1.70), p = 0.03, I2 = 99%, random-effect modelling], clinical progression [OR 1.37 (95% CI 1.01 - 1.88), p = 0.04, I2 = 89%, random-effect modelling], and mortality from COVID-19 [OR 1.64 (95% CI 1.22 - 2.19), p = 0.0009, I2 = 94%, random-effect modelling]. Metaregression showed that the association with mortality outcome were influenced by age (p = 0.018) and hypertension (p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: The risk and benefits of using beta-blocker as a drug of choice to treat hypertensive patients should be considered and reviewed individually, case by case, knowing their association with higher incidence and severity of COVID-19 infections. Other first-line antihypertensive drugs may be considered as an alternative therapy if the risk of administering beta blockers outweighs the benefits of COVID-19 infection. REGISTRATION DETAILS: PROSPERO (CRD42021260455).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Hypertension/drug therapy , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/therapeutic use
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082136

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to assess the changes in the prevalence and determinants of self-reported hypertension among older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. This repeated cross-sectional study was conducted on two successive occasions (October 2020 and September 2021), overlapping the first and second waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. The survey was conducted through telephone interviews among Bangladeshi older adults aged 60 years and above. The prevalence of hypertension was measured by asking a question about whether a doctor or health professional told the participants that they have hypertension or high blood pressure and/or whether they are currently using medication to control it. We also collected information on the socio-economic characteristics of the participants, their cognitive ability, and their COVID-19-related attributes. A total of 2077 older adults with a mean age of 66.7 ± 6.4 years participated in the study. The samples were randomly selected on two successive occasions from a pre-established registry developed by the ARCED Foundation. Thus, the sample in the 2021-survey (round two; n = 1045) was not the same as that in the 2020-survey (round one; n = 1031) but both were drawn from the same population. The findings revealed that the prevalence of hypertension significantly increased across the two periods (43.7% versus 56.3%; p = 0.006). The odds of hypertension were 1.34 times more likely in round two than in the round one cohort (AOR 1.34, 95% CI 1.06-1.70). We also found that having formal schooling, poorer memory or concentration, and having had received COVID-19 information were all associated with an increased risk of hypertension in both rounds (p < 0.05). The findings of the present study suggest providing immediate support to ensure proper screening, control, and treatment of hypertension among older adults in Bangladesh.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Humans , Aged , Middle Aged , Prevalence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Self Report , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/drug therapy , Bangladesh/epidemiology
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(10): e2231633, 2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2059196

ABSTRACT

Importance: Older Syrian refugees have a high burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and economic vulnerability. Objectives: To develop and internally validate a predictive model to estimate inability to manage NCDs in older Syrian refugees, and to describe barriers to NCD medication adherence. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nested prognostic cross-sectional study was conducted through telephone surveys between September 2020 and January 2021. All households in Lebanon with Syrian refugees aged 50 years or older and who received humanitarian assistance from a nongovernmental organization were invited to participate. Refugees who self-reported having chronic respiratory disease (CRD), diabetes, history of cardiovascular disease (CVD), or hypertension were included in the analysis. Data were analyzed from November 2021 to March 2022. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was self-reported inability to manage any NCD (including CRD, CVD, diabetes, or hypertension). Predictors of inability to manage any NCD were assessed using logistic regression models. The model was internally validated using bootstrapping techniques, which gave an estimate of optimism. The optimism-adjusted discrimination is presented using the C statistic, and calibration of the model is presented using calibration slope (C slope). Results: Of 3322 older Syrian refugees, 1893 individuals (median [IQR] age, 59 [54-65] years; 1089 [57.5%] women) reported having at least 1 NCD, among whom 351 (10.6% overall; 18.6% of those with ≥1 NCD) had CRD, 781 (23.7% overall; 41.4% of those with ≥1 NCD) had diabetes, 794 (24.1% overall; 42.2% of those with ≥1 NCD) had history of CVD, and 1388 (42.3% overall; 73.6% of those with ≥1 NCD) had hypertension. Among individuals with NCDs, 387 participants (20.4%) were unable to manage at least 1 of their NCDs. Predictors for inability to manage NCDs were age, nonreceipt of cash assistance, household water insecurity, household food insecurity, and having multiple chronic diseases, with an adjusted C statistic of 0.650 (95% CI, 0.620-0.676) and C slope of 0.871 (95% CI, 0.729-1.023). The prevalence of nonadherence to medication was 9.2%, and the main reasons for nonadherence were unaffordability of medication (40.8%; 95% CI, 33.4%-48.5%) and the belief that they no longer required the medication after feeling better (22.4%; 95% CI, 16.4%-29.3%). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, the predictors of inability to manage NCDs among older Syrian refugees in Lebanon were mainly related to financial barriers. Context-appropriate assistance is required to overcome financial barriers and enable equitable access to medication and health care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension , Noncommunicable Diseases , Refugees , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Female , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Lebanon/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Syria/epidemiology
7.
BMJ Open ; 12(10): e064284, 2022 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053221

