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1.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 22(16): 2149-2165, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1868186

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: An increasing number of older patients has type 2 diabetes treated with different oral antidiabetic agents whose safety may raise concern considering some particularities of a heterogeneous elderly population. AREAS COVERED: This article discusses some characteristics of older patients that could increase the risk of adverse events, with a focus on hypoglycemia. It describes the most frequent and/or severe complications reported in the elderly in both randomized controlled trials and observational studies with metformin, sulfonylureas, meglitinides, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, thiazolidinediones, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (gliptins) and sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitors (gliflozins). EXPERT OPINION: Old patients may present comorbidities (renal impairment, vascular disease, heart failure, risk of dehydration, osteoporosis, cognitive dysfunction) that could increase the risk of severe adverse events. Sulfonylureas (and meglitinides) induce hypoglycemia, which may be associated with falls/fractures and cardiovascular events. Medications lacking hypoglycemia should be preferred. Gliptins appear to have the best tolerance/safety profile whereas gliflozins exert a cardiorenal protection. However, data are lacking in very old or frailty old patients so that caution and appropriate supervision of such patients are required. Taking advantage of a large choice of pharmacotherapies, personalized treatment is recommended based upon both drug safety profiles and old patient individual characteristics.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors , Metformin , Aged , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/adverse effects , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Sulfonylurea Compounds/adverse effects
2.
Diabetes Technol Ther ; 24(2): 140-142, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852861

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the impact of initiation of closed-loop control (CLC) on glycemic metrics in older adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the real world. Methods: Retrospective analysis of electronic health records from a single tertiary diabetes center of older adults prescribed CLC between January and December 2020. Results: Forty-eight patients (mean age 70 ± 4 years, T1D duration 42 ± 14 years) were prescribed CLC and 39/48 started on the CLC. Among the CLC starters, 97.5% and 95% were prior pump and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) users, respectively. CGM metrics showed an increase in time-in-range (62% ± 13% to 76% ± 9%; P < 0.001), a reduction in both time spent <70 mg/dL [2% (1%-3%) to 1% (1%-2%); P = 0.03] and >180 mg/dL (30% ± 11% to 20% ± 9%; P < 0.001) at 3 months. Conclusion: In this real-world data most of the older patients with T1D initiating CLC were prior pump and CGM users. Initiation of CLC improved glycemic control and reduced time spent in hypoglycemia compared with prior therapy.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Aged , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Insulin Infusion Systems , Retrospective Studies
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(8)2022 04 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809849

ABSTRACT

With the growing prevalence and complex pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes, many patients fail to achieve treatment goals despite guidelines and possibilities for treatment individualization. One of the identified root causes of this failure is clinical inertia. We explored this phenomenon, its possible predictors, and groups of patients affected the most, together with offering potential paths for intervention. Our research was a cross-sectional study conducted during 2021 involving 52 physicians and 543 patients of primary healthcare institutions in Belgrade, Serbia. The research instruments were questionnaires based on similar studies, used to collect information related to the factors that contribute to developing clinical inertia originating in both physicians and patients. In 224 patients (41.3%), clinical inertia was identified in patients with poor overall health condition, long diabetes duration, and comorbidities. Studying the changes made to the treatment, most patients (53%) had their treatment adjustment more than a year ago, with 19.3% of patients changing over the previous six months. Moreover, we found significant inertia in the treatment of patients using modern insulin analogues. Referral to secondary healthcare institutions reduced the emergence of inertia. This assessment of primary care physicians and their patients pointed to the high presence of clinical inertia, with an overall health condition, comorbidities, diabetes duration, current treatment, last treatment change, glycosylated hemoglobin and fasting glucose measuring frequency, BMI, patient referral, diet adjustment, and physician education being significant predictors.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Physicians, Primary Care , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use
4.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 70(4): 11-12, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1801446

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-adherence to medication in chronic diseases, like diabetes, is a serious problem which is associated with poor outcomes. Material and Objectives: Primary Objective: To study the proportion of non-adherence to treatment in patients with type 2 DM and factors responsible for it. SECONDARY OBJECTIVE: To correlate the degree of glycemic control, presence of target organ damage and metabolic derangements with non-adherence to medication. METHODS: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted on 100 patients of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Proportion of drug coverage (PDC) over the last 1 month was used to assess adherence. A questionnaire was used to collect information for variable factors responsible for non-adherence. The percentage of non-adherence and factors contributing were analyzed. OBSERVATION AND RESULTS: Out of 100 patients with T2 DM (M:F:: 35:65); 56 patients had good (>80%) adherence, 13 patients had moderate (50-80%) adherence and 31 patients had poor (<50%) adherence to medication. Following factors were assessed for non-adherence;

  1. Amongst Drug-related factors; cost (43%;p<0.001), non-availability of drugs (39%;p<0.001) and long-term use of drugs (3%;p=0.017) were significantly associated with non-adherence to medication.
  2. None of the Insulin-related factors i.e. phobia (13.04%;p=0.441), negative impact (13.04%;p=0.441), less flexibility (60.86%;p=0.595), don't know the way of taking insulin (52.17%;p=0.983) and others (17.39%,p=0.67) were significantly associated with non-adherence.
  3. Amongst social factors:- Function(12%;p=0.881), no support (27%;p=0.005), patient not well (23%;p=0.004), travelling (42%,p=0.158) and illness in family (5%;p=0.658). No support from family and patient not well were significantly associated with non-adherence.
  4. None of the disease-related (duration, poor perception & unawareness) and psychological factors (forgetfulness & willful default) were significantly associated with non-adherence.
  5. Miscellaneous factors:- Frequency of visits (20%,p=0.034), lack of communication (53%,p<0.001) and SMBG related issues (74%,p=0.029) were significantly associated with non-adherence. Others factors like distance, covid-related and alternate therapy were not significantly associated with non-adherence.
Patients with good adherence had significantly lower HbA1c (p=0.044).Patients with good adherence had lesser prevalence of target organ damage but it was not significantly associated with non-adherence except nephropathy (66%;p=0.039). Also, association of medication adherence with metabolic complications was found to be insignificant. CONCLUSION: Non-adherence to medication in patients with Type 2 DM is significantly associated with cost of medication, non-availability of medication, long-term use, no support from family, patient not well, frequency of visits, lack of communication and SMBG related issues. Non-adherence impairs glycemic control and effects target organ damage to some extent.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Medication Adherence
5.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 21(1): 50, 2022 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779649

ABSTRACT

The 7th Cardiovascular Outcome Trial (CVOT) Summit on Cardiovascular, Renal, and Glycemic Outcomes, was held virtually on November 18-19, 2021. Pursuing the tradition of the previous summits, this reference congress served as a platform for in-depth discussion and exchange on recently completed CVOTs. This year's focus was placed on the outcomes of EMPEROR-Preserved, FIGARO-DKD, AMPLITUDE-O, SURPASS 1-5, and STEP 1-5. Trial implications for diabetes and obesity management and the impact on new treatment algorithms were highlighted for endocrinologists, diabetologists, cardiologists, nephrologists, and general practitioners. Discussions evolved from outcome trials using SGLT2 inhibitors as therapy for heart failure, to CVOTs with nonsteroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and GLP-1 receptor agonists. Furthermore, trials for glycemic and overweight/obesity management, challenges in diabetes management in COVID-19, and novel guidelines and treatment strategies were discussed.Trial registration The 8th Cardiovascular Outcome Trial Summit will be held virtually on November 10-11, 2022 ( http://www.cvot.org ).


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus , Blood Glucose , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
6.
BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care ; 10(2)2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779347

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This post hoc pooled analysis of four real-world studies (SURE Canada, Denmark/Sweden, Switzerland and UK) aimed to characterize the use of once-weekly (OW) semaglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA), in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The Semaglutide Real-world Evidence (SURE) studies had a duration of ~30 weeks. Changes in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and body weight (BW) were analyzed for the overall population and the following baseline subgroups: GLP-1RA-naïve/GLP-1RA switchers; body mass index <25/≥25-<30/≥30-<35/≥35 kg/m2; age <65/≥65 years; HbA1c <7%/≥7-≤8%/>8-≤9%/>9%; T2D duration <5/≥5-<10/≥10 years. Data for patients achieving treatment targets were analyzed in the overall population and the baseline HbA1c ≥7% subgroup. RESULTS: Of 1212 patients, 960 were GLP-1RA-naïve and 252 had switched to semaglutide from another GLP-1RA. In the overall population, HbA1c was reduced from baseline to end of study (EOS) by -1.1% point and BW by -4.7 kg; changes were significant for all subgroups. There were significantly larger reductions of HbA1c and BW in GLP-1RA-naïve versus GLP-1RA switchers and larger reductions in HbA1c for patients with higher versus lower baseline HbA1c. At EOS, 52.6% of patients in the overall population achieved HbA1c <7%. No new safety concerns were identified in any of the completed SURE studies. CONCLUSIONS: In this pooled analysis, patients with T2D initiating OW semaglutide showed significant improvements from baseline to EOS in HbA1c and BW across various baseline subgroups, including patients previously treated with a GLP-1RA other than semaglutide, supporting OW semaglutide use in clinical practice. TRAIL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: NCT03457012; NCT03631186; NCT03648281; NCT03876015.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Aged , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Glucagon-Like Peptides/therapeutic use , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use
7.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 840580, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775657

ABSTRACT

Introduction: We report a case series of severe ketoacidosis after COVID-19 vaccination in a type 1 diabetes patients treated with insulin and an SGLT-2 inhibitor. Case Report: We present two cases of type 1 diabetes mellitus. One patient was treated with insulin therapy and an SGLT-2 inhibitor, and the other patient was treated with insulin therapy alone. Both patients became ill after coronavirus disease-2019 vaccination, making it difficult to continue their diet or insulin injections. On admission, they developed severe diabetic ketoacidosis. This is the first report of ketoacidosis after coronavirus disease-2019 vaccination. Conclusion: The vaccine should be carefully administered to type 1 diabetes patients receiving intensive insulin therapy and a sodium-glucose transporter due to the high risk ketoacidosis. It is important to instruct patients to drink sufficient fluids and to continue insulin injections when they become sick.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Ketosis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Vaccination/adverse effects
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5553, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768861

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new pandemic the entire world is facing since December of 2019. Several risk factors are identified in developing severe disease and one of which is preexisting type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metformin is known to have host-directed anti-viral and anti-inflammatory properties. However, whether these effects offer lower mortality remains unclear. In this retrospective study, we aim to address whether metformin use prior to admission decreases mortality in patients with COVID-19 and pre-existing type 2 diabetes mellitus. A total of 1356 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and pre-existing type 2 diabetes mellitus was analyzed by multivariable regression. Covariates that potentially confound the association were further adjusted using propensity score matching or inverse probability of treatment weighting. We found that metformin therapy prior to admission in patients with COVID-19 and type 2 diabetes mellitus was significantly associated with less primary outcome events including in-hospital mortality and hospice care enrollment with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.25 (95% CI 0.06-0.74) and less in-hospital length of stay, compared to the non-metformin group. Our results provide supporting evidence that metformin may confer increased survival in patients with COVID-19 and type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with metformin prior to hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Metformin , COVID-19/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/chemically induced , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Metformin/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies
10.
Metabolism ; 131: 155196, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768409

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is an independent predictor of poor outcomes in patients with COVID-19. We compared the effects of the preadmission use of antidiabetic medications on the in-hospital mortality of patients with COVID-19 having type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and Web of Science databases was performed to include studies (except case reports and review articles) published until November 30, 2021. We excluded papers regarding in-hospital use of antidiabetic medications. We used a random-effects meta-analysis to calculate the pooled OR (95% CI) and performed a sensitivity analysis to confirm the robustness of the meta-analyses. MAIN FINDINGS: We included 61 studies (3,061,584 individuals), which were rated as having low risk of bias. The OR (95% CI) indicated some medications protective against COVID-related death, including metformin [0.54 (0.47-0.62), I2 86%], glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) [0.51 (0.37-0.69), I2 85%], and sodium-glucose transporter-2 inhibitor (SGLT-2i) [0.60 (0.40-0.88), I2 91%]. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4i) [1.23 (1.07-1.42), I2 82%] and insulin [1.70 (1.33-2.19), I2 97%] users were more likely to die during hospitalization. Sulfonylurea, thiazolidinedione, and alpha-glucosidase inhibitor were mortality neutral [0.92 (95% CI 0.83-1.01, I2 44%), 0.90 (95% CI 0.71-1.14, I2 46%), and 0.61 (95% CI 0.26-1.45, I2 77%), respectively]. The sensitivity analysis indicated that our findings were robust. CONCLUSIONS: Metformin, GLP-1RA, and SGLT-2i were associated with lower mortality rate in patients with COVID-19 having type 2 diabetes. DPP-4i and insulin were linked to increased mortality. Sulfonylurea, thiazolidinedione, and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors were mortality neutral. These findings can have a large impact on the clinicians' decisions amid the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors , Insulins , Metformin , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Thiazolidinediones , COVID-19/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/pharmacology , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor/agonists , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Insulins/therapeutic use , Metformin/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Sulfonylurea Compounds/therapeutic use , Thiazolidinediones/therapeutic use
11.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 10(5): 311-321, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751533

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence suggesting that beyond the acute phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection, people with COVID-19 could experience a wide range of post-acute sequelae, including diabetes. However, the risks and burdens of diabetes in the post-acute phase of the disease have not yet been comprehensively characterised. To address this knowledge gap, we aimed to examine the post-acute risk and burden of incident diabetes in people who survived the first 30 days of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: In this cohort study, we used the national databases of the US Department of Veterans Affairs to build a cohort of 181 280 participants who had a positive COVID-19 test between March 1, 2020, and Sept 30, 2021, and survived the first 30 days of COVID-19; a contemporary control (n=4 118 441) that enrolled participants between March 1, 2020, and Sept 30, 2021; and a historical control (n=4 286 911) that enrolled participants between March 1, 2018, and Sept 30, 2019. Both control groups had no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Participants in all three comparison groups were free of diabetes before cohort entry and were followed up for a median of 352 days (IQR 245-406). We used inverse probability weighted survival analyses, including predefined and algorithmically selected high dimensional variables, to estimate post-acute COVID-19 risks of incident diabetes, antihyperglycaemic use, and a composite of the two outcomes. We reported two measures of risk: hazard ratio (HR) and burden per 1000 people at 12 months. FINDINGS: In the post-acute phase of the disease, compared with the contemporary control group, people with COVID-19 exhibited an increased risk (HR 1·40, 95% CI 1·36-1·44) and excess burden (13·46, 95% CI 12·11-14·84, per 1000 people at 12 months) of incident diabetes; and an increased risk (1·85, 1·78-1·92) and excess burden (12·35, 11·36-13·38) of incident antihyperglycaemic use. Additionally, analyses to estimate the risk of a composite endpoint of incident diabetes or antihyperglycaemic use yielded a HR of 1·46 (95% CI 1·43-1·50) and an excess burden of 18·03 (95% CI 16·59-19·51) per 1000 people at 12 months. Risks and burdens of post-acute outcomes increased in a graded fashion according to the severity of the acute phase of COVID-19 (whether patients were non-hospitalised, hospitalised, or admitted to intensive care). All the results were consistent in analyses using the historical control as the reference category. INTERPRETATION: In the post-acute phase, we report increased risks and 12-month burdens of incident diabetes and antihyperglycaemic use in people with COVID-19 compared with a contemporary control group of people who were enrolled during the same period and had not contracted SARS-CoV-2, and a historical control group from a pre-pandemic era. Post-acute COVID-19 care should involve identification and management of diabetes. FUNDING: US Department of Veterans Affairs and the American Society of Nephrology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
12.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(3)2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742545

ABSTRACT

Metformin (MTF) occupies a major and fundamental position in the therapeutic management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Gender differences in some effects and actions of MTF have been reported. Women are usually prescribed lower MTF doses compared to men and report more gastrointestinal side effects. The incidence of cardiovