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Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 78(9): 794-799, 2021 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1093468


PURPOSE: To report a case of ribavirin-associated severe hyperuricemia in an immunocompromised patient treated for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. SUMMARY: A 21-year-old male with a past medical history of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia was in full remission after allogenic bone marrow transplantation complicated with chronic graft-versus-host disease. He was hospitalized due to fever, malaise, and respiratory symptoms. A diagnosis of RSV upper respiratory tract infection complicated by secondary pneumonia was made, and oral ribavirin (600 mg in 3 divided doses daily) and intravenous levofloxacin (750 mg once daily) were initiated. On day 2 of the hospital admission, the patient's uric acid levels had increased from a baseline of 4 to 6 mg/dL to 19.3 and 22.2 mg/dL after the fourth and fifth doses of ribavirin, respectively, and his serum creatinine steadily had increased from a baseline of 0.7 to 0.8 mg/dL to 1.6 mg/dL. Ribavirin was discontinued after the sixth dose, and a single dose of intravenous rasburicase (7.5 mg) was administered. On day 3, the patient's serum uric and creatinine concentrations had decreased to 4.7 mg/dL and 1.1 mg/dL, respectively. He continued to recover on antibiotics and was discharged with normal uric acid and serum creatinine levels. CONCLUSION: We report a case of severe hyperuricemia and acute kidney injury that developed early after initiation of ribavirin for RSV infection and suspected bacterial pneumonia in an immunocompromised patient without hepatitis C, requiring ribavirin discontinuation and rasburicase administration. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of severe hyperuricemia in a patient treated with ribavirin for RSV infection rather than chronic hepatitis C. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of acute and severe hyperuricemia following ribavirin administration.

Acute Kidney Injury , Hyperuricemia , Adult , Creatinine , Humans , Hyperuricemia/chemically induced , Hyperuricemia/diagnosis , Hyperuricemia/drug therapy , Male , Ribavirin/adverse effects , Uric Acid , Young Adult
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 64(12)2020 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939841


Favipiravir is an oral broad-spectrum inhibitor of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase that is approved for treatment of influenza in Japan. We conducted a prospective, randomized, open-label, multicenter trial of favipiravir for the treatment of COVID-19 at 25 hospitals across Japan. Eligible patients were adolescents and adults admitted with COVID-19 who were asymptomatic or mildly ill and had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0 or 1. Patients were randomly assigned at a 1:1 ratio to early or late favipiravir therapy (in the latter case, the same regimen starting on day 6 instead of day 1). The primary endpoint was viral clearance by day 6. The secondary endpoint was change in viral load by day 6. Exploratory endpoints included time to defervescence and resolution of symptoms. Eighty-nine patients were enrolled, of whom 69 were virologically evaluable. Viral clearance occurred within 6 days in 66.7% and 56.1% of the early and late treatment groups (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.42; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.76 to 2.62). Of 30 patients who had a fever (≥37.5°C) on day 1, times to defervescence were 2.1 days and 3.2 days in the early and late treatment groups (aHR, 1.88; 95% CI, 0.81 to 4.35). During therapy, 84.1% developed transient hyperuricemia. Favipiravir did not significantly improve viral clearance as measured by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) by day 6 but was associated with numerical reduction in time to defervescence. Neither disease progression nor death occurred in any of the patients in either treatment group during the 28-day participation. (This study has been registered with the Japan Registry of Clinical Trials under number jRCTs041190120.).

Amides/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pyrazines/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Load/drug effects , Adolescent , Adult , Amides/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Asymptomatic Diseases , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hyperuricemia/chemically induced , Hyperuricemia/diagnosis , Hyperuricemia/physiopathology , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Pyrazines/adverse effects , Random Allocation , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Secondary Prevention/organization & administration , Severity of Illness Index , Time-to-Treatment/organization & administration , Treatment Outcome
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 251(2): 87-90, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-593619


In light of the recent pandemic, favipiravir (Avigan®), a purine nucleic acid analog and antiviral agent approved for use in influenza in Japan, is being studied for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Increase in blood uric acid level is a frequent side effect of favipiravir. Here, we discussed the mechanism of blood uric acid elevation during favipiravir treatment. Favipiravir is metabolized to an inactive metabolite M1 by aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidase, and excreted into urine. In the kidney, uric acid handling is regulated by the balance of reabsorption and tubular secretion in the proximal tubules. Favipiravir and M1 act as moderate inhibitors of organic anion transporter 1 and 3 (OAT1 and OAT3), which are involved in uric acid excretion in the kidney. In addition, M1 enhances uric acid reuptake via urate transporter 1 (URAT1) in the renal proximal tubules. Thus, favipiravir is thought to decrease uric acid excretion into urine, resulting in elevation of uric acid levels in blood. Elevated uric acid levels were returned to normal after discontinuation of favipiravir, and favipiravir is not used for long periods of time for the treatment of viral infection. Thus, the effect on blood uric acid levels was subclinical in most studies. Nevertheless, the adverse effect of favipiravir might be clinically important in patients with a history of gout, hyperuricemia, kidney function impairment (in which blood concentration of M1 increases), and where there is concomitant use of other drugs affecting blood uric acid elevation.

Amides/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hyperuricemia/chemically induced , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pyrazines/adverse effects , Uric Acid/blood , Aldehyde Oxidase/metabolism , Amides/pharmacokinetics , Amides/urine , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Biotransformation , COVID-19 , Drug Interactions , Humans , Hyperuricemia/physiopathology , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney Diseases/metabolism , Molecular Structure , Organic Anion Transport Protein 1/antagonists & inhibitors , Organic Anion Transporters/metabolism , Organic Anion Transporters, Sodium-Independent/antagonists & inhibitors , Organic Cation Transport Proteins/metabolism , Pandemics , Pyrazines/pharmacokinetics , Pyrazines/urine , Xanthine Oxidase/metabolism