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess factors associated with poor medication adherence during the COVID-19 pandemic among hypertensive patients visiting public hospitals in Eastern Ethiopia. SETTING: Hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Harari regional state and Dire Dawa Administration from 1 January to 30 February 2022. Both settings are found in Eastern Ethiopia. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 402 adult hypertensive patients who visited the chronic diseases clinic for follow-up were included in the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome measure was poor medication adherence during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: The level of poor antihypetensive medication adherence was 63% (95% CI 48.1 to 67.9). Patients who had no formal education (adjusted OR (AOR)=1.56, 95% CI 1.03 to 4.30), existing comorbid conditions (AOR=1.98, 95% CI 1.35 to 4.35), self-funded for medication cost (AOR=2.05, 95% CI 1.34 to 4.73), poor knowledge about hypertension (HTN) and its treatment (AOR=2.67, 95% CI 1.45 to 3.99), poor patient-physician relationship (AOR=1.22, 95% CI 1.02 to 4.34) and unavailability of medication (AOR=5.05, 95% CI 2.78 to 12.04) showed significant association with poor medication adherence during the pandemic of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The level of poor antihypertensive medication adherence was high in this study. No formal education, comorbidity, self-funded medication cost, poor knowledge about HTN and its treatment, poor patient-physician relationship, and unavailability of medication during the COVID-19 pandemic were factors significantly associated with poor adherence to antihypertensive medication. All stakeholders should take into account and create strategies to reduce the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on medication adherence of chronic diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Adult , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Medication Adherence , Pandemics
8.
Cardiol J ; 29(5): 730-738, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2040289

ABSTRACT

Hypertension and lipid disorders are two of the main cardiovascular risk factors. Both risk factors - if detected early enough - can be controlled and treated with modern, effective drugs, devoid of significant side effects, available in four countries as different as Italy, Spain, Poland, and Uzbekistan. The aim herein, was to develop this TIMES TO ACT consensus to raise the awareness of the available options of the modern and intensified dyslipidemia and arterial hypertension treatments. The subsequent paragraphs involves consensus and discussion of the deleterious effects of COVID-19 in the cardiovascular field, the high prevalence of hypertension and lipid disorders in our countries and the most important reasons for poor control of these two factors. Subsequently proposed, are currently the most efficient and safe therapeutic options in treating dyslipidemia and arterial hypertension, focusing on the benefits of single-pill combination (SPCs) in both conditions. An accelerated algorithm is proposed to start the treatment with a PCSK9 inhibitor, if the target low-density-lipoprotein values have not been reached. As most patients with hypertension and lipid disorders present with multiple comorbidities, discussed are the possibilities of using new SPCs, combining modern drugs from different therapeutic groups, which mode of action does not confirm the "class effect". We believe our consensus strongly advocates the need to search for patients with cardiovascular risk factors and intensify their lipid-lowering and antihypertensive treatment based on SPCs will improve the control of these two basic cardiovascular risk factors in Italy, Spain, Poland and Uzbekistan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Dyslipidemias , Hypertension , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Dyslipidemias/diagnosis , Dyslipidemias/drug therapy , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Lipids , Lipoproteins , Poland , Proprotein Convertase 9 , Risk Factors
9.
PLoS Med ; 19(8): e1004079, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039246

