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Crit Care Med ; 49(10): 1684-1693, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1452742


OBJECTIVES: Clinical trials evaluating the safety and effectiveness of sedative medication use in critically ill adults undergoing mechanical ventilation differ considerably in their methodological approach. This heterogeneity impedes the ability to compare results across studies. The Sedation Consortium on Endpoints and Procedures for Treatment, Education, and Research Recommendations convened a meeting of multidisciplinary experts to develop recommendations for key methodologic elements of sedation trials in the ICU to help guide academic and industry clinical investigators. DESIGN: A 2-day in-person meeting was held in Washington, DC, on March 28-29, 2019, followed by a three-round, online modified Delphi consensus process. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-six participants from academia, industry, and the Food and Drug Administration with expertise in relevant content areas, including two former ICU patients attended the in-person meeting, and the majority completed an online follow-up survey and participated in the modified Delphi process. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The final recommendations were iteratively refined based on the survey results, participants' reactions to those results, summaries written by panel moderators, and a review of the meeting transcripts made from audio recordings. Fifteen recommendations were developed for study design and conduct, subject enrollment, outcomes, and measurement instruments. Consensus recommendations included obtaining input from ICU survivors and/or their families, ensuring adequate training for personnel using validated instruments for assessments of sedation, pain, and delirium in the ICU environment, and the need for methodological standardization. CONCLUSIONS: These recommendations are intended to assist researchers in the design, conduct, selection of endpoints, and reporting of clinical trials involving sedative medications and/or sedation protocols for adult ICU patients who require mechanical ventilation. These recommendations should be viewed as a starting point to improve clinical trials and help reduce methodological heterogeneity in future clinical trials.

Hypnotics and Sedatives/pharmacokinetics , Hypnotics and Sedatives/therapeutic use , Congresses as Topic , Consensus , Delphi Technique , District of Columbia , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives/pharmacology , Respiration, Artificial/instrumentation , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Time Factors
J Adv Res ; 32: 27-36, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240416


Introduction: In long-term induced general anesthesia cases such as those uniquely defined by the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic context, the clearance of hypnotic and analgesic drugs from the body follows anomalous diffusion with afferent drug trapping and escape rates in heterogeneous tissues. Evidence exists that drug molecules have a preference to accumulate in slow acting compartments such as muscle and fat mass volumes. Currently used patient dependent pharmacokinetic models do not take into account anomalous diffusion resulted from heterogeneous drug distribution in the body with time varying clearance rates. Objectives: This paper proposes a mathematical framework for drug trapping estimation in PK models for estimating optimal drug infusion rates to maintain long-term anesthesia in Covid-19 patients. We also propose a protocol for measuring and calibrating PK models, along with a methodology to minimize blood sample collection. Methods: We propose a framework enabling calibration of the models during the follow up of Covid-19 patients undergoing anesthesia during their treatment and recovery period in ICU. The proposed model can be easily updated with incoming information from clinical protocols on blood plasma drug concentration profiles. Already available pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models can be then calibrated based on blood plasma concentration measurements. Results: The proposed calibration methodology allow to minimize risk for potential over-dosing as clearance rates are updated based on direct measurements from the patient. Conclusions: The proposed methodology will reduce the adverse effects related to over-dosing, which allow further increase of the success rate during the recovery period.

Anesthesia , COVID-19 , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Models, Biological , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Female , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Hypnotics and Sedatives/pharmacokinetics , Male , Metabolic Clearance Rate , Middle Aged , Pandemics