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1.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 322(3): F309-F321, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799210

ABSTRACT

Substantial evidence has supported the role of endothelial cell (EC) activation and dysfunction in the development of hypertension, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and lupus nephritis (LN). In both humans and experimental models of hypertension, CKD, and LN, ECs become activated and release potent mediators of inflammation including cytokines, chemokines, and reactive oxygen species that cause EC dysfunction, tissue damage, and fibrosis. Factors that activate the endothelium include inflammatory cytokines, mechanical stretch, and pathological shear stress. These signals can activate the endothelium to promote upregulation of adhesion molecules, such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, which promote leukocyte adhesion and migration to the activated endothelium. More importantly, it is now recognized that some of these signals may in turn promote endothelial antigen presentation through major histocompatibility complex II. In this review, we will consider in-depth mechanisms of endothelial activation and the novel mechanism of endothelial antigen presentation. Moreover, we will discuss these proinflammatory events in renal pathologies and consider possible new therapeutic approaches to limit the untoward effects of endothelial inflammation in hypertension, CKD, and LN.


Subject(s)
Hypertension , Lupus Nephritis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Cytokines/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Female , Humans , Hypertension/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Lupus Nephritis/metabolism , Male , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/metabolism , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(5)2022 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742484

ABSTRACT

Although half of hypertensive patients have hypertensive parents, known hypertension-related human loci identified by genome-wide analysis explain only 3% of hypertension heredity. Therefore, mainstream transcriptome profiling of hypertensive subjects addresses differentially expressed genes (DEGs) specific to gender, age, and comorbidities in accordance with predictive preventive personalized participatory medicine treating patients according to their symptoms, individual lifestyle, and genetic background. Within this mainstream paradigm, here, we determined whether, among the known hypertension-related DEGs that we could find, there is any genome-wide hypertension theranostic molecular marker applicable to everyone, everywhere, anytime. Therefore, we sequenced the hippocampal transcriptome of tame and aggressive rats, corresponding to low and high stress reactivity, an increase of which raises hypertensive risk; we identified stress-reactivity-related rat DEGs and compared them with their known homologous hypertension-related animal DEGs. This yielded significant correlations between stress reactivity-related and hypertension-related fold changes (log2 values) of these DEG homologs. We found principal components, PC1 and PC2, corresponding to a half-difference and half-sum of these log2 values. Using the DEGs of hypertensive versus normotensive patients (as the control), we verified the correlations and principal components. This analysis highlighted downregulation of ß-protocadherins and hemoglobin as whole-genome hypertension theranostic molecular markers associated with a wide vascular inner diameter and low blood viscosity, respectively.


Subject(s)
Hypertension , Animals , Blood Pressure/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Hypertension/metabolism , Rats , Transcriptome
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(5)2022 Feb 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736940

ABSTRACT

Contrary to public perception, hypertension remains one of the most important public health problems in the United States, affecting 46% of adults with increased risk for heart attack, stroke, and kidney diseases. The mechanisms underlying poorly controlled hypertension remain incompletely understood. Recent development in the Cre/LoxP approach to study gain or loss of function of a particular gene has significantly helped advance our new insights into the role of proximal tubule angiotensin II (Ang II) and its AT1 (AT1a) receptors in basal blood pressure control and the development of Ang II-induced hypertension. This novel approach has provided us and others with an important tool to generate novel mouse models with proximal tubule-specific loss (deletion) or gain of the function (overexpression). The objective of this invited review article is to review and discuss recent findings using novel genetically modifying proximal tubule-specific mouse models. These new studies have consistently demonstrated that deletion of AT1 (AT1a) receptors or its direct downstream target Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3) selectively in the proximal tubules of the kidney lowers basal blood pressure, increases the pressure-natriuresis response, and induces natriuretic responses, whereas overexpression of an intracellular Ang II fusion protein or AT1 (AT1a) receptors selectively in the proximal tubules increases proximal tubule Na+ reabsorption, impairs the pressure-natriuresis response, and elevates blood pressure. Furthermore, the development of Ang II-induced hypertension by systemic Ang II infusion or by proximal tubule-specific overexpression of an intracellular Ang II fusion protein was attenuated in mutant mice with proximal tubule-specific deletion of AT1 (AT1a) receptors or NHE3. Thus, these recent studies provide evidence for and new insights into the important roles of intratubular Ang II via AT1 (AT1a) receptors and NHE3 in the proximal tubules in maintaining basal blood pressure homeostasis and the development of Ang II-induced hypertension.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II/metabolism , Hypertension/metabolism , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/metabolism , Angiotensin II/genetics , Animals , Blood Pressure , Disease Models, Animal , Gain of Function Mutation , Humans , Hypertension/genetics , Loss of Function Mutation , Mice , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/genetics , Sodium-Hydrogen Exchanger 3/metabolism
4.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(11): 786-798, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586178

ABSTRACT

Up to 50% of the people who have died from COVID-19 had metabolic and vascular disorders. Notably, there are many direct links between COVID-19 and the metabolic and endocrine systems. Thus, not only are patients with metabolic dysfunction (eg, obesity, hypertension, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and diabetes) at an increased risk of developing severe COVID-19 but also infection with SARS-CoV-2 might lead to new-onset diabetes or aggravation of pre-existing metabolic disorders. In this Review, we provide an update on the mechanisms of how metabolic and endocrine disorders might predispose patients to develop severe COVID-19. Additionally, we update the practical recommendations and management of patients with COVID-19 and post-pandemic. Furthermore, we summarise new treatment options for patients with both COVID-19 and diabetes, and highlight current challenges in clinical management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Disease Management , Metabolic Diseases/epidemiology , Metabolic Diseases/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/metabolism , Hypertension/therapy , Metabolic Diseases/therapy , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/therapy , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/metabolism , Obesity/therapy
6.
Cardiol Rev ; 29(6): 292-295, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310959

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has presented many new challenges to the healthcare community with the sheer number of individuals affected and the range of symptoms at presentation. Early findings have shown that increased age is an independent risk factor for COVID-19 severity. Diabetes and hypertension were also found to be strong independent risk factors for severe COVID-19. It was later discovered that obesity is a strong risk factor for severe disease as well. Possible mechanisms for the increased risk associated with metabolic disease include the increased prevalence of acute respiratory syndrome, immune cell dysfunction, and chronic inflammatory states associated with obesity and diabetes. Acknowledging these risk factors has consequences for addressing vaccination strategies as well as healthcare disparities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Humans , Hypertension/metabolism , Hypertension/physiopathology , Inflammation/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism , Obesity/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
7.
Biomolecules ; 11(7)2021 07 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295754

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin II (Ang II) may contain a charge relay system (CRS) involving Tyr/His/carboxylate, which creates a tyrosinate anion for receptor activation. Energy calculations were carried out to determine the preferred geometry for the CRS in the presence and absence of the Arg guanidino group occupying position 2 of Ang II. These findings suggest that Tyr is preferred over His for bearing the negative charge and that the CRS is stabilized by the guanidino group. Recent crystallography studies provided details of the binding of nonpeptide angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) to the Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor, and these insights were applied to Ang II. A model of binding and receptor activation that explains the surmountable and insurmountable effects of Ang II analogues sarmesin and sarilesin, respectively, was developed and enabled the discovery of a new generation of ARBs called bisartans. Finally, we determined the ability of the bisartan BV6(TFA) to act as a potential ARB, demonstrating similar effects to candesartan, by reducing vasoconstriction of rabbit iliac arteries in response to cumulative doses of Ang II. Recent clinical studies have shown that Ang II receptor blockers have protective effects in hypertensive patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, the usage of ARBS to block the AT1 receptor preventing the binding of toxic angiotensin implicated in the storm of cytokines in SARS-CoV-2 is a target treatment and opens new avenues for disease therapy.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II/metabolism , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/chemistry , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Discovery , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/metabolism , Angiotensin II/analogs & derivatives , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , Crystallography, X-Ray , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/metabolism , Male , Models, Molecular , Rabbits , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/chemistry , Vasoconstriction/drug effects
9.
Hypertension ; 77(6): 1845-1856, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1177625

ABSTRACT

The renin-angiotensin system is of vital significance not only in the maintenance of blood pressure but also because of its role in the pathophysiology of different organ systems in the body. Of the 2 Ang II (angiotensin II) receptors, the AT1R (Ang II type 1 receptor) has been extensively studied for its role in mediating the classical functions of Ang II, including vasoconstriction, stimulation of renal tubular sodium reabsorption, hormonal secretion, cell proliferation, inflammation, and oxidative stress. The other receptor, AT2R (Ang II type 2 receptor), is abundantly expressed in both immune and nonimmune cells in fetal tissue. However, its expression is increased under pathological conditions in adult tissues. The role of AT2R in counteracting AT1R function has been discussed in the past 2 decades. However, with the discovery of the nonpeptide agonist C21, the significance of AT2R in various pathologies such as obesity, hypertension, and kidney diseases have been examined. This review focuses on the most recent findings on the beneficial effects of AT2R by summarizing both gene knockout studies as well as pharmacological studies, specifically highlighting its importance in blood pressure regulation, obesity/metabolism, organ protection, and relevance in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).


Subject(s)
Hypertension , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2/metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System , Animals , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Blood Pressure/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/metabolism , Hypertension/physiopathology , Pharmacological Phenomena , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology
10.
Circ Res ; 128(7): 1062-1079, 2021 04 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166630

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) associates with a considerable high rate of mortality and represents currently the most important concern in global health. The risk of more severe clinical manifestation of COVID-19 is higher in males and steeply raised with age but also increased by the presence of chronic comorbidities. Among the latter, early reports suggested that arterial hypertension associates with higher susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection, more severe course and increased COVID-19-related deaths. Furthermore, experimental studies suggested that key pathophysiological hypertension mechanisms, such as activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), may play a role in COVID-19. In fact, ACE2 (angiotensin-converting-enzyme 2) is the pivotal receptor for SARS-CoV-2 to enter host cells and provides thus a link between COVID-19 and RAS. It was thus anticipated that drugs modulating the RAS including an upregulation of ACE2 may increase the risk for infection with SARS-CoV-2 and poorer outcomes in COVID-19. Since the use of RAS-blockers, ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, represents the backbone of recommended antihypertensive therapy and intense debate about their use in the COVID-19 pandemic has developed. Currently, a direct role of hypertension, independent of age and other comorbidities, as a risk factor for the SARS-COV-2 infection and COVID-19 outcome, particularly death, has not been established. Similarly, both current experimental and clinical studies do not support an unfavorable effect of RAS-blockers or other classes of first line blood pressure lowering drugs in COVID-19. Here, we review available data on the role of hypertension and its management on COVID-19. Conversely, some aspects as to how the COVID-19 affects hypertension management and impacts on future developments are also briefly discussed. COVID-19 has and continues to proof the critical importance of hypertension research to address questions that are important for global health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/metabolism , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/metabolism , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Hypertension/metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Risk Factors
11.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(5): 2415-2417, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145758

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has made more awful effect on wellbeing and economy worldwide on an extraordinary scale. Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2), the principal receptor of SARS-CoV2, has been found to be communicated with Dopa decarboxylase in unwinding the connection of catecholamines with COVID-19 infection. Cardiovascular (CV) sickness, diabetes, hypertension, and related conditions cause significant risks during the current situation and the affected people are under basic observation around the world. The hypertension and diabetes are related with alterations in the degrees of catecholamines associated with renal gland. The naive form of renal dopaminergic framework is related with the expanded reabsorption of sodium resulting in downregulation of the ACE2 expression. Catecholamine biosynthesis is managed by counter-controlling angiotensin type 1R (AT1R) and angiotensin type 2R (AT2R), incitement of AT2 lessens catecholamine biosynthesis by means of a diminishing in cGMP levels likewise incitement of AT1 initiate catecholamine biosynthesis. This audit sums up the conceivable contribution of catecholamines in intense COVID-19 contamination and furthermore featured possible restorative adequacy of catecholamine flagging pathways against the incessant SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Catecholamines/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Hormones , Humans , Hypertension/metabolism , Pandemics , Receptors, Virus , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Epidemiol Prev ; 44(5-6 Suppl 2): 169-182, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068137

ABSTRACT

As the Coronavirus situation (COVID-19) continues to evolve, many questions concerning the factors relating to the diffusion and severity of the disease remain unanswered.Whilst opinions regarding the weight of evidence for these risk factors, and the studies published so far are often inconclusive or offer contrasting results, the role of comorbidities in the risk of serious adverse outcomes in patients affected with COVID-19 appears to be evident since the outset. Hypertension, diabetes, and obesity are under discussion as important factors affecting the severity of disease. Air pollution has been considered to play a role in the diffusion of the virus, in the propagation of the contagion, in the severity of symptoms, and in the poor prognosis. Accumulating evidence supports the hypothesis that environmental particulate matter (PM) can trigger inflammatory responses at molecular, cellular, and organ levels, sustaining respiratory, cardiovascular, and dysmetabolic diseases.To better understand the intricate relationships among pre-existing conditions, PM, and viral infection, we examined the response at the molecular level of T47D human breast adenocarcinoma cells exposed to different fractions of PM. T47D cells express several receptors, including the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), and ACE2, the main - but not the only - receptor for SARS-CoV-2 entry.PM samples were collected in an urban background site located in the Northern area of the City of Bologna (Emilia-Romagna Region, Northern Italy) during winter 2013. T47D cells were exposed to organic or aqueous (inorganic) extracts at the final concentration of 8 m3 for a 4-hour duration. Both the concentration and the exposure time were chosen to resemble an average outdoor exposure. RNA was extracted from cells, purified and hybridised on 66k microarray slides from Agilent.The lists of differentially expressed genes in PM organic extracts were evaluated by using Metacore, and an enrichment analysis was performed to identify pathways maps, process networks, and disease by biomarkers altered after T47D treatment.The analysis of the modulated genes gave evidence for the involvement of PM in dysmetabolic diseases, including diabetes and obesity, and hypertension through the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) canonical pathway.On the basis of current knowledge, existing data, and exploratory experimental evidence, we tease out the likely molecular interplay that can ultimately tip the disease outcome into severity. Looking beyond ACE2, several additional key markers are identified. Disruption of these targets worsens pre-existing conditions and/or exacerbates the adverse effects induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Whilst appropriately designed, epidemiological studies are very much needed to investigate these associations based on our hypothesis of investigation, by reviewing recent experimental and epidemiological evidence, here we speculate and provide new insights on the possible role of environmental pollution in the exacerbation of effects by SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses. This work is intended to assist in the development of appropriate investigative approaches to protect public health.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , COVID-19/etiology , Cell Line, Tumor , Comorbidity , Coronaviridae/physiology , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1/physiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Disease Susceptibility , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/genetics , Hypertension/metabolism , Inflammation/epidemiology , Inflammation/genetics , Inflammation/metabolism , Italy , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/genetics , Obesity/metabolism , Particulate Matter/pharmacology , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/physiology , Receptors, Virus/physiology , Risk , SARS-CoV-2/ultrastructure , Signal Transduction
13.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(3): 1342-1349, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1030565

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the global coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, attacks multiple organs of the human body by binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) to enter cells. More than 20 million people have already been infected by the virus. ACE2 is not only a functional receptor of COVID-19 but also an important endogenous antagonist of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). A large number of studies have shown that ACE2 can reverse myocardial injury in various cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) as well as is exert anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anticardiomyocyte fibrosis effects by regulating transforming growth factor beta, mitogen-activated protein kinases, calcium ions in cells and other major pathways. The ACE2/angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis plays a decisive role in the cardiovascular system to combat the negative effects of the ACE/angiotensin II/angiotensin II type 1 receptor axis. However, the underlying mechanism of ACE2 in cardiac protection remains unclear. Some approaches for enhancing ACE2 expression in CVDs have been suggested, which may provide targets for the development of novel clinical therapies. In this review, we aimed to identify and summarize the role of ACE2 in CVDs.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/pharmacology , Animals , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/metabolism , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Diminazene/pharmacology , Heart Failure/etiology , Humans , Hypertension/metabolism , Hypertension/physiopathology , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Myocardial Infarction/metabolism , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Recombinant Proteins/pharmacology
14.
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) ; 35(2): 197-205, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1004777

ABSTRACT

The world is entering an era of disaster and chaos due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Since its first emergence in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, COVID-19 has swept through Asia and propagated throughout the world to Europe and North America. As of April 13, 1,773,084 people were infected and 111,652 people had died from COVID-19 globally, and new record levels of infection are being reported every day. Based on the data that have been amassed so far, the primary risk factors for a severe disease course or even mortality from COVID-19 are underlying diseases such as diabetes and hypertension. As the global prevalence of diabetes continues to increase, patients with endocrine diseases such as diabetes mellitus and those who are on long-term corticosteroid therapy due to adrenal insufficiency or hypopituitarism are at risk for a poor prognosis of COVID-19. As endocrinologists, we would like to briefly review the current knowledge about the relationship between COVID-19 and endocrine diseases and to discuss what we can do for the safety and health of our patients with endocrine diseases in this globally threatening situation.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Endocrine System Diseases/epidemiology , Endocrine System Diseases/metabolism , Endocrinologists/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Endocrine System Diseases/diagnosis , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
15.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244171, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999833

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Peru is among the top ten countries with the highest number of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases worldwide. The aim of the study was to describe the clinical features of hospitalized adult patients with COVID-19 and to determine the prognostic factors associated with in-hospital mortality. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study among adult patients with COVID-19 admitted to Hospital Cayetano Heredia; a tertiary care hospital in Lima, Peru. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression was used to identify factors independently associated with in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: A total of 369 patients (median age 59 years [IQR:49-68]; 241 (65.31%) male) were included. Most patients (68.56%) reported at least one comorbidity; more frequently: obesity (42.55%), diabetes mellitus (21.95%), and hypertension (21.68%). The median duration of symptoms prior to hospital admission was 7 days (IQR: 5-10). Reported in-hospital mortality was 49.59%. By multiple Cox regression, oxygen saturation (SaO2) values of less than 90% on admission correlated with mortality, presenting 1.86 (95%CI: 1.02-3.39), 4.44 (95%CI: 2.46-8.02) and 7.74 (95%CI: 4.54-13.19) times greater risk of death for SaO2 of 89-85%, 84-80% and <80%, respectively, when compared to patients with SaO2 >90%. Additionally, age >60 years was associated with 1.88 times greater mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Oxygen saturation below 90% on admission is a strong predictor of in-hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19. In settings with limited resources, efforts to reduce mortality in COVID-19 should focus on early identification of hypoxemia and timely access to hospital care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , Oxygen/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Public/methods , Humans , Hypertension/metabolism , Hypertension/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/metabolism , Obesity/mortality , Peru , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
16.
Clin Exp Hypertens ; 43(4): 305-310, 2021 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-990337

ABSTRACT

Background: Currently, SARS-CoV-2 liver invasion, inflammatory cytokines, and antiviral drugs are widely thought to be associated with liver dysfunction in COVID-19 patients. Besides, previous studies indicated that ACEI/ARB drugs can increase the expression of hepatic ACE2, a cell entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2. This study aims to investigate whether ACEI/ARB aggravates liver injury and the association of inflammatory cytokines and antiviral drugs with liver dysfunction in patients with hypertension and COVID-19.Method: This retrospective study included 127 hypertensive patients with long-term use or nonuse of ACEI/ARBs hospitalized for COVID-19 from January 30 to April 7, 2020, in Tongji hospital of Wuhan, China. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, treatment, and outcome data were collected.Results: Of the 127 patients with COVID-19 and hypertension, 43 taking long-term of ACEI/ARBs and 84 without using ACEI/ARBs. Abnormal liver function was observed in part of ACEI/ARB and non-ACEI/ARB users but without significant differences between these two groups. Serum inflammatory cytokines, IL-6, IL-8, and TNFα, as well as inflammation-related markers, ferritin, procalcitonin, and C-reactive protein, were significantly elevated in patients with liver dysfunction. IL-6 level was positively correlated with liver function tests on admission and highly consistent with the changes of abnormal ALT, AST, and GGT during hospitalization, but the correlations of other inflammatory cytokines were low. There was no significant association between the use of antiviral drugs and liver dysfunction in these patients.Conclusion: The elevation of inflammatory cytokine, IL-6, but not ACEI/ARB and antiviral drugs, is closely associated with liver dysfunction in patients with hypertension and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Cytokines/blood , Hypertension , Liver Diseases , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , China/epidemiology , Correlation of Data , Female , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/metabolism , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/etiology , Liver Diseases/metabolism , Liver Diseases/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Bioessays ; 43(3): e2000112, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-985954

ABSTRACT

This renin-angiotensin system (RAS) interpretation is focused on differences in tissue dependence on RAS and on the topological hierarchy that allows mediators to act only on downstream tissues. Dependence of tissues on RAS: Tested by expectation maximization clustering of the RNA human tissue expression (https://biogps.org/). ACE and vasoconstrictive AT1R clustered with the prorenin receptor. ACE2 and dilatory MAS1 clustered with nine RAS-related genes, highly expressed in: Liver; Cardiac_Myocytes; Skeletal_Muscle; Uterus; Kidney; Lung; Small_Intestine; Smooth_Muscle. RAS and stress accumulation: While prorenin is active after binding to its receptor, binding of soluble renin increases its enzymatic activity several times. Increased renin secretion multiplies the overall capacity for producing Ang I, leading to hypertension and increased vascular resistance. Coronavirus infection and comorbidities: Cardiorespiratory failure during infection is linked to the previously altered RAS role in lungs and myocardium. Reduced vasodilation by ACE2 lead to vasoconstriction and suboptimal tissue perfusion patterns. Also see the video abstract here https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jf0Iped-Mws.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Hypertension/genetics , Renin-Angiotensin System/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Aged , Angiotensin I/genetics , Angiotensin I/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Hypertension/metabolism , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Myocardium/metabolism , Myocardium/pathology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/metabolism , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/genetics , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/metabolism , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2/genetics , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2/metabolism , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/genetics , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/metabolism , Renin/genetics , Renin/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Survival Analysis
18.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(23): 12500-12509, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-995007

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Since the emergence of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), the death toll has been increasing daily. Many risk factors are associated with a high mortality rate in COVID-19. Establishment of a common pathway among these risk factors could improve our understanding of COVID-19 severity and mortality. This review aims at establishing this common pathway and its possible effect on COVID-19 mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The current review was executed in five consecutive stages starting from determining the risk factors of COVID-19 mortality and trying to find a common pathway among them depending on the available literature. This was followed by proposing a mechanism explaining how this common pathway could increase the mortality. Finally, its potential role in managing COVID-19 was proposed. RESULTS: This review identified this common pathway to be a low baseline of reduced glutathione (i.e., GSH) level. In particular, this review provided an in-depth discussion regarding the pathophysiology by which COVID-19 leads to GSH depletion, tissue damage, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. In addition, the current review demonstrated how GSH depletion could result in failure of the immune system and rendering the end organs vulnerable to damage from the oxidative stress. CONCLUSIONS: This preclinical study shows that GSH depletion may have a central role in COVID-19 mortality and pathophysiology. Therefore, elevating the GSH level in tissues may decrease the severity and mortality rates of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Glutathione/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Age Factors , Antioxidants/metabolism , Apoptosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Glutathione/immunology , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/metabolism , Macrophages/immunology , Myocardial Ischemia/epidemiology , Myocardial Ischemia/metabolism , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking/epidemiology , Smoking/metabolism
19.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1867(3): 166037, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-966695

ABSTRACT

Hypertension is one of the most prevalent cardiovascular diseases worldwide. However, in the population of resistant hypertension, blood pressure is difficult to control effectively. Moreover, antihypertensive drugs may have adverse effect currently. Hence, new therapeutic targets and treatments are needed to uncovered and exploited to control hypertension and its comorbidities. In the past, classical drug targets, such as the aldosterone receptor, aldosterone synthase, and ACE2/angiotensin 1-7/Mas receptor axis, have been investigated. Recently, vaccines and drugs targeting the gastrointestinal microbiome, which represent drug classes, have also been investigated for the management of blood pressure. In this review, we summarized current knowledge on classical and new drug targets and discussed the potential utility of new drugs in the treatment of hypertension.


Subject(s)
Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Drug Discovery , Hypertension/drug therapy , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Animals , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Development , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Humans , Hypertension/metabolism , Hypertension/microbiology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Signal Transduction/drug effects
20.
FEBS J ; 287(17): 3681-3688, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-960853

ABSTRACT

In coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), higher morbidity and mortality are associated with age, male gender, and comorbidities, such as chronic lung diseases, cardiovascular pathologies, hypertension, kidney diseases, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. All of the above conditions are characterized by increased sympathetic discharge, which may exert significant detrimental effects on COVID-19 patients, through actions on the lungs, heart, blood vessels, kidneys, metabolism, and/or immune system. Furthermore, COVID-19 may also increase sympathetic discharge, through changes in blood gases (chronic intermittent hypoxia, hyperpnea), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)1/ACE2 imbalance, immune/inflammatory factors, or emotional distress. Nevertheless, the potential role of the sympathetic nervous system has not yet been considered in the pathophysiology of COVID-19. In our opinion, sympathetic overactivation could represent a so-far undervalued mechanism for a vicious circle between COVID-19 and comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Coronary Disease/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Hypertension/metabolism , Kidney Failure, Chronic/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism , Respiratory Insufficiency/metabolism , Sympathetic Nervous System/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Coronary Disease/mortality , Coronary Disease/pathology , Coronary Disease/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/pathology , Hypertension/virology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/mortality , Kidney Failure, Chronic/pathology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/virology , Male , Obesity/mortality , Obesity/pathology , Obesity/virology , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality , Respiratory Insufficiency/pathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Survival Analysis , Sympathetic Nervous System/physiopathology , Sympathetic Nervous System/virology
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