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1.
Br J Community Nurs ; 26(11): 544-552, 2021 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506202

ABSTRACT

Type 1 diabetes is a lifelong condition which affects all age ranges, for reasons unknown, and the UK has one of the highest incidences of this complex condition in the world. Type 1 diabetes is caused by autoimmune damage to the insulin-producing ß-cells found in the pancreatic islet cells, leading to severe insulin deficiency. People with diabetes need to achieve a target glyosylated haemoglobin level to avoid macro- and microvascular complications, but there is the associated risk of hypoglycaemic events. These can vary in severity and consequences but will likely always cause worry for the person living with diabetes. There are many risk factors and reasons to be explored when looking at hypoglycaemia. This case study explores the nursing interventions that can be safely worked through and prioritised, within the community setting, to allow people with diabetes to be safe from severe hypoglycaemia, thus improving their quality of life and safety, as well as reducing costs for the NHS.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/methods , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/nursing , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Hypoglycemia/prevention & control , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Humans , Hypoglycemia/etiology , Hypoglycemia/nursing , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Quality of Life
2.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(11): e14672, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476203
3.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e050027, 2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455718

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Studies demonstrate that optimal glycaemic control reduces morbidity from diabetes mellitus but remains elusive in a significant portion of patients. Although research shows that continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and flash glucose monitoring (FGM) improves glycaemic control in selected subsets of patients with diabetes in specialty practices, we found no systematic reviews evaluating the use of CGM/FGM in primary care, where the majority of patients with diabetes are cared for.This systematic review aims to answer the questions: 'compared with usual care of self-monitoring blood glucose and haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), does the addition of CGM/FGM use in the primary care of patients with diabetes improve glycaemic control, decrease rates of hypoglycaemia, and improve patient and physician satisfaction?' and if so, 'what subgroups of primary care patients with diabetes are most likely to benefit?'. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Aligning with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols guidelines, a search will be conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Web of Science. We will include studies investigating CGM/FGM use and reporting the primary outcome measure of HbA1c and secondary outcome measures of hypoglycaemia, time in range, time below range, time above range and patient/staff satisfaction. We will examine which patient populations appear to benefit from CGM/FGM. Three independent researchers will use the Covidence systematic review software for blinded screening and study selection. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute quality assessment tool and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation will be used to assess the risk of bias and quality of evidence. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The systematic review methodology does not require ethics approval due to the nature of the study design. Study findings will be publicly available to a wide readership across disciplines and will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021229416.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Hypoglycemia , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Hypoglycemia/prevention & control , Primary Health Care , Systematic Reviews as Topic
4.
BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care ; 9(1)2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360558

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Achieving glycemic targets and optimizing quality of life (QoL) are important goals of type 1 diabetes care. Hypoglycemia is a common barrier to achieving targets and can be associated with significant distress. However, the impact of hypoglycemia on QoL is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to explore how adults with type 1 diabetes are impacted by hypoglycemia in areas of life that are important to their overall QoL. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants responded to a web-based qualitative survey involving a novel 'Wheel of Life' activity. Responses were analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis. RESULTS: The final sample included 219 adults with type 1 diabetes from Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, and the UK. They had a mean±SD age of 39±13 years and diabetes duration of 20±14 years. Participants identified eight areas of life important to their overall QoL, including relationships and social life, work and studies, leisure and physical activity, everyday life, sleep, sex life, physical health, and mental health. Participants reported emotional, behavioral, cognitive, and social impacts of hypoglycemia within domains. Across domains, participants described interruptions, limited participation in activities, exhaustion, fear of hypoglycemia, compensatory strategies to prevent hypoglycemia, and reduced spontaneity. CONCLUSIONS: The findings emphasize the profound impact of hypoglycemia on QoL and diabetes self-care behaviors. Diabetes services should be aware of and address the burden of hypoglycemia to provide person-centered care. Clinicians could ask individuals how hypoglycemia affects important areas of their lives to better understand the personal impact and develop tailored management plans.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Hypoglycemia , Adult , Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Humans , Hypoglycemia/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Quality of Life , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) ; 36(2): 240-255, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359307