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The influence of urbanicity on hypertension prevalence remains poorly understood. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the difference in hypertension prevalence between urban and rural areas in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), where the most pronounced urbanisation is underway. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Embase, from 01/01/1990 to 10/03/2022. We included population-based studies with ≥400 participants 15 years and older, selected by using a valid sampling technique, from LMICs that reported the urban-rural difference in hypertension prevalence using similar blood pressure measurements. We excluded abstracts, reviews, non-English studies, and those with exclusively self-reported hypertension prevalence. Study selection, quality assessment, and data extraction were performed by 2 independent reviewers following a standardised protocol. Our primary outcome was the urban minus rural prevalence of hypertension. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure as ≥90 mm Hg and could include use of antihypertensive medication, self-reported diagnosis, or both. We investigated heterogeneity using study-level and socioeconomic country-level indicators. We conducted meta-analysis and meta-regression using random-effects models. This systematic review and meta-analysis has been registered with PROSPERO (CRD42018091671). We included 299 surveys from 66 LMICs, including 19,770,946 participants (mean age 45.4 ± SD = 9 years, 53.0% females and 63.1% from rural areas). The pooled prevalence of hypertension was 30.5% (95% CI, 28.9, 32.0) in urban areas and 27.9% (95% CI, 26.3, 29.6) in rural areas, resulting in a pooled urban-rural difference of 2.45% (95% CI, 1.57, 3.33, I-square: 99.71%, tau-square: 0.00524, Pheterogeneity < 0.001). Hypertension prevalence increased over time and the rate of change was greater in rural compared to urban areas, resulting in a pooled urban-rural difference of 5.75% (95% CI, 4.02, 7.48) in the period 1990 to 2004 and 1.38% (95% CI, 0.40, 2.37) in the period 2005 to 2020, p < 0.001 for time period. We observed substantial heterogeneity in the urban-rural difference of hypertension, which was partially explained by urban-rural definition, probably high risk of bias in sampling, country income status, region, and socioeconomic indicators. The urban-rural difference was 5.67% (95% CI, 4.22, 7.13) in low, 2.74% (95% CI, 1.41, 4.07) in lower-middle and -1.22% (95% CI, -2.73, 0.28) in upper-middle-income countries in the period 1990 to 2020, p < 0.001 for country income. The urban-rural difference was highest for South Asia (7.50%, 95% CI, 5.73, 9.26), followed by sub-Saharan Africa (4.24%, 95% CI, 2.62, 5.86) and reversed for Europe and Central Asia (-6.04%, 95% CI, -9.06, -3.01), in the period 1990 to 2020, p < 0.001 for region. Finally, the urban-rural difference in hypertension prevalence decreased nonlinearly with improvements in Human Development Index and infant mortality rate. Limitations included lack of data available from all LMICs and variability in urban and rural definitions in the literature. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of hypertension in LMICs increased between 1990 and 2020 in both urban and rural areas, but with a stronger trend in rural areas. The urban minus rural hypertension difference decreased with time, and with country-level socioeconomic development. Focused action, particularly in rural areas, is needed to tackle the burden of hypertension in LMICs.


Subject(s)
Developing Countries , Hypertension , Blood Pressure , Female , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Rural Population
10.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604913, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023041

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Determine the changes in clinical, pharmacological and healthcare resource use parameters, between the 6 months prior to the lockdown and the 6 months following its end, in a population with hypertension who did not have a diagnosis of COVID-19. Methods: Real world data observational study of 245,979 persons aged >16 years with hypertension in Aragon (Spain). Clinical (systolic-diastolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), blood creatinine, cholesterol, triglycerides and anthropometric measures); pharmacological (diuretics, calcium channel antagonists, and ACE inhibitors); and utilization of healthcare resources were considered. We performed the Student's T-test for matched samples (quantitative) and the Chi-squared test (qualitative) to analyze differences between periods. Results: SBP, DBP, parameters of renal function and triglycerides displayed a significant, albeit clinically irrelevant, worsening in women. In men only DBP and eGFR showed a worsening, although to a lesser extent than in women. Certain antihypertensive drugs and health-resource utilization remained below pre-pandemic levels across the 6 months post-lockdown. Conclusion: Changes in lifestyles, along with difficulties in access to routine care has not substantially compromised the health and quality of life of patients with hypertension.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Quality of Life , Sex Characteristics , Triglycerides
11.
Hypertension ; 79(11): 2601-2610, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2020594

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases including arterial hypertension are common comorbidities among patients hospitalized due to COVID-19. We assessed the influence of preexisting hypertension and its pharmacological treatment on in-hospital mortality in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS: We studied all consecutive patients who were admitted to the University Hospital in Krakow, Poland, due to COVID-19 between March 2020 and May 2021. Data of 5191 patients (mean age 61.9±16.7 years, 45.2% female) were analyzed. RESULTS: The median hospitalization time was 14 days, and the mortality rate was 18.4%. About a quarter of patients had an established cardiovascular disease including coronary artery disease (16.6%) or stroke (7.6%). Patients with hypertension (58.3%) were older and had more comorbidities than patients without hypertension. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, age above median (64 years), male gender, history of heart failure or chronic kidney disease, and higher C-reactive protein level, but not preexisting hypertension, were independent risk factors for in-hospital death in the whole study group. Patients with hypertension already treated (n=1723) with any first-line antihypertensive drug (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, or thiazide/thiazide-like diuretics) had a significantly lower risk of in-hospital death (odds ratio, 0.25 [95% CI, 0.2-0.3]; P<0.001) compared to nontreated hypertensives (n=1305). CONCLUSIONS: Although the diagnosis of preexisting hypertension per se had no significant impact on in-hospital mortality among patients with COVID-19, treatment with any first-line blood pressure-lowering drug had a profound beneficial effect on survival in patients with hypertension. These data support the need for antihypertensive pharmacological treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Hypertension , Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Pandemics , Hospital Mortality , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/chemically induced , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Thiazides/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Hospitalization
12.
Hypertension ; 79(9): 1971-1980, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009244

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data indicate that the proportion of US adults with hypertension that had controlled blood pressure (BP) declined from 2013 to 2014 through 2017 to 2018. We analyzed data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2012, 2013 to 2016, and 2017 to 2020 to confirm this finding. METHODS: Hypertension was defined as systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg or antihypertensive medication use. BP control among those with hypertension was defined as systolic BP <140 mm Hg and diastolic BP <90 mm Hg. RESULTS: The age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension was 31.5% (95% CI, 30.3%-32.8%), 32.0% (95% CI, 30.6%-33.3%), and 32.9% (95% CI, 31.0%-34.7%) in 2009 to 2012, 2013 to 2016, and 2017 to 2020, respectively (P trend=0.218). The age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension increased among non-Hispanic Asian adults from 27.0% in 2011 to 2012 to 33.5% in 2017 to 2020 (P trend=0.003). Among Hispanic adults, the age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension increased from 29.4% in 2009 to 2012 to 33.2% in 2017 to 2020 (P trend=0.029). In 2009 to 2012, 2013 to 2016, and 2017 to 2020, 52.8% (95% CI, 50.0%-55.7%), 51.3% (95% CI, 47.9%-54.6%), and 48.2% (95% CI, 45.7%-50.8%) of US adults with hypertension had controlled BP (P trend=0.034). Among US adults taking antihypertensive medication, 69.9% (95% CI, 67.8%-72.0%), 69.3% (95% CI, 66.6%-71.9%), and 67.7% (95% CI, 65.2%-70.3%) had controlled BP in 2009 to 2012, 2013 to 2016, and 2017 to 2020, respectively (P trend=0.189). Among all US adults with hypertension and those taking antihypertensive medication, a decline in BP control between 2009 to 2012 and 2017 to 2020 occurred among those ≥75 years, women, and non-Hispanic black adults. CONCLUSIONS: These data confirm that the proportion of US adults with hypertension who have controlled BP has declined.


Subject(s)
Antihypertensive Agents , Hypertension , Adult , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Pressure , Female , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Nutrition Surveys , Prevalence
13.
Cardiovasc Ther ; 2022: 6006127, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009237

ABSTRACT

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is one of the most common and serious sleep-related breathing disorders with a high prevalence among patients with cardiovascular (CV) diseases. Despite its widespread presence, OSA remains severely undiagnosed and untreated. CV mortality and morbidity are significantly increased in the presence of OSA as it is associated with an increased risk of resistant hypertension, heart failure, arrhythmias, and coronary artery disease. Evaluation and treatment of OSA should focus on recognizing patients at risk of developing OSA. The use of screening questionnaires should be routine, but a formal polysomnography sleep study is fundamental in establishing and classifying OSA. Recognition of OSA patients will allow for the institution of appropriate therapy that should alleviate OSA-related symptoms with the intent of decreasing adverse CV risk. In this review, we focus on the impact OSA has on CV disease and evaluate contemporary OSA treatments. Our goal is to heighten awareness among CV practitioners.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Heart Failure , Hypertension , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Polysomnography/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology
14.
J Hypertens ; 40(12): 2323-2336, 2022 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992376

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypertension and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs)/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have been reported to be associated with the prognosis of COVID-19, but the findings remain controversial. Here, we conducted a systematic review to summarize the current evidence. METHODS: We retrieved all the studies by MEDLINE via PubMed, CENTRAL, and Embase using the MeSH terms until 30 April 2021. A fixed or random effect model was applied to calculate pooled adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Interactive analysis was performed to identify the interaction effect of hypertension and age on in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: In total, 86 articles with 18 775 387 COVID-19 patients from 18 countries were included in this study. The pooled analysis showed that the COVID-19 patients with hypertension had increased risks of in-hospital mortality and other adverse outcomes, compared with those without hypertension, with an AOR (95% CI) of 1.36 (1.28-1.45) and 1.32 (1.24-1.41), respectively. The results were mostly repeated in countries with more than three independent studies. Furthermore, the effect of hypertension on in-hospital mortality is more evident in younger and older COVID-19 patients than in 60-69-year-old patients. ACEI/ARBs did not significantly affect the mortality and adverse outcomes of COVID-19 patients, compared with those receiving other antihypertensive treatments. CONCLUSION: Hypertension is significantly associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality and adverse outcomes in COVID-19. The effect of hypertension on in-hospital mortality among consecutive age groups followed a U-shaped curve. ACEI/ARB treatments do not increase in-hospital mortality and other poor outcomes of COVID-19 patients with hypertension.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Hypertension/drug therapy , Prognosis
15.
J Hypertens ; 40(9): 1702-1712, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1985146

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Home blood pressure (BP) telemonitoring combined with case management leads to BP reductions in individuals with hypertension. However, its benefits are less clear in older (age ≥ 65 years) adults. METHODS: Twelve-month, open-label, randomized trial of community-dwelling older adults comparing the combination of home BP telemonitoring (HBPM) and pharmacist-led case management, vs. enhanced usual care with HBPM alone. The primary outcome was the proportion achieving systolic BP targets on 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). Changes in HBPM were also examined. Logistic and linear regressions were used for analyses, adjusted for baseline BP. RESULTS: Enrollment was stopped early due to coronavirus disease 2019. Participants randomized to intervention (n = 61) and control (n = 59) groups were mostly female (77%), with mean age 79.5 years. The adjusted odds ratio for ABPM BP target achievement was 1.48 (95% confidence interval 0.87-2.52, P = 0.15). At 12 months, the mean difference in BP changes between intervention and control groups was -1.6/-1.1 for ABPM (P-value 0.26 for systolic BP and 0.10 for diastolic BP), and -4.9/-3.1 for HBPM (P-value 0.04 for systolic BP and 0.01 for diastolic BP), favoring the intervention. Intervention group participants had hypotension (systolic BP < 110) more frequently (21% vs. 5%, P = 0.009), but no differences in orthostatic symptoms, syncope, non-mechanical falls, or emergency department visits. CONCLUSIONS: Home BP telemonitoring and pharmacist case management did not improve achievement of target range ambulatory BP, but did reduce home BP. It did not result in major adverse consequences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Aged , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Pressure/physiology , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Case Management , Female , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Independent Living , Male
16.
Curr Opin Cardiol ; 37(5): 419-423, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973297

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) mostly uses the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) as cellular receptor for entering the host cells. Some, but not all, animal studies have shown that renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors can increase ACE-2 expression. On that premise, it was hypothesized that these agents could make it more likely to develop coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). On the other hand, there was also evidence that being on these agents could lessen the severity of the lung injury in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. Herein, we review the available evidence on the role of RAAS inhibitors on SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 development. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent randomized controlled trials demonstrate that RAAS blockade or withdrawal does not influence the severity of COVID-19 in patients who are already on these medications. Currently, there is no evidence to support stopping RAAS inhibitors in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Several questions still need to be addressed. Ongoing studies are currently evaluating the de novo use of RAAS inhibitors in patients with COVID-19. Another area that needs to be investigated is whether or not using these medications increase the risk of infection. SUMMARY: The wealth of evidence indicates that ACE inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blocker administration has no harmful effects on hospitalizations and severity of COVID-19 in patients already on these medications and might even reduce mortality among hypertensive patients diagnosed with COVID-19. More evidence and data need to be collected, and at this time, these agents should not be discontinued.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Molecules ; 27(15)2022 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969391

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) used in the treatment of hypertension and potentially in SARS-CoV-2 infection exhibit inverse agonist effects at angiotensin AR1 receptors, suggesting the receptor may have evolved to accommodate naturally occurring angiotensin 'antipeptides'. Screening of the human genome has identified a peptide (EGVYVHPV) encoded by mRNA, complementary to that encoding ANG II itself, which is an inverse agonist. Thus, opposite strands of DNA encode peptides with opposite effects at AR1 receptors. Agonism and inverse agonism at AR1 receptors can be explained by a receptor 'switching' between an activated state invoking receptor dimerization/G protein coupling and an inverse agonist state mediated by an alternative/second messenger that is slow to reverse. Both receptor states appear to be driven by the formation of the ANG II charge-relay system involving TyrOH-His/imidazole-Carboxylate (analogous to serine proteases). In this system, tyrosinate species formed are essential for activating AT1 and AT2 receptors. ANGII is also known to bind to the zinc-coordinated metalloprotease angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) used by the COVID-19 virus to enter cells. Here we report in silico results demonstrating the binding of a new class of anionic biphenyl-tetrazole sartans ('Bisartans') to the active site zinc atom of the endopeptidase Neprilysin (NEP) involved in regulating hypertension, by modulating humoral levels of beneficial vasoactive peptides in the RAS such as vasodilator angiotensin (1-7). In vivo and modeling evidence further suggest Bisartans can inhibit ANG II-induced pulmonary edema and may be useful in combatting SARS-CoV-2 infection by inhibiting ACE2-mediated viral entry to cells.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Neprilysin/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Mas , Receptors, Angiotensin/metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2 , Zinc/pharmacology
18.
Crit Care Med ; 50(10): e744-e758, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961176

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the association of prior use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASIs) with mortality and outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: Multicenter, international COVID-19 registry. SUBJECTS: Adult hospitalized COVID-19 patients on antihypertensive agents (AHAs) prior to admission, admitted from March 31, 2020, to March 10, 2021. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Data were compared between three groups: patients on RAASIs only, other AHAs only, and those on both medications. Multivariable logistic and linear regressions were performed after controlling for prehospitalization characteristics to estimate the effect of RAASIs on mortality and other outcomes during hospitalization. Of 26,652 patients, 7,975 patients were on AHAs prior to hospitalization. Of these, 1,542 patients (19.3%) were on RAASIs only, 3,765 patients (47.2%) were on other AHAs only, and 2,668 (33.5%) patients were on both medications. Compared with those taking other AHAs only, patients on RAASIs only were younger (mean age 63.3 vs 66.9 yr; p < 0.0001), more often male (58.2% vs 52.4%; p = 0.0001) and more often White (55.1% vs 47.2%; p < 0.0001). After adjusting for age, gender, race, location, and comorbidities, patients on combination of RAASIs and other AHAs had higher in-hospital mortality than those on RAASIs only (odds ratio [OR] = 1.28; 95% CI [1.19-1.38]; p < 0.0001) and higher mortality than those on other AHAs only (OR = 1.09; 95% CI [1.03-1.15]; p = 0.0017). Patients on RAASIs only had lower mortality than those on other AHAs only (OR = 0.87; 95% CI [0.81-0.94]; p = 0.0003). Patients on ACEIs only had higher mortality compared with those on ARBs only (OR = 1.37; 95% CI [1.20-1.56]; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients hospitalized for COVID-19 who were taking AHAs, prior use of a combination of RAASIs and other AHAs was associated with higher in-hospital mortality than the use of RAASIs alone. When compared with ARBs, ACEIs were associated with significantly higher mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Adult , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Renin-Angiotensin System , Retrospective Studies
19.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(11): e025289, 2022 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1950539

ABSTRACT

Background Renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitor-COVID-19 studies, observational in design, appear to use biased methods that can distort the interaction between RAAS inhibitor use and COVID-19 risk. This study assessed the extent of bias in that research and reevaluated RAAS inhibitor-COVID-19 associations in studies without critical risk of bias. Methods and Results Searches were performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL databases (December 1, 2019 to October 21, 2021) identifying studies that compared the risk of infection and/or severe COVID-19 outcomes between those using or not using RAAS inhibitors (ie, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II type-I receptor blockers). Weighted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% CIs were extracted and pooled in fixed-effects meta-analyses, only from studies without critical risk of bias that assessed severe COVID-19 outcomes. Of 169 relevant studies, 164 had critical risks of bias and were excluded. Ultimately, only two studies presented data relevant to the meta-analysis. In 1 351 633 people with uncomplicated hypertension using a RAAS inhibitor, calcium channel blocker, or thiazide diuretic in monotherapy, the risk of hospitalization (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor: HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.66-0.87; P<0.001; angiotensin II type-I receptor blockers: HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.77-0.97; P=0.015) and intubation or death (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor: HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.48-0.85; P=0.002; angiotensin II type-I receptor blockers: HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.58-0.95; P=0.019) with COVID-19 was lower in those using a RAAS inhibitor. However, these protective effects are probably not clinically relevant. Conclusions This study reveals the critical risk of bias that exists across almost an entire body of COVID-19 research, raising an important question: Were research methods and/or peer-review processes temporarily weakened during the surge of COVID-19 research or is this lack of rigor a systemic problem that also exists outside pandemic-based research? Registration URL: www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/; Unique identifier: CRD42021237859.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Aldosterone , Angiotensin II/pharmacology , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/pharmacology , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Renin , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Hipertens Riesgo Vasc ; 39(3): 121-127, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936480

ABSTRACT

Hypertension (HYP) is the first cause of death and disability worldwide. In Spain, one in 3 adults was hypertensive in 2010 (62% in those >65 years in 2017). Despite improvement in HYP management over time, only half of treated hypertensive patients are adequately controlled, which translates in 30,000 annual cardiovascular deaths attributable to HYP. Among modifiable determinants of lack of blood pressure (BP) control in Spain are: (a) the white-coat phenomenon (accounting for 20-50% of apparent lack of control) due to not using ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM, use ≈20%) or self-measurement of home BP (HBPM, use ≈60%) for confirming HYP diagnosis; (b) insufficient patients adherence to BP-lowering lifestyles (e.g., only 40% of hypertensive patients have a sodium intake <2.4g/day, or follow a weight reduction advice), and (c) use of drug monotherapy (≈50% currently), usually insufficient to achieve an optimal control. It is necessary to implement strategies to monitor the evolution of the proportion of subjects with HYP with reasonable national update, to promote population's knowledge of their BP figures and of other cardiovascular risk factors, to improve the degree of HYP control and vascular risk in Spain.


Subject(s)
Hypertension , Adult , Blood Pressure , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL