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2.
Drugs ; 82(1): 43-54, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588657

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) use and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity and outcomes in US veterans. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively examined 27,556 adult US veterans who tested positive for COVID-19 between March to November 2020. Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models using propensity score (PS) for weight, adjustment, and matching were used to examine the odds of an event within 60 days following a COVID-19-positive case date and time to death, respectively, according to ACEI and/or ARB prescription within 6 months prior to the COVID-19-positive case date. RESULTS: The overlap PS weighted logistic regression model showed lower odds of an intensive care unit (ICU) admission (odds ratio [OR] 95% CI 0.77, 0.61-0.98) and death within 60 days (0.87, 0.79-0.97) with an ACEI or ARB prescription. Veterans with an ARB-only prescription also had lower odds of an ICU admission (0.64, 0.44-0.92). The overlap PS weighted model similarly showed a lower risk of time to all-cause mortality in veterans with an ACEI or ARB prescription (HR [95% CI]: 0.87, 0.79-0.97) and an ARB only prescription (0.78, 0.67-0.91). Veterans with an ACEI prescription had higher odds of experiencing a septic event within 60 days after the COVID-19-positive case date (1.22, 1.02-1.46). CONCLUSION: In this study of a national cohort of US veterans, we found that the use of an ACEI/ARB in patients with COVID-19 was not associated with increased mortality and other worse outcomes. Future studies should examine underlying pathways and further confirm the relationship of ACEI prescription with sepsis.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/epidemiology , Veterans
3.
J Hum Hypertens ; 35(10): 828-836, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575511

ABSTRACT

Concern has arisen about the role played in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs). This study was designed to assess the practice behaviors of physicians toward hypertension treatment with ACE-i or ARBs during the COVID-19 pandemic. A self-administered survey questionnaire consisting of 26 questions about current hypertension treatment with ACE-i/ ARBs was applied to cardiologists, internists, and family physicians in central and western Turkey, between 01 and 19 May 2020. A total of 460 physicians were approached, and 220 (47.8%) participated in the study. Of the total respondents, 78.7% reported that they had not changed their antihypertensive medication prescribing pattern, 8.6% of clinicians had changed ACE-i/ ARBs medicine of patients during the COVID-19 pandemic and 12.7% of them were undecided. The median (±interquartile range) score indicating general reliance level of physicians in ACE-i/ARBs therapy was 8 ± 4 (range, 1-10). In multiple comparison analyses, the general reliance level in ACE-i/ARBs, reliance level when starting a new ACEi/ARBs and changing behavior in heart failure patients were significantly different with regard to the specialties (p:0.02, p:0.009, p:0.005 respectively). Although most of the physicians found the publications about ACE-i/ ARBs during the COVID-19 pandemic untrustworthy, there were variable levels of knowledge and reliance among different physicians and specialty groups. In general, the ACE-i/ ARBs prescribing habits were not affected by safety concerns during the COVID-19 pandemic in Turkey.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Attitude , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Pandemics , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 82, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574806

ABSTRACT

Background: Hypertension is the leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease in India, but less than 10% of the estimated people with hypertension have blood pressure under control. The India Hypertension Control Initiative (IHCI) was implemented to strengthen hypertension management and control in public sector health facilities. Since late March 2020, lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic limited healthcare access and disrupted the provision of essential health services. IHCI quickly implemented adaptive interventions to improve access to medications. Objectives: To estimate the availability of antihypertensive drugs in peripheral public sector facilities during the lockdown and the proportion of patients who received drugs through community drug distribution, i.e., through Health and Wellness Centers (HWCs)/Sub-Centers (SCs), the most peripheral public sector health facilities for primary care, and home delivery. Methods: We collected data from 29 IHCI districts of 5 states (Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, and Telangana) during April-May 2020. The population included individuals diagnosed with hypertension and enrolled under IHCI in all public sector primary care health facilities. We contacted a convenience sample of more than one-third of the functional HWC/SC and analyzed the proportion of facilities and patients who received drugs. We also contacted a convenience sample of patients telephonically to estimate their self-reported availability of drugs. Conclusion: Of the 4245 HWC/SC, more than one-third were contacted telephonically, and 85-88% had received antihypertensive medications for community-level distribution. Among 721,675 patients registered until March 2020, 38.4% had received drug refills through HWC/SC or home delivery by frontline workers during the lockdown. We demonstrated the feasibility of community-level drug distribution for patients with hypertension during the COVID-19 lockdown in India. The adaptive strategy of community-based drug distribution through HWC/SC and home delivery appears feasible and may help improve access to hypertension care during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Communicable Disease Control , Continuity of Patient Care , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , India/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Ann Saudi Med ; 41(5): 268-273, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551771

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are widely used for the treatment of hypertension (HT). Whether the use of these drugs increases the infectivity of novel coronavirus and results in an additional risk for morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 is a matter of interest. OBJECTIVES: Assess the effect of ACEI/ARBs compared with other hypertensives on the clinical course and outcome in COVID-19 pneumonia. DESIGN: Retrospective. SETTINGS: Tertiary care hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We collected data on adult inpatients with COVID-19 pneumonia using ACEI/ARBs versus other antihypertensives between 15 March 2020, and 15 February 2021. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Severity, clinical course, mortality, and time to PCR negativity between patients using ACEI/ARBs and other antihypertensives. SAMPLE SIZE: 435 RESULTS: ACEI/ARBs were used by 203 patients (46.6%) (median age: 71 [41-94] years), while 232 patients (53.4%) were using other antihypertensives (median age: 69 [22-93] years, P=.645 vs age of ACEI/ARB users). There were no statistically significant differences between the ACEI/ARBs users and non-users in the number of patients admitted to intensive care (65 cases [32%] vs. 74 cases [31.9%], P=.978), the median duration of stay in hospital (8 [1-54] days vs.7 [1-55] days, P=.806) the median duration of ICU stay (8 [1-40] days vs. 6 [1-25] days), and the mortality rate (48 cases [23.6%] vs. 61 [26.3%], P=.525). While the median days before transfer to the ICU was shorter in ACE/ARBI non-users (2 [1-15] days vs. 3 [1-21] days, P=.02), the difference was not important clinically. The median time to PCR negativity was similar in ACEI/ARBs users and non-users (13 [7-34] days for users and 13 [5-45] days for non-users), (P=.083). CONCLUSIONS: ACEI/ARB use is probably unrelated to poor prognosis in COVID-19 pneumonia inpatients. ACEI/ARBs did not prolong the time to PCR negativity. We conclude that using ACEI/ARBs probably does not increase the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2. LIMITATIONS: Pharmacological therapies were not discussed in detail. The use of corticosteroids may affect the time to PCR negativity. We could not analyze the effect of obesity because of a lack of data. CONFLICT OF INTEREST: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Adult , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Antihypertensive Agents , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 34(6): 1071-1073, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515527

ABSTRACT

This issue of the JABFM features research on a broad array of clinical topics. The topics of 5 articles involve controlled substances, including a sobering article on the risks of amphetamines in older adults. An excellent quick reference guide for managing common COVID-19 symptoms is presented. Two other articles consider hypertension treatment in primary care, demonstrating that treating blood pressure is anything but straightforward. Several additional clinical topics include mononucleosis, influenza, and the impact of home life on childhood weight and eating habits. A study from Virginia underscores that primary care, as a system, is distressed. A review of the existing literature on "slow medicine" comes to important conclusions. Some health systems are partnering with local resources to practically address such social determinants as food insecurity. Not surprisingly, family physicians are filling gaps in emergency care around the country.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Aged , Child , Controlled Substances , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Physicians, Family , SARS-CoV-2
9.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258684, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480452

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Patients with cardiovascular comorbidities have a significantly increased risk for a critical course of COVID-19. As the SARS-CoV2 virus enters cells via the angiotensin-converting enzyme receptor II (ACE2), drugs which interact with the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) were suspected to influence disease severity. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed 1946 consecutive patients with cardiovascular comorbidities or hypertension enrolled in one of the largest European COVID-19 registries, the Lean European Open Survey on SARS-CoV-2 (LEOSS) registry. Here, we show that angiotensin II receptor blocker intake is associated with decreased mortality in patients with COVID-19 [OR 0.75 (95% CI 0,59-0.96; p = 0.013)]. This effect was mainly driven by patients, who presented in an early phase of COVID-19 at baseline [OR 0,64 (95% CI 0,43-0,96; p = 0.029)]. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a significantly lower incidence of death in patients on an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) (n = 33/318;10,4%) compared to patients using an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) (n = 60/348;17,2%) or patients who received neither an ACE-inhibitor nor an ARB at baseline in the uncomplicated phase (n = 90/466; 19,3%; p<0.034). Patients taking an ARB were significantly less frequently reaching the mortality predicting threshold for leukocytes (p<0.001), neutrophils (p = 0.002) and the inflammatory markers CRP (p = 0.021), procalcitonin (p = 0.001) and IL-6 (p = 0.049). ACE2 expression levels in human lung samples were not altered in patients taking RAAS modulators. CONCLUSION: These data suggest a beneficial effect of ARBs on disease severity in patients with cardiovascular comorbidities and COVID-19, which is linked to dampened systemic inflammatory activity.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Hypertension , Registries , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/mortality , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
10.
Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets ; 20(3): 181-184, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435708

ABSTRACT

Nowadays Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) is increasing mortality all over the world mercilessly. We are learning almost every day about its new symptoms and that it mutates quickly. This disease has tied us up and made us desperate. The death rate from this disease has increased in patients who had pre-existing medical conditions, especially cardiovascular ones, by eliminating the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-2 receptor in the lungs. Also, ACE1 and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) may stimulate ACE2 expression and worse the prognosis. Intravenous infusions of ACEIs and ARBs in experimental animals increase the number of ACE2 receptors. Therefore, it may be one of the reasons that COVID-19 infects the cells of patients treating hypertension. However, most of the congress of cardiology do not recommend to discontinue these anti-hypertensive drugs. Therefore, this brief report evaluates Covid-19 in the view of cardiovascular diseases taking into account current reports and suggests some possible solutions to keep the virus under control.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Age Factors , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Animals , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Thromboembolism/etiology , Thromboembolism/physiopathology
11.
J Hum Hypertens ; 35(9): 818-820, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428784

ABSTRACT

Sarah Bingham, a 45 year old carer for her grandmother who suffered a stroke 4 months ago, feels a buzz on her wrist. It's time for them both to take their medications. Sarah makes dinner and leaves for her evening run. Her smartwatch detects her exit and turns off her TV as advertisements for incentivised private health insurance commence.


Subject(s)
Hypertension , Female , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Middle Aged
15.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: CD008274, 2021 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375589

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: All major guidelines for antihypertensive therapy recommend weight loss. Dietary interventions that aim to reduce body weight might therefore be a useful intervention to reduce blood pressure and adverse cardiovascular events associated with hypertension. OBJECTIVES: Primary objectives To assess the long-term effects of weight-reducing diets in people with hypertension on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular morbidity, and adverse events (including total serious adverse events, withdrawal due to adverse events, and total non-serious adverse events). Secondary objectives To assess the long-term effects of weight-reducing diets in people with hypertension on change from baseline in systolic blood pressure, change from baseline in diastolic blood pressure, and body weight reduction. SEARCH METHODS: For this updated review, the Cochrane Hypertension Information Specialist searched the following databases for randomised controlled trials up to April 2020: the Cochrane Hypertension Specialised Register, CENTRAL (2020, Issue 3), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, and ClinicalTrials.gov. We also contacted authors of relevant papers about further published and unpublished work. The searches had no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of at least 24 weeks' duration that compared weight-reducing dietary interventions to no dietary intervention in adults with primary hypertension. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed risks of bias and extracted data. Where appropriate and in the absence of significant heterogeneity between studies (P > 0.1), we pooled studies using a fixed-effect meta-analysis. In case of moderate or larger heterogeneity as measured by Higgins I2, we used a random-effects model. MAIN RESULTS: This second review update did not reveal any new trials, so the number of included trials remains the same: eight RCTs involving a total of 2100 participants with high blood pressure and a mean age of 45 to 66 years. Mean treatment duration was 6 to 36 months. We judged the risks of bias as unclear or high for all but two trials. No study included mortality as a predefined outcome. One RCT evaluated the effects of dietary weight loss on a combined endpoint consisting of the necessity of reinstating antihypertensive therapy and severe cardiovascular complications. In this RCT, weight-reducing diet lowered the endpoint compared to no diet: hazard ratio 0.70 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57 to 0.87). None of the trials evaluated adverse events as designated in our protocol. The certainty of the evidence was low for a blood pressure reduction in participants assigned to weight-loss diets as compared to controls: systolic blood pressure: mean difference (MD) -4.5 mm Hg (95% CI -7.2 to -1.8 mm Hg) (3 studies, 731 participants), and diastolic blood pressure: MD -3.2 mm Hg (95% CI -4.8 to -1.5 mm Hg) (3 studies, 731 participants). We judged the certainty of the evidence to be high for weight reduction in dietary weight loss groups as compared to controls: MD -4.0 kg (95% CI -4.8 to -3.2) (5 trials, 880 participants). Two trials used withdrawal of antihypertensive medication as their primary outcome. Even though we did not consider this a relevant outcome for our review, the results of these RCTs strengthen the finding of a reduction of blood pressure by dietary weight-loss interventions. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: In this second update, the conclusions remain unchanged, as we found no new trials. In people with primary hypertension, weight-loss diets reduced body weight and blood pressure, but the magnitude of the effects are uncertain due to the small number of participants and studies included in the analyses. Whether weight loss reduces mortality and morbidity is unknown. No useful information on adverse effects was reported in the relevant trials.


Subject(s)
Diet, Reducing/adverse effects , Hypertension/diet therapy , Aged , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Bias , Blood Pressure , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/mortality , Middle Aged , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Weight Loss
16.
Korean J Intern Med ; 36(Suppl 1): S123-S131, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369806

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: There are concerns that the use of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers may increase the risk of being infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or progressing to a severe clinical course after infection. This this study aimed to investigate the influence of RAS blockers on the risk and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study analyzing nationwide claims data of 215,184 adults who underwent SARS-CoV-2 tests in South Korea. The SARS-CoV-2 positive rates and clinical outcomes were evaluated according to the use of RAS blockers in patients with hypertension (n = 64,243). RESULTS: In total, 38,919 patients with hypertension were on RAS blockers. The SARS-CoV-2 positive rates were significantly higher in the RAS blocker group than in the control group after adjustments (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10 to 1.36; p < 0.001), and matching by propensity score (adjusted OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.32; p = 0.017). Among the 1,609 SARS-CoV-2-positive patients with hypertension, the use of RAS blockers was not associated with poor outcomes, such as mortality (adjusted OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.56 to 1.17; p = 0.265), and a composite of admission to the intensive care unit and mortality (adjusted OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.22; p = 0.669). Analysis in the propensity scorematched population showed consistent results. CONCLUSION: In this Korean nationwide claims dataset, the use of RAS blockers was associated with a higher risk to SARS-CoV-2 infection but not with higher mortality or other severe clinical courses.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Hypertension/drug therapy , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Administrative Claims, Healthcare , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Antihypertensive Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
17.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(11): e13582, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365071

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A systematic analysis of concomitant arterial hypertension in COVID-19 patients and the impact of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have not been studied in a large multicentre cohort yet. We conducted a subanalysis from the international HOPE Registry (https://hopeprojectmd.com, NCT04334291) comparing COVID-19 in presence and absence of arterial hypertension. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Out of 5837 COVID-19 patients, 2850 (48.8%) patients had the diagnosis arterial hypertension. 1978/2813 (70.3%) patients were already treated with ACEI or ARBs. The clinical outcome of the present subanalysis included all-cause mortality over 40 days of follow-up. RESULTS: Patients with arterial hypertension suffered significantly more from different complications including respiratory insufficiency (60.8% vs 39.5%), heart failure (9.9% vs 3.1%), acute kidney injury (25.3% vs 7.3%), pneumonia (90.6% vs 86%), sepsis (14.7% vs 7.5%), and bleeding events (3.6% vs 1.6%). The mortality rate was 29.6% in patients with concomitant arterial hypertension and 11.3% without arterial hypertension (P < .001). Invasive and non-invasive respiratory supports were significantly more required in presence of arterial hypertension as compared without it. In the multivariate cox regression analysis, while age≥65, benzodiazepine, antidepressant at admission, elevated LDH or creatinine, respiratory insufficiency and sepsis might be a positive independent predictors of mortality, antiviral drugs, interferon treatment, ACEI or ARBs at discharge or oral anticoagulation at discharge might be an independent negative predictor of the mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The mortality rate and in-hospital complications might be increased in COVID-19 patients with a concomitant history of arterial hypertension. The history of ACEI or ARBs treatments does not seem to impact the outcome of these patients.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Sepsis/epidemiology , Age Factors , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Creatinine/metabolism , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Italy/epidemiology , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Noninvasive Ventilation , Proportional Hazards Models , Registries , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Spain/epidemiology
18.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5390-5395, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363677

ABSTRACT

Hypercoagulability and thrombosis caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are related to the higher mortality rate. Because of limited data on the antiplatelet effect, we aimed to evaluate the impact of aspirin add-on therapy on the outcome of the patients hospitalized due to severe COVID-19. In this cohort study, patients with a confirmed diagnosis of severe COVID-19 admitted to Imam Hossein Medical Center, Tehran, Iran from March 2019 to July 2020 were included. Demographics and related clinical data during their hospitalization were recorded. The mortality rate of the patients was considered as the primary outcome and its association with aspirin use was assessed. Nine hundred and ninety-one patients were included, of that 336 patients (34%) received aspirin during their hospitalization and 655 ones (66%) did not. Comorbidities were more prevalent in the patients who were receiving aspirin. Results from the multivariate COX proportional model demonstrated a significant independent association between aspirin use and reduction in the risk of in-hospital mortality (0.746 [0.560-0.994], p = 0.046). Aspirin use in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 is associated with a significant decrease in mortality rate. Further prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to assess the efficacy and adverse effects of aspirin administration in this population.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/drug therapy , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Coronary Artery Disease/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/mortality , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Drug Combinations , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Iran , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Lung/blood supply , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
19.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(8)2021 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1361973

ABSTRACT

Hydralazine is a commonly prescribed antihypertensive agent. Some of its labelled adverse reactions include lupus-like syndrome, tachycardia, headache and fever. Despite its well-known side effects, little is known about hydralazine's hepatotoxic effects. We report the case of a 54-year-old female patient who was started on hydralazine for hypertension management but later presented with hydralazine-induced liver injury. Her initial presentation consisted of non-specific symptoms and a hepatocellular injury pattern. Liver biopsy revealed hepatic steatosis. Three weeks after discontinuation of hydralazine, the patient's liver enzymes normalised, and her symptoms resolved. Few studies have examined the incidence and mechanism by which hydralazine induces a liver injury pattern. With this case, we review the literature, the pathogenesis involved and the eventual management of hydralazine-induced liver injury. We propose close monitoring of liver enzymes for patients on hydralazine throughout their treatment course.


Subject(s)
Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury, Chronic , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Hypertension , Antihypertensive Agents/adverse effects , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/diagnosis , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury, Chronic/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Hydralazine/adverse effects , Hypertension/drug therapy , Middle Aged
20.
Drugs Aging ; 38(10): 921-930, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1361350

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is ongoing debate about the associations between drug therapies targeting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and adverse outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine the associations between using medications for the cardiovascular system and the risks associated with COVID-19 in middle-aged and older adults. METHODS: A total of 77,221 participants (aged 50-86 years) from UK Biobank were tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. The medications included angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARB), ß-blockers, calcium channel blockers (CCB), statins, and aspirin. COVID-19 outcomes comprised a positive test result and severity of COVID-19 (defined as mild, hospitalization or death). We evaluated the risk among total participants and for sub-groups based on sex. Propensity score matching was performed 1:1 and logistic regression models were used. RESULTS: Among the middle- and older aged participants, no significant associations between any class of medications and the likelihood of COVID-19 infection were observed. ACEI were associated with a higher mortality risk from COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR] 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.32) and CCB were associated with a lower hospitalization risk for COVID-19 (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.79-0.96) among the male patients with COVID-19, while a lower mortality risk from COVID-19 (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.47-0.96) was observed with ARB among the female patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The study suggested sex differences in the risk of death from COVID-19 with the use of ACEI and ARB among middle-aged and older adults. Sex differences in the risk of hospitalization for COVID-19 with the use of CCB was observed as well. It is of clinical importance that clinicians adopt different CVD treatment approaches for female and male patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Antihypertensive Agents/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Characteristics
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