ABSTRACT

Continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) have suddenly become part of routine care in many hospitals. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has necessitated the use of new technologies and new processes to care for hospitalized patients, including diabetes patients. The use of CGMs to automatically and remotely supplement or replace assisted monitoring of blood glucose by bedside nurses can decrease: the amount of necessary nursing exposure to COVID-19 patients with diabetes; the amount of time required for obtaining blood glucose measurements, and the amount of personal protective equipment necessary for interacting with patients during the blood glucose testing. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is now exercising enforcement discretion and not objecting to certain factory-calibrated CGMs being used in a hospital setting, both to facilitate patient care and to obtain performance data that can be used for future regulatory submissions. CGMs can be used in the hospital to decrease the frequency of fingerstick point of care capillary blood glucose testing, decrease hyperglycemic episodes, and decrease hypoglycemic episodes. Most of the research on CGMs in the hospital has focused on their accuracy and only recently outcomes data has been reported. A hospital CGM program requires cooperation of physicians, bedside nurses, diabetes educators, and hospital administrators to appropriately select and manage patients. Processes for collecting, reviewing, storing, and responding to CGM data must be established for such a program to be successful. CGM technology is advancing and we expect that CGMs will be increasingly used in the hospital for patients with diabetes.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/trends , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hospitals/trends , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Hypoglycemia/blood , Hypoglycemia/epidemiology , Hypoglycemia/prevention & control , Monitoring, Ambulatory/methods , Monitoring, Ambulatory/trends
6.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 665134, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305637

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Neuropilin-1(NRP1) is a cofactor that enhances SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus cell infectivity when co-expressed with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2(ACE2). The Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) is activated in type 2 diabetes (T2D); therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if hypoglycaemia-induced stress in T2D would potentiate serum NRP1(sNRP1) levels, reflecting an increased risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: A case-control study of aged-matched T2D (n = 23) and control (n = 23) subjects who underwent a hyperinsulinemic clamp over 1-hour to hypoglycemia(<40mg/dl) with subsequent timecourse of 4-hours and 24-hours. Slow Off-rate Modified Aptamer (SOMA)-scan plasma protein measurement determined RAS-related proteins: renin (REN), angiotensinogen (AGT), ACE2, soluble NRP1(sNRP1), NRP1 ligands (Vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF and Class 3 Semaphorins, SEM3A) and NRP1 proteolytic enzyme (A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase 9, ADAM9). Results: Baseline RAS overactivity was present with REN elevated and AGT decreased in T2D (p<0.05); ACE2 was unchanged. Baseline sNRP1, VEGF and ADAM9 did not differ between T2D and controls and remained unchanged in response to hypoglycaemia. However, 4-hours post-hypoglycemia, sNRP1, VEGF and ADAM9 were elevated in T2D(p<0.05). SEMA3A was not different at baseline; at hypoglycemia, SEMA3A decreased in controls only. Post-hypoglycemia, SEMA3A levels were higher in T2D versus controls. sNRP1 did not correlate with ACE2, REN or AGT. T2D subjects stratified according to ACE inhibitor (ACEi) therapies showed no difference in sNRP1 levels at either glucose normalization or hypoglycaemia. Conclusion: Hypoglycemia potentiated both plasma sNRP1 level elevation and its ligands VEGF and SEMA3A, likely through an ADAM9-mediated mechanism that was not associated with RAS overactivity or ACEi therapy; however, whether this is protective or promotes increased risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection in T2D is unclear. Clinical Trial Registration: https://clinicaltrials.gov, identifier NCT03102801.


