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1.
Hypertension ; 76(5): 1350-1367, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2153223

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is associated with significant morbidity and mortality throughout the world, predominantly due to lung and cardiovascular injury. The virus responsible for COVID-19-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-gains entry into host cells via ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2). ACE2 is a primary enzyme within the key counter-regulatory pathway of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which acts to oppose the actions of Ang (angiotensin) II by generating Ang-(1-7) to reduce inflammation and fibrosis and mitigate end organ damage. As COVID-19 spans multiple organ systems linked to the cardiovascular system, it is imperative to understand clearly how severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 may affect the multifaceted RAS. In addition, recognition of the role of ACE2 and the RAS in COVID-19 has renewed interest in its role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease in general. We provide researchers with a framework of best practices in basic and clinical research to interrogate the RAS using appropriate methodology, especially those who are relatively new to the field. This is crucial, as there are many limitations inherent in investigating the RAS in experimental models and in humans. We discuss sound methodological approaches to quantifying enzyme content and activity (ACE, ACE2), peptides (Ang II, Ang-[1-7]), and receptors (types 1 and 2 Ang II receptors, Mas receptor). Our goal is to ensure appropriate research methodology for investigations of the RAS in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and COVID-19 to ensure optimal rigor and reproducibility and appropriate interpretation of results from these investigations.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Blood Pressure Determination/methods , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/physiopathology , Incidence , Male , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Prognosis , Research Design , Risk Assessment , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology
2.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276222, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140588

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent estimates of hypertension in Panama remain unknown. We aim to describe the variation in prevalence and unawareness of hypertension in two Panamanian provinces using two different cross-sectional population-based studies and to investigate risk factors associated with hypertension unawareness. METHODS: Data were derived from a sub-national study conducted in the provinces of Panama and Colon (PREFREC-2010 [2,733 participants]) and from a nationally representative study (ENSPA-2019), in which we restricted our analyses to the same provinces (4,653 participants). Individuals aged 30-75 years who had (a) self-reported history of hypertension or (b) blood pressure (BP) ≥140/90mmHg or (c) a combination or both were classified as hypertensive. Participants with BP≥140/90mmHg who denied a history of hypertension were considered unaware of the condition. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between risk factors and unawareness, expressed as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). FINDINGS: In 2010, the prevalence and unawareness of hypertension in men were 51.6% (95% CI: 45.7-57.5) and 32.3% (25.4-40.1), respectively, and in women 46.0% (42.1-49.9) and 16.1% (12.6-20.4), respectively. In 2019, the prevalence and unawareness of hypertension in men were 46.5% (42.1-51.0) and 52.3% (45.9-58.6), and in women 42.1% (39.6-44.7) and 33.3% (29.8-37.0). Men (2010 and 2019), age <50 years (2010 and 2019), having no/primary education (2010), and living in a non-urban region (2019) were positively associated with hypertension unawareness, whereas obesity (2010), physical inactivity (2010), family history of hypertension (2019), and BP assessment in the year before study enrollment (2010 and 2019) were inversely associated with hypertension unawareness. INTERPRETATION: Benefits of a decrease in the prevalence of hypertension are being undermined by an increase in hypertension unawareness. Actions should be encouraged to strengthen the implementation of the existing healthcare program for cardiovascular risk factor control.


Subject(s)
Hypertension , Male , Female , Humans , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hypertension/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Blood Pressure , Unconsciousness
3.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277014, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119257

ABSTRACT

Screening, prevention, and management of non-communicable diseases (NCDs, including obesity, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes) is the core function of Integrated Measurement for Early Detection (MIDO), a digital strategy developed by the Carlos Slim Foundation in Mexico. An extension of this strategy, MIDO COVID, was developed to address the need for an integrated plan in primary health care during the COVID-19 pandemic. MIDO COVID facilitates planning, surveillance, testing, and clinical management of SARS-CoV-2 infections and the major NCDs and their pre-disease states, to streamline the continuum of care. MIDO COVID screening was applied in 1063 Carso Group workplaces in 190 municipalities of the 32 Mexican states. Staff were trained to screen healthy workers for NCDs using a questionnaire, anthropomorphic measurements, and blood work; healthy individuals returning to work also received a SARS-CoV-2 antibody test. Between June 26 and December 31, 2020, 58,277 asymptomatic individuals underwent screening. The prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes was 32.1%, 25.7%, and 9.7% respectively. Only 2.2%, 8.8%, and 4.5% of individuals, respectively, were previously aware of their condition. Pre-obesity was identified in 38.6%, pre-hypertension in 17.4%, and prediabetes in 7.5% of the population. Risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection was highest for individuals with multiple NCDs. Many Mexicans are unaware of their health status and potentially increased risk of COVID-19 and serious complications. As a universal strategy implemented regardless of social factors, MIDO COVID promotes equity in access to health care prevention and early stage detection of NCDs; the information gained may help inform decisionmakers regarding prioritising vulnerable populations for immunisation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hypertension , Humans , Public Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Mexico/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Chronic Disease , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/prevention & control , Obesity/epidemiology
4.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276781, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117546

ABSTRACT

Hypertension appears to be one of the commonest comorbidities in COVID-19 patients, although whether hypertensive individuals have a higher risk of severe COVID-19 compared with non-hypertensives is unclear. It is also unclear whether the absolute level of systolic blood pressure, or the type of anti-hypertensive medication is related to this risk. Analyses were conducted using data from the UK Biobank and linked health records. Logistic regression models were fitted to assess the impact of hypertension, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and medications on the risk of severe COVID-19. 16,134 individuals tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus, 22% (n = 3,584) developed severe COVID-19 and 40% (n = 6,517) were hypertensive. Hypertension was associated with 22% higher odds of severe COVID-19 (Odds ratio (OR) 1.22; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12, 1.33), compared with normotension after adjusting for confounding variables. In those taking anti-hypertensive medications, elevated SBP showed a dose-response relationship with severe COVID-19 (150-159mmHg versus 120-129mmHg (OR 1.91; 95% CI 1.44, 2.53), >180+mmHg versus 120-129mmHg (OR 1.93; 95% CI 1.06, 3.51)). SBP <120mmHg was associated with greater odds of severe COVID-19 (OR 1.40; 95% CI 1.11, 1.78). Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-II receptor blockers were not associated with altered risk of severe COVID-19. Hypertension is an important risk factor for COVID-19. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms is warranted in case of more severe strains or other viruses in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Humans , Antihypertensive Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Biological Specimen Banks , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
5.
Nutrients ; 14(22)2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116065

ABSTRACT

Low-income, minority seniors face high rates of hypertension that increase cardiovascular risk. Senior centers offer services, including congregate meals, that can be a valuable platform to reach older adults in underserved communities. We implemented two evidence-based interventions not previously tested in this setting: DASH-aligned congregate meals and Self-Measured Blood Pressure (SMBP), to lower blood pressure (BP) at two senior centers serving low-income, racially diverse communities. The study enrolled congregate meal program participants, provided training and support for SMPB, and nutrition and BP education. DASH-aligned meals delivered 40% (lunch) or 70% (breakfast and lunch) of DASH requirements/day. Primary outcomes were change in BP, and BP control, at Month 1. Implementation data collected included client characteristics, menu fidelity, meal attendance, SMBP adherence, meal satisfaction, input from partner organizations and stakeholders, effort, and food costs. We used the RE-AIM framework to analyze implementation. Study Reach included 94 older, racially diverse participants reflecting neighborhood characteristics. Effectiveness: change in systolic BP at Month 1 trended towards significance (-4 mmHg, p = 0.07); change in SMBP reached significance at Month 6 (-6.9 mmHg, p = 0.004). We leveraged existing community-academic partnerships, leading to Adoption at both target sites. The COVID pandemic interrupted Implementation and Maintenance and may have attenuated BP effectiveness. DASH meals served were largely aligned with planned menus. Meal attendance remained consistent; meal satisfaction was high. Food costs increased by 10%. This RE-AIM analysis highlights the acceptability, feasibility, and fidelity of this DASH/SMBP health intervention to lower BP at senior centers. It encourages future research and offers important lessons for organizations delivering services to older adults and addressing cardiovascular risk among vulnerable populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Humans , Aged , Blood Pressure , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/prevention & control , Meals , Lunch
6.
Syst Rev ; 11(1): 242, 2022 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115718

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the COVID-19 outbreak, preliminary research has shown that some risk-associated conditions increase death and severe complications of the disease, hypertension being one of them. Thus, numerous meta-analyses have been conducted to explore this issue. Therefore, this umbrella review aims to perform a meta-analysis of the meta-analyses to estimate the prevalence and associated risks of hypertension in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched for the published meta-analyses up to January 1, 2022. Google Scholar, citation check, reference check, and Grey literature were also manually searched. A random-effect model approach was used for analysis. RESULTS: The overall death rate was estimated at 12%. Hypertension was present in 25% of the patients as a comorbid disease. The overall RR for death, disease severity, and the possibility of ICU admission were estimated at 1.79 [1.68-1.89 with 95% CI], 1.74 [1.66-1.83 with 95% CI], and 1.91 [1.48-2.34 with 95% CI], respectively. The meta-regression results showed that being "male" significantly increases the risk of disease severity and ICU admission. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that hypertension is a common comorbid disease in hospitalized patients with COVID-19, which significantly increases mortality risk, the severity of the disease, and the probability of ICU admission. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: This study has been registered in PROSPERO (CRD42021231844).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Prevalence , Meta-Analysis as Topic
7.
J Diabetes Res ; 2022: 9652940, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113176

ABSTRACT

Introduction: New onset of diabetes mellitus was noted as the commonest comorbidity in the COVID-19 pandemic, which contributed to a worse prognosis. Existing evidence showed that new-onset diabetes is associated with increased mortality compared to nondiabetic and known diabetic patients in the COVID-19 era. SARS-CoV-2 virus can worsen existing diabetes; at the same time, it can trigger new-onset diabetes that eventually worsens patient outcomes. Thus, this study is aimed at determining the prevalence and factors associated with new onset of diabetes mellitus among COVID-19 patients. Methods: Institution-based retrospective cross-sectional study design was conducted by reviewing 244 patient's records in the Addis Ababa COVID-19 care center. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression were used. During bivariate analysis, variables with p ≤ 0.25 were transferred into multivariate analysis. Adjusted odds ratios to determine the strength and presence of the association with a 95% confidence interval and p value ≤ 0.05 were considered, respectively. Results: The mean age of the study participants was 53.2 years with (SD = 13.35). The study findings showed that 31.1% (CI: 25.4-37.4) of COVID-19 patients had new onset of diabetes mellitus; of those, 11.8% had type 1 and 88.2% had type 2 diabetes. Being male (aOR = 2.9; 95% CI: 1.2, 7.1), family history of hypertension (aOR = 3.7; 95% CI: 1.3, 10.5), obesity (aOR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.01, 8.9), having pulmonary embolism (aOR = 0.2; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.04), and hyperkalemia (aOR = 9.3; 95% CI: 1.8, 47.3) showed statistically significant association with new onset of diabetes mellitus. Conclusion: A significant proportion of COVID-19 patients had been diagnosed with new onset of diabetes mellitus, and new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most common diabetes mellitus type. Being male, obesity, having a pulmonary embolism, family history of hypertension, and hyperkalemia were independently associated with new onset of diabetes mellitus among COVID-19 patients. Therefore, focused interventions need to be strengthened towards the identified factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hyperkalemia , Hypertension , Pulmonary Embolism , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Female , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hyperkalemia/complications , Hyperkalemia/epidemiology , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/complications , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology
8.
Hypertension ; 79(12): 2733-2742, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098093

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic may have negatively affected medical care for and self-management of chronic hypertension. We sought to examine the impact of the pandemic on blood pressure (BP) among individuals with hypertension. METHODS: Using an interrupted time series analysis, we compared the level and trend (slope) of BP outcomes before the public health emergency declaration (prepandemic period: August 2018 through January 2020) versus after the stay-at-home orders (pandemic period: April 2020 through November 2020) among adults with hypertension followed at 3 large health systems (n=137 593). Outcomes include systolic and diastolic BP recorded in electronic health records and the proportion of individuals with BP <140/90 mm Hg. RESULTS: The number of BP measurements substantially dropped early in the pandemic and then gradually increased. During the pandemic period, systolic and diastolic BP increased by 1.79 mm Hg (95% CI, 1.57-2.01; P<0.001) and 1.30 mm Hg (95% CI, 1.18-1.42; P<0.001), respectively, compared with the prepandemic period. Similarly, the proportion of patients with controlled BP decreased by 3.43 percentage points (95% CI, -3.97 to -2.90; P<0.001). A trend showing increasing control in the prepandemic period (+3.19 percentage points per year [95% CI, +2.96 to +3.42]; P<0.001) flattened during the pandemic period (+0.27 percentage points per year [95% CI, -0.81 to -1.37]; P=0.62). CONCLUSIONS: The first 8 months of the pandemic were associated with worsening BP outcomes among individuals with hypertension. Opportunities to ensure ongoing access to health care with telemedicine and home BP monitoring may mitigate adverse impacts on BP control for future disasters/emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Telemedicine , Adult , Humans , Blood Pressure/physiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Time Factors , Hypertension/epidemiology , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory
9.
Acta Clin Croat ; 61(Suppl 1): 23-27, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091289

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of newly verified or worsened existing hypertension in patients who had coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). To be categorized as a COVID-19 patient, a positive reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction test at a single point in time was required. The patients' age, history, laboratory values and antihypertensive therapy of patients were recorded. In one year, 32 of 199 patients studied had either newly verified (15) or worsened existing (17) arterial hypertension. Among those patients, the median time from a verified infection to the onset of symptoms was 3 months. When the patients were divided into groups, 4 were in the acute, 11 in the sub-acute, 8 in the chronic and 9 in the "long COVID" group. Compared to the rest of the study population, patients presenting with arterial hypertension had significantly higher systolic (median 141 mmHg vs 130 mmHg, p<0.001) and diastolic (median 93 mmHg vs 80 mmHg, p<0.001) blood pressure and were significantly younger (median 51 vs 59 years, p 0.032). Arterial hypertension following COVID-19, either newly verified or worsened existing, is a relatively common occurrence (16% of our patient pool), indicating that more effort should be directed at evaluating the blood pressure values of patients following COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Hypertension , Humans , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers , Hypertension/epidemiology , Blood Pressure/physiology
10.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090371

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 severity is determined by cardiometabolic risk factors, which can be further aggravated by chronic immunosuppression in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). We aimed to verify the main risk factors related to hypertension (HTN) that contribute to COVID-19 progression and mortality in that population. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 300 KTRs from March 2020 to August 2020 in a single center. We compared the main outcomes between HTN (n = 225) and non-HTN (n = 75), including admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), development of acute kidney injury (AKI), need for invasive mechanical ventilation or oxygen, and mortality. RESULTS: Of the patients in the study, 57.3% were male, 61.3% were white, the mean age was 52.5 years, and 75% had HTN. Pre-existing HTN was independently associated with higher rates of mortality (32.9%, OR = 1.96, p = 0.036), transfer to the ICU (50.7%, OR = 1.94, p = 0.017), and AKI with hemodialysis (HD) requirement (40.4%, OR = 2.15, p = 0.011). In the hypertensive group, age, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, smoking, glycemic control before admission, C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, lymphocytes, and D-dimer were significantly associated with COVID-19 progression and mortality. Both lower basal and previous estimated glomerular filtration rates posed KTRs with HTN at greater risk for HD requirement. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, the early identification of factors that predict COVID-19 progression and mortality in KTRs affected by COVID-19 contributes to therapeutic decisions, patient flow management, and allocation of resources.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Hypertension , Kidney Transplantation , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Female , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Transplant Recipients , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/etiology , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082136

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to assess the changes in the prevalence and determinants of self-reported hypertension among older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. This repeated cross-sectional study was conducted on two successive occasions (October 2020 and September 2021), overlapping the first and second waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. The survey was conducted through telephone interviews among Bangladeshi older adults aged 60 years and above. The prevalence of hypertension was measured by asking a question about whether a doctor or health professional told the participants that they have hypertension or high blood pressure and/or whether they are currently using medication to control it. We also collected information on the socio-economic characteristics of the participants, their cognitive ability, and their COVID-19-related attributes. A total of 2077 older adults with a mean age of 66.7 ± 6.4 years participated in the study. The samples were randomly selected on two successive occasions from a pre-established registry developed by the ARCED Foundation. Thus, the sample in the 2021-survey (round two; n = 1045) was not the same as that in the 2020-survey (round one; n = 1031) but both were drawn from the same population. The findings revealed that the prevalence of hypertension significantly increased across the two periods (43.7% versus 56.3%; p = 0.006). The odds of hypertension were 1.34 times more likely in round two than in the round one cohort (AOR 1.34, 95% CI 1.06-1.70). We also found that having formal schooling, poorer memory or concentration, and having had received COVID-19 information were all associated with an increased risk of hypertension in both rounds (p < 0.05). The findings of the present study suggest providing immediate support to ensure proper screening, control, and treatment of hypertension among older adults in Bangladesh.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Humans , Aged , Middle Aged , Prevalence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Self Report , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/drug therapy , Bangladesh/epidemiology
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071457

ABSTRACT

As the population recovers from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a subset of individuals is emerging as post-coronavirus disease (post-COVID) patients who experience multifactorial long-term symptoms several weeks after the initial recovery from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The aim of this systematic review is to present the latest scientific reports that evaluate changes in glucose levels, blood pressure readings and lipid profiles after recovery from COVID-19 to verify the hypothesis that new-onset diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension and dyslipidaemia are a possible sequela of a COVID-19 infection. The open access databases PubMed and Google Scholar were searched. Articles investigating patients with residual clinical signs and biochemical alteration indicating diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidaemia at least a month after recovering from COVID-19 were included. It has been shown that a select number of patients were diagnosed with new-onset diabetes, arterial hypertension and dyslipidaemia after COVID-19 infection. Alterations in glucose levels, blood pressure and lipid profiles months after initial infection shows the importance of considering diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension and dyslipidaemia as part of the multifactorial diagnostic criteria post-COVID to better provide evidence-based clinical care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Dyslipidemias , Hypertension , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/etiology , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Dyslipidemias/etiology , Glucose , Lipids
13.
S Afr Med J ; 112(9): 747-752, 2022 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067142

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported comorbid disease, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic cardiac and renal disease, malignancy, HIV, tuberculosis (TB) and obesity, to be associated with COVID­19 mortality. National demographic surveys have reported a high proportion of undiagnosed and untreated comorbid disease in South Africa (SA). OBJECTIVES: To determine the number of individuals with previously undiagnosed HIV, TB and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) among patients hospitalised with COVID­19, and the level of medical control of these chronic diseases. METHODS: We conducted a sentinel surveillance study to collect enhanced data on HIV, TB and NCDs among individuals with COVID­19 admitted to 16 secondary-level public hospitals in six of the nine provinces of SA. Trained surveillance officers approached all patients who met the surveillance case definition for inclusion in the study, and consenting patients were enrolled. The data collection instrument included questions on past medical history to determine the self-reported presence of comorbidities. The results of clinical and laboratory testing introduced as part of routine clinical care for hospitalised COVID­19 patients were collected for the study, to objectively determine the presence of hypertension, diabetes, HIV and TB and the levels of control of diabetes and HIV. RESULTS: On self-reported history, the most prevalent comorbidities were hypertension (n=1 658; 51.5%), diabetes (n=855; 26.6%) and HIV (n=603; 18.7%). The prevalence of self-reported active TB was 3.1%, and that of previous TB 5.5%. There were 1 254 patients admitted with COVID­19 (39.0%) who met the body mass index criteria for obesity. On clinical and laboratory testing, 87 patients were newly diagnosed with HIV, 29 with TB, 215 with diabetes and 40 with hypertension during their COVID­19 admission. There were 151/521 patients living with HIV (29.0%) with a viral load >1 000 copies/mL and 309/570 (54.2%) with a CD4 count <200 cells/µL. Among 901 patients classified as having diabetes, 777 (86.2%) had a glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level ≥6.5%. CONCLUSION: The study revealed a high prevalence of comorbid conditions among individuals with COVID­19 admitted to public hospitals in SA. In addition, a significant number of patients had previously undiagnosed hypertension, diabetes, HIV and active TB, and many and poorly controlled chronic disease, as evidenced by high HbA1c levels in patients with diabetes, and high viral loads and low CD4 levels in patients with HIV. The findings highlight the importance of strengthening health systems and care cascades for chronic disease management, which include prevention, screening for and effectively treating comorbidities, and ensuring secure and innovative supplies of medicines in primary healthcare during the COVID­19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , HIV Infections , Hypertension , Noncommunicable Diseases , Tuberculosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Glycated Hemoglobin A , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , South Africa/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065997

ABSTRACT

This study examined the changes in life-space (LS) mobility and objectively measured movement behavior in older adults with hypertension after receiving the COVID-19 vaccine and their associations with housing type. A total of 32 participants were included in this exploratory longitudinal study with a 1-year follow-up. LS mobility and accelerometer-based physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) were assessed before and ~2 months after receiving COVID-19 vaccination. Participants residing in apartment/row housing showed an increase in LS mobility composite score (ß = 14, p < 0.05). In addition, they showed an increase in light PA on weekdays and the weekend (ß = 3.5%; ß = 6.5%; p < 0.05) and a decrease in SB on weekdays and the weekend (ß = -3.7%; ß = -6.6%; p < 0.05). Furthermore, changes in SB pattern were found (less time spent in bouts of ≥10 and 30 min, more breaks/day and breaks/hour). Significant associations were found between changes in LS mobility composite score and PA (positive association) and SB (negative association) in older adults residing in apartment/row housing (p < 0.05). Older adults with hypertension, particularly those who resided in houses with limited outdoor space (apartment/row housing), showed positive changes in LS mobility and objectively measured movement behavior in a period after receiving the COVID-19 vaccine and characterized by social distancing policies without mobility restrictions when compared with the period of social distancing policies with high mobility restrictions and without vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Accelerometry , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Vaccination
15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 1132399, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064318

ABSTRACT

Background: Studies that show common characteristics among ICU-admitted patients due to COVID-19 are available on the net, but such studies in Saudi Arabia are limited. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study establishing common comorbidities and risk factors among critically ill patients who tested positive for COVID-19 at the National Guard Hospital from March 2, 2020, to March 20, 2021. The data were obtained from the BEST Care System of King Abdulaziz Medical City, computed, and analyzed using SPSS. Results: Three hundred eighty-five COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) were included in this study. The mean age was 60.85 ± 20.46, 60.85% were males, and 39.2% were females. There was statistically significant positive relationship between severity of the symptoms and age (P = 0.002). The mean duration of hospital stay in the sample was 21.85 ± 28.47. More than one-third (37.4%) of cases admitted to the hospital died while about two-thirds of the cases were discharged after complete recovery. Two hundred ninety (75.3%) of the patients who were admitted to the National Guard Health Affairs (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia) had respiratory disease. Two hundred twelve patients (55.1%) had diabetes mellitus, while the number of hypertensive patients was 203 (52.7%). There was a significant positive relation among patients with gastrointestinal tract infection (GIT) risk factors and the severity of the symptoms of COVID-19 (P = 0.000). In addition, there was a strong significant relation between hypertension patients and the severity of the COVID-19 symptoms (P = 0.017). Conclusion: COVID-19 patients who have GIT and hypertension have been found to be at an increased risk of COVID-19 symptom severity. Old age was also found to have an increased risk for COVID-19 symptom severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(10): e2231633, 2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2059196

ABSTRACT

Importance: Older Syrian refugees have a high burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and economic vulnerability. Objectives: To develop and internally validate a predictive model to estimate inability to manage NCDs in older Syrian refugees, and to describe barriers to NCD medication adherence. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nested prognostic cross-sectional study was conducted through telephone surveys between September 2020 and January 2021. All households in Lebanon with Syrian refugees aged 50 years or older and who received humanitarian assistance from a nongovernmental organization were invited to participate. Refugees who self-reported having chronic respiratory disease (CRD), diabetes, history of cardiovascular disease (CVD), or hypertension were included in the analysis. Data were analyzed from November 2021 to March 2022. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was self-reported inability to manage any NCD (including CRD, CVD, diabetes, or hypertension). Predictors of inability to manage any NCD were assessed using logistic regression models. The model was internally validated using bootstrapping techniques, which gave an estimate of optimism. The optimism-adjusted discrimination is presented using the C statistic, and calibration of the model is presented using calibration slope (C slope). Results: Of 3322 older Syrian refugees, 1893 individuals (median [IQR] age, 59 [54-65] years; 1089 [57.5%] women) reported having at least 1 NCD, among whom 351 (10.6% overall; 18.6% of those with ≥1 NCD) had CRD, 781 (23.7% overall; 41.4% of those with ≥1 NCD) had diabetes, 794 (24.1% overall; 42.2% of those with ≥1 NCD) had history of CVD, and 1388 (42.3% overall; 73.6% of those with ≥1 NCD) had hypertension. Among individuals with NCDs, 387 participants (20.4%) were unable to manage at least 1 of their NCDs. Predictors for inability to manage NCDs were age, nonreceipt of cash assistance, household water insecurity, household food insecurity, and having multiple chronic diseases, with an adjusted C statistic of 0.650 (95% CI, 0.620-0.676) and C slope of 0.871 (95% CI, 0.729-1.023). The prevalence of nonadherence to medication was 9.2%, and the main reasons for nonadherence were unaffordability of medication (40.8%; 95% CI, 33.4%-48.5%) and the belief that they no longer required the medication after feeling better (22.4%; 95% CI, 16.4%-29.3%). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, the predictors of inability to manage NCDs among older Syrian refugees in Lebanon were mainly related to financial barriers. Context-appropriate assistance is required to overcome financial barriers and enable equitable access to medication and health care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension , Noncommunicable Diseases , Refugees , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Female , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Lebanon/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Syria/epidemiology
17.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 120(5): 310-316, 2022 10.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056103

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Renal involvement among pediatric patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) ranges between 1.2% and 44%. Given the limited information available locally, the primary objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of renal involvement in our setting. POPULATION AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study conducted in 13 Argentine sites between March and December 2020. Patients aged 1 month to 18 years hospitalized due to COVID-19 and with at least one measurement of serum creatinine and/or a urinalysis were included. Those with a known kidney disease were excluded. Renal involvement was defined as the presence of acute kidney injury (AKI), proteinuria, hematuria, leukocyturia and/or arterial hypertension (HTN). RESULTS: Among 528 eligible medical records, 423 patients were included (55.0% were males; median age: 5.3 years). The clinical presentation was asymptomatic in 31%; mild, in 39.7%; moderate, in 23.9%; severe, in 1.2%; critical, in 0.7%; and 3.5% had multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Two patients (0.47%) died. The prevalence of renal involvement was 10.8% (95% confidence interval: 8.2-14.2); it was described as leukocyturia (16.9%), proteinuria (16.0%), hematuria (13.2%), HTN (3.7%), and AKI (2.3%). No patient required dialysis. Renal involvement was associated with severe forms of disease (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of renal involvement among pediatric patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 in 13 Argentine sites was 10.8%; severe forms of disease prevailed.


Introducción. El compromiso renal (CR) en niños internados con enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19, por su sigla en inglés) varía entre el 1,2 % y el 44 %. Dado que existe limitada información local, el objetivo primario de este estudio fue estimar la prevalencia de CR en nuestro medio. Población y métodos. Estudio transversal realizado en 13 centros de Argentina entre marzo y diciembre de 2020. Se incluyeron pacientes internados con COVID-19, de 1 mes a 18 años y que tuvieran al menos una determinación de creatinina sérica y/o de orina completa. Se excluyeron aquellos con enfermedad renal conocida. Se consideró CR la presencia de lesión renal aguda (LRA), proteinuria, hematuria, leucocituria y/o hipertensión arterial (HTA). Resultados. De 528 historias clínicas elegibles, se incluyeron las de 423 pacientes (el 55,0 % de sexo masculino, mediana de edad 5,3 años). El cuadro clínico fue asintomático en el 31 %, leve en el 39,7 %, moderado en el 23,9 %, grave en el 1,2 %, crítico en el 0,7 %, y el 3,5 % presentó síndrome inflamatorio multisistémico pediátrico (SIMP). Dos pacientes (0,47 %) fallecieron. La prevalencia de CR fue del 10,8 % (intervalo de confianza 95% 8,2-14,2), expresada por leucocituria (16,9 %), proteinuria (16,0 %), hematuria (13,2 %), HTA (3,7 %) y LRA (2,3 %). Ninguno requirió diálisis. Presentar CR se asoció (p <0,0001) con formas graves de enfermedad. Conclusión. La prevalencia de CR en pacientes pediátricos internados con COVID-19 en 13 centros de nuestro país fue del 10,8 % y predominó en las formas clínicas graves.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Hypertension , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Creatinine , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hematuria/epidemiology , Hematuria/etiology , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Prevalence , Proteinuria/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055247

ABSTRACT

A range of health-related and behavioral risk factors are associated with COVID-19 incidence and mortality. In the present study, we assess the association between incidence, mortality, and case fatality rate due to COVID-19 and the prevalence of hypertension, obesity, overweight, tobacco and alcohol use in the Peruvian population aged ≥15 years during the first and second year of the COVID-19 pandemic. In this ecological study, we used the prevalence rates of hypertension, overweight, obesity, tobacco, and alcohol use obtained from the Encuesta Demográfica y de Salud Familiar (ENDES) 2020 and 2021. We estimated the crude incidence and mortality rates (per 100,000 habitants) and case fatality rate (%) of COVID-19 in 25 Peruvian regions using data from the Peruvian Ministry of Health that were accurate as of 31 December 2021. Spearman correlation and lineal regression analysis was applied to assess the correlations between the study variables as well as multivariable regression analysis adjusted by confounding factors affecting the incidence and mortality rate and case fatality rate of COVID-19. In 2020, adjusted by confounding factors, the prevalence rate of obesity (ß = 0.582; p = 0.037) was found to be associated with the COVID-19 mortality rate (per 100,000 habitants). There was also an association between obesity and the COVID-19 case fatality rate (ß = 0.993; p = 0.014). In 2021, the prevalence of obesity was also found to be associated with the COVID-19 mortality rate (ß = 0.713; p = 0.028); however, adjusted by confounding factors, including COVID-19 vaccination coverage rates, no association was found between the obesity prevalence and the COVID-19 mortality rate (ß = 0.031; p = 0.895). In summary, Peruvian regions with higher obesity prevalence rates had higher COVID-19 mortality and case fatality rates during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, adjusted by the COVID-19 vaccination coverage, no association between the obesity prevalence rate and the COVID-19 mortality rate was found during the second year of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Noncommunicable Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Pandemics , Peru/epidemiology
19.
BMJ Open ; 12(10): e064284, 2022 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053221

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess factors associated with poor medication adherence during the COVID-19 pandemic among hypertensive patients visiting public hospitals in Eastern Ethiopia. SETTING: Hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Harari regional state and Dire Dawa Administration from 1 January to 30 February 2022. Both settings are found in Eastern Ethiopia. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 402 adult hypertensive patients who visited the chronic diseases clinic for follow-up were included in the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome measure was poor medication adherence during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: The level of poor antihypetensive medication adherence was 63% (95% CI 48.1 to 67.9). Patients who had no formal education (adjusted OR (AOR)=1.56, 95% CI 1.03 to 4.30), existing comorbid conditions (AOR=1.98, 95% CI 1.35 to 4.35), self-funded for medication cost (AOR=2.05, 95% CI 1.34 to 4.73), poor knowledge about hypertension (HTN) and its treatment (AOR=2.67, 95% CI 1.45 to 3.99), poor patient-physician relationship (AOR=1.22, 95% CI 1.02 to 4.34) and unavailability of medication (AOR=5.05, 95% CI 2.78 to 12.04) showed significant association with poor medication adherence during the pandemic of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The level of poor antihypertensive medication adherence was high in this study. No formal education, comorbidity, self-funded medication cost, poor knowledge about HTN and its treatment, poor patient-physician relationship, and unavailability of medication during the COVID-19 pandemic were factors significantly associated with poor adherence to antihypertensive medication. All stakeholders should take into account and create strategies to reduce the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on medication adherence of chronic diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Adult , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Medication Adherence , Pandemics
20.
Cardiol J ; 29(5): 730-738, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2040289

ABSTRACT

Hypertension and lipid disorders are two of the main cardiovascular risk factors. Both risk factors - if detected early enough - can be controlled and treated with modern, effective drugs, devoid of significant side effects, available in four countries as different as Italy, Spain, Poland, and Uzbekistan. The aim herein, was to develop this TIMES TO ACT consensus to raise the awareness of the available options of the modern and intensified dyslipidemia and arterial hypertension treatments. The subsequent paragraphs involves consensus and discussion of the deleterious effects of COVID-19 in the cardiovascular field, the high prevalence of hypertension and lipid disorders in our countries and the most important reasons for poor control of these two factors. Subsequently proposed, are currently the most efficient and safe therapeutic options in treating dyslipidemia and arterial hypertension, focusing on the benefits of single-pill combination (SPCs) in both conditions. An accelerated algorithm is proposed to start the treatment with a PCSK9 inhibitor, if the target low-density-lipoprotein values have not been reached. As most patients with hypertension and lipid disorders present with multiple comorbidities, discussed are the possibilities of using new SPCs, combining modern drugs from different therapeutic groups, which mode of action does not confirm the "class effect". We believe our consensus strongly advocates the need to search for patients with cardiovascular risk factors and intensify their lipid-lowering and antihypertensive treatment based on SPCs will improve the control of these two basic cardiovascular risk factors in Italy, Spain, Poland and Uzbekistan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Dyslipidemias , Hypertension , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Dyslipidemias/diagnosis , Dyslipidemias/drug therapy , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Lipids , Lipoproteins , Poland , Proprotein Convertase 9 , Risk Factors
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