Subject(s)
ADAM Proteins/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Hypoglycemia/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Semaphorin-3A/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Aged , Angiotensins/metabolism , COVID-19 , Female , Glucose Clamp Technique , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Protective Factors , Renin/metabolism , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 658304, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305636

ABSTRACT

Objective: Detailed proteomic analysis in a cohort of patients with differing severity of COVID-19 disease identified biomarkers within the complement and coagulation cascades as biomarkers for disease severity has been reported; however, it is unclear if these proteins differ sufficiently from other conditions to be considered as biomarkers. Methods: A prospective, parallel study in T2D (n = 23) and controls (n = 23). A hyperinsulinemic clamp was performed and normoglycemia induced in T2D [4.5 ± 0.07 mmol/L (81 ± 1.2 mg/dl)] for 1-h, following which blood glucose was decreased to ≤2.0 mmol/L (36 mg/dl). Proteomic analysis for the complement and coagulation cascades were measured using Slow Off-rate Modified Aptamer (SOMA)-scan. Results: Thirty-four proteins were measured. At baseline, 4 of 18 were found to differ in T2D versus controls for platelet degranulation [Neutrophil-activating peptide-2 (p = 0.014), Thrombospondin-1 (p = 0.012), Platelet factor-4 (p = 0.007), and Kininogen-1 (p = 0.05)], whilst 3 of 16 proteins differed for complement and coagulation cascades [Coagulation factor IX (p < 0.05), Kininogen-1 (p = 0.05), and Heparin cofactor-2 (p = 0.007)]; STRING analysis demonstrated the close relationship of these proteins to one another. Induced euglycemia in T2D showed no protein changes versus baseline. At hypoglycemia, however, four proteins changed in controls from baseline [Thrombospondin-1 (p < 0.014), platelet factor-4 (p < 0.01), Platelet basic protein (p < 0.008), and Vitamin K-dependent protein-C (p < 0.00003)], and one protein changed in T2D [Vitamin K-dependent protein-C, (p < 0.0002)]. Conclusion: Seven of 34 proteins suggested to be biomarkers of COVID-19 severity within the platelet degranulation and complement and coagulation cascades differed in T2D versus controls, with further changes occurring at hypoglycemia, suggesting that validation of these biomarkers is critical. It is unclear if these protein changes in T2D may predict worse COVID-19 disease for these patients. Clinical Trial Registration: https://clinicaltrials.gov/, identifier NCT03102801.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Factors/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Hypoglycemia/metabolism , Aged , Biomarkers/metabolism , Blood Coagulation , Case-Control Studies , Complement Activation , Factor IX/metabolism , Female , Glucose Clamp Technique , Heparin Cofactor II/metabolism , Humans , Kininogens/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Peptides/metabolism , Platelet Activation , Platelet Factor 4/metabolism , Prospective Studies , Protein C/metabolism , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombospondin 1/metabolism , beta-Thromboglobulin/metabolism
9.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 65(2): 164-171, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1204452

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of hypoglycemia and the treatment satisfaction in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) using insulin analogues. Methods: This observational retrospective study included 516 adult patients with T1D from 38 cities in Southern Brazil. Demographics and clinical data were collected using a self-report questionnaire. Hypoglycemia was defined as an event based on either symptoms or self-monitored blood glucose < 70 mg/dL. Treatment satisfaction was evaluated using the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire status version (DTSQs) and with a specific question with scores ranging from 0-10. Common mental disorders were assessed using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Results: Overall, the mean age was 38 ± 14 years and 52% of the participants were women. The median diabetes duration was 18 years. The scores for insulin analogue treatment satisfaction were higher than those for previous treatments. DTSQ scores had a median value of 32 (interquartile range 29-35) and remained unchanged over time. The percentage of patients with hypoglycemia (including severe and nocturnal) was comparable across groups divided according to duration of use of insulin analogues. Most patients (n=395, 77%) screened positive for common mental disorders. Conclusion: Patient satisfaction with insulin analogue treatment was high and remained unchanged with time. Episodes of hypoglycemia also remained unchanged over time among patients using insulin analogues.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Hypoglycemia , Hypoglycemic Agents , Insulins , Adult , Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulins/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Satisfaction , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
10.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 651009, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190304

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Patients with severe COVID-19 infections have coagulation abnormalities indicative of a hypercoagulable state, with thromboembolic complications and increased mortality. Platelets are recognized as mediators of inflammation, releasing proinflammatory and prothrombotic factors, and are hyperactivated in COVID-19 infected patients. Activated platelets have also been reported in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients, putting these patients at higher risk for thromboembolic complications of COVID-19 infection. Methods: A case-control study of T2D (n=33) and control subjects (n=30) who underwent a hyperinsulinemic clamp to induce normoglycemia in T2D subjects: T2D: baseline glucose 7.5 ± 0.3mmol/l (135.1 ± 5.4mg/dl), reduced to 4.5 ± 0.07mmol/l (81 ± 1.2mg/dl) with 1-hour clamp; Controls: maintained at 5.1 ± 0.1mmol/l (91.9 ± 1.8mg/dl). Slow Off-rate Modified Aptamer (SOMA)-scan plasma protein measurement was used to determine a panel of platelet proteins. Results: Prothrombotic platelet proteins were elevated in T2D versus controls: platelet factor 4 (PF4, p<0.05); platelet glycoprotein VI (PGVI p<0.05); P-selectin (p<0.01) and plasminogen activator inhibitor I (PAI-1, p<0.01). In addition, the antithrombotic platelet-related proteins, plasmin (p<0.05) and heparin cofactor II (HCFII, p<0.05), were increased in T2D. Normalization of glucose in the T2D cohort had no effect on platelet protein levels. Conclusion: T2D patients have platelet hyperactivation, placing them at higher risk for thromboembolic events. When infected with COVID-19, this risk may be compounded, and their propensity for a more severe COVID-19 disease course increased. Clinical Trial Registration: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03102801, identifier NCT03102801.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelet Disorders/blood , Blood Platelet Disorders/etiology , Blood Platelets/chemistry , Blood Proteins/analysis , COVID-19/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Hypoglycemia/blood , Hypoglycemia/complications , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Female , Glucose Clamp Technique , Humans , Lipids/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Activation , Thromboembolism/blood , Thromboembolism/etiology
11.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(3)2021 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186259

ABSTRACT

A 22-year-old woman with type Ia glycogen storage disease was referred to the endocrinology department with new-onset diabetes mellitus-glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) of 8.2%. She had suffered from repeated bouts of hypoglycaemia since the first days of her life. The diagnosis was made at 5 months old, after clinical investigations revealed mixed dyslipidaemia, lactic acidosis and hepatomegaly. Compound heterozygosity was documented at the age of 4. The basis of her initial treatment was starch and reinforced soy milk, ingested multiple times a day and night. The patient suffered from obesity since childhood. This case shows a rare association between glycogen storage disease type Ia and diabetes mellitus. A multidisciplinary approach was implemented. Through diet and use of flash continuous glucose monitoring, we were able to improve patient's adherence and metabolic profile. Hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia risk significantly decreased; 86% time in range (70-180 mg/dL), 6% hypoglycaemia and 6.3% HbA1c in recent evaluations.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Hypoglycemia , Adult , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Hypoglycemia/etiology , Infant , Young Adult
12.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 78(13): 1207-1215, 2021 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169632

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The implementation of a pharmacist-managed transition of care program for kidney transplant recipients with posttransplant hyperglycemia (PTHG) is described. METHODS: In September 2015, a collaborative practice agreement between pharmacists and transplant providers at an academic medical center for management of PTHG was developed. The goal of the pharmacist-run service was to reduce hospitalizations by providing care to patients in the acute phase of hyperglycemia while they transitioned back to their primary care provider or endocrinologist. For continuous quality improvement, preimplementation data were collected from August 2014 to August 2015 and compared to postimplementation data collected from August 2017 to August 2018. The primary endpoint was hospitalizations due to hyperglycemia within 90 days post transplantation. Secondary endpoints included emergency department (ED) visits due to hypoglycemia and the number of interventions performed, number of encounters completed, and number of ED visits or admissions for hypoglycemia. A Fisher's exact test was used to compare categorical data, and a Student t test was used to compare continuous data. A P value of <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. RESULTS: Forty-three patients in the preimplementation group were compared to 35 patients in the postimplementation group. There was a significant reduction in hospitalizations due to hyperglycemia in the postimplementation versus the preimplementation group (9 vs 1, P < 0.05); there was a reduction in ED visits due to hyperglycemia (5 vs 0, P = 0.06). There were no ED visits or hospitalizations due to hypoglycemia in either group. Clinical transplant pharmacists performed an average of 8.3 (SD, 4.4) encounters per patient per 90 days. CONCLUSION: A collaborative practice agreement was created and successfully implemented. A pharmacist-managed PTHG program could be incorporated into the standard care of kidney transplant recipients to help minimize rehospitalizations due to hyperglycemia.


Subject(s)
Hyperglycemia , Hypoglycemia , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Hyperglycemia/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Hyperglycemia/etiology , Patient Transfer , Pharmacists , Retrospective Studies
13.
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) ; 36(2): 240-255, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167796

ABSTRACT

Continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) have suddenly become part of routine care in many hospitals. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has necessitated the use of new technologies and new processes to care for hospitalized patients, including diabetes patients. The use of CGMs to automatically and remotely supplement or replace assisted monitoring of blood glucose by bedside nurses can decrease: the amount of necessary nursing exposure to COVID-19 patients with diabetes; the amount of time required for obtaining blood glucose measurements, and the amount of personal protective equipment necessary for interacting with patients during the blood glucose testing. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is now exercising enforcement discretion and not objecting to certain factory-calibrated CGMs being used in a hospital setting, both to facilitate patient care and to obtain performance data that can be used for future regulatory submissions. CGMs can be used in the hospital to decrease the frequency of fingerstick point of care capillary blood glucose testing, decrease hyperglycemic episodes, and decrease hypoglycemic episodes. Most of the research on CGMs in the hospital has focused on their accuracy and only recently outcomes data has been reported. A hospital CGM program requires cooperation of physicians, bedside nurses, diabetes educators, and hospital administrators to appropriately select and manage patients. Processes for collecting, reviewing, storing, and responding to CGM data must be established for such a program to be successful. CGM technology is advancing and we expect that CGMs will be increasingly used in the hospital for patients with diabetes.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/trends , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hospitals/trends , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Hypoglycemia/blood , Hypoglycemia/epidemiology , Hypoglycemia/prevention & control , Monitoring, Ambulatory/methods , Monitoring, Ambulatory/trends
14.
Drug Saf ; 43(12): 1211-1221, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092871

ABSTRACT

Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a major advance in the fields of diabetology, nephrology, and cardiology. The cardiovascular and renal benefits of SGLT2 inhibitors are likely largely independent of their glycaemic effects, and this understanding is central to the use of these agents in the high-risk population of people with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease. There are a number of potential safety issues associated with the use of SGLT2 inhibitors. These include the rare but serious risks of diabetic ketoacidosis and necrotising fasciitis of the perineum. The data regarding a possibly increased risk of lower limb amputation and fracture with SGLT2 inhibitor therapy are conflicting. This article aims to explore the potential safety issues associated with the use of SGLT2 inhibitors, with a particular focus on the safety of these drugs in people with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease. We discuss strategies that clinicians can implement to minimise the risk of adverse effects including diabetic ketoacidosis and volume depletion. Risk mitigation strategies with respect to SGLT2 inhibitor-associated diabetic ketoacidosis are of particular importance during the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/chemically induced , Fasciitis, Necrotizing/chemically induced , Hypovolemia/chemically induced , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/adverse effects , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Amputation/statistics & numerical data , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Fournier Gangrene/chemically induced , Fractures, Bone/chemically induced , Humans , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced , Patient Education as Topic , Perineum , Reproductive Tract Infections/chemically induced , Risk Factors , Urinary Tract Infections/chemically induced
16.
Nephrology (Carlton) ; 26(3): 252-254, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088144

ABSTRACT

End stage renal disease (ESRD) is associated with a high mortality rate among patients hospitalized with COVID-19. To the best of our knowledge, there is limited data on the clinical features, ethnicity, inpatient glycaemic control and outcomes in patients with diabetes related ESRD in the literature. We report the clinical features and outcomes of 39 consecutive ESRD patients (28 on haemodialysis [HD] and 11 with renal transplant) secondary to diabetic kidney disease admitted to a university hospital with COVID-19. We observed a high prevalence of patients of Afro-Caribbean ethnicity hospitalized with COVID-19 with a 73% and 54% prevalence in renal transplant and HD groups respectively. The mortality rate of our cohort was 36%. Nearly a one-third of HD patients and one-fifth of transplant patients had hypoglycaemic events during COVID-19 hospitalization. Adjustment of diabetes treatment was frequently required. Our data highlight the importance of integrated multidisciplinary care of patients with diabetes related ESRD hospitalized with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19 , Diabetes Complications , Hypoglycemia , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/therapy , Caribbean Region , Diabetes Complications/blood , Diabetes Complications/ethnology , Diabetes Complications/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Hypoglycemia/diagnosis , Hypoglycemia/etiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/ethnology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/etiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Kidney Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Needs Assessment , Patient Care Team , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United Kingdom/epidemiology
17.
Postgrad Med ; 133(5): 548-551, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082103

ABSTRACT

Objective: Hypoglycemia is a serious adverse effect of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) which is very rare in non-diabetic patients. This case report describes a non-diabetic patient without any other chronic diseases, who experienced mild hypoglycemia related to HCQ used for COVID-19 treatment.Methods: All etiologies causing hypoglycemia were investigated and a 72-hour fast test was performed.Results: A 34-year-old male patient was admitted to our hospital with a high fever, cough, and chest pain. The result of his COVID-19 PCR test was positive. He received HCQ for 10 days for the treatment of COVID-19 infection. He experienced fatigue, dizziness, severe headache, weakness and feeling of hunger after discontinuation of HCQ during his isolation at home. Before COVID-19 infection, he never experienced hypoglycemia symptoms. He did not have a history of chronic diseases, drug use, alcohol consumption, or smoking. A 72-hour fasting test was performed. He complained about headache and weakness during the 72-hour test period. The PG level was determined as 49 mg/dl during these symptoms. Concurrent insulin and C-peptide levels were <2 mU/mL and 0.553 ng/mL, respectively. ACTH, cortisol, growth hormones, liver and kidney function tests were normal. HbA1c level was 4.7% (28 mmol/mol) (Normal Range %4,5-5,7).Conclusion: Hypoglycemia may be observed as an adverse effect of HCQ used for COVID-19 infection even in patients without chronic diseases and comorbidities. We must be careful while using HCQ for these patients and must warn them about this effect. The warning about hypoglycemia effect of HCQ must be added to COVID-19 treatment guidelines.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced , Hypoglycemia/diagnosis , Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Dizziness/chemically induced , Fatigue/chemically induced , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Male , Treatment Outcome
18.
Nutr Diabetes ; 11(1): 1, 2021 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065842

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Starting March 2020 the Italian Government imposed a lockdown to limit the spread of SARS-CoV-2. During lockdown outpatient visits were limited and telemedicine (TM) was encouraged. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data from continuous or flash glucose monitoring systems shared through different cloud systems during the lockdown by subjects with type 1 diabetes and compared data obtained 4 weeks before and 4 weeks after structured telephonic visit. Variables considered were mean glucose, time spent in target (70-180 mg/dl), hypoglycemia (<70 mg/dl) and hyperglycemia (>180 mg/dl), coefficient of variation, and length of sensor use. RESULTS: During the 4 weeks following the telephonic visit there was an improvement of glycemic control, with a significant reduction of mean glucose values (161.1 before vs 156.3 mg/dl after, p = 0.001), an increase of the time spent in target (63.6 vs 66.3, p = 0.0009) and a reduction of time spent in hyperglycemia (33.4 vs 30.5, p = 0.002). No changes were observed regarding glucose variability, time spent in hypoglycemia, and length of sensor use. Similar results were observed in subjects treated with multiple daily injections or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. CONCLUSIONS: A structured telephonic visit appears to be an effective way to replace or integrate routine visits in particular conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Pandemics , Quarantine , Telemedicine/trends , Adult , Aged , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Female , Glycemic Control , Humans , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Hypoglycemia/epidemiology , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Insulin Infusion Systems , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
19.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(1): 221-227, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065020

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The measurement of vital signs is an important part of clinical work up. Presently, measurement of blood glucose is a factor for concern mostly when treating individuals with diabetes. Significance of blood glucose measurement in prognosis of non-diabetic and hospitalized patients is not clear. METHODS: A systematic search of literature published in the Electronic databases, PubMed and Google Scholar was performed using following keywords; blood glucose, hospital admissions, critical illness, hospitalizations, cardiovascular disease (CVD), morbidity, and mortality. This literature search was largely restricted to non-diabetic individuals. RESULTS: Blood glucose level, even when in high normal range, or in slightly high range, is an important determinant of morbidity and mortality, especially in hospitalized patients. Further, even slight elevation of blood glucose may increase mortality in patients with COVID-19. Finally, blood glucose variability and hypoglycemia in critically ill individuals without diabetes causes excess in-hospital complications and mortality. CONCLUSION: In view of these data, we emphasize the significance of blood glucose measurement in all patients admitted to the hospital regardless of presence of diabetes. We propose that blood glucose be included as the "fifth vital sign" for any hospitalized patient.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospitalization/trends , Vital Signs/physiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Humans , Hyperglycemia/blood , Hyperglycemia/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Hypoglycemia/blood , Hypoglycemia/diagnosis , Hypoglycemia/epidemiology , Prognosis
20.
J Diabetes Investig ; 12(9): 1708-1717, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1063015

ABSTRACT

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic urged authorities to impose rigorous quarantines and brought considerable changes to people's lifestyles. The impact of these changes on glycemic control has remained unclear, especially the long-term effect. We aimed to investigate the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on glycemic control in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This observational study enrolled children with type 1 diabetes using continuous glucose monitoring. Continuous glucose monitoring data were extracted from the cloud-based platform before, during and after lockdown. Demographics and lifestyle change-related information were collected from the database or questionnaires. We compared these data before, during and after lockdown. RESULTS: A total of 43 children with type 1 diabetes were recruited (20 girls; mean age 7.45 years; median diabetes duration 1.05 years). We collected 41,784 h of continuous glucose monitoring data. Although time in range (3.9-10.0 mmol/L) was similar before, during and after lockdown, the median time below range <3.9 mmol/L decreased from 3.70% (interquartile range [IQR] 2.25-9.53%) before lockdown to 2.91% (IQR 1.43-5.95%) during lockdown, but reversed to 4.95% (IQR 2.11-9.42%) after lockdown (P = 0.004). Time below range <3.0 mmol/L was 0.59% (IQR 0.14-2.21%), 0.38% (IQR 0.05-1.35%) and 0.82% (IQR 0.22-1.69%), respectively (P = 0.008). The amelioration of hypoglycemia during lockdown was more prominent among those who had less time spent <3.9 mmol/L at baseline. During lockdown, individuals reduced their physical activity, received longer sleep duration and spent more time on diabetes management. In addition, they attended outpatient clinics less and turned to telemedicine more frequently. CONCLUSION: Glycemic control did not deteriorate in children and teenagers with type 1 diabetes around the COVID-19 pandemic. Hypoglycemia declined during lockdown, but reversed after lockdown, and the changes related to lifestyle might not provide a long-term effect.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Glycemic Control , Quarantine , Adolescent , Age Factors , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Female , Glycemic Control/methods , Glycemic Control/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hypoglycemia/blood , Hypoglycemia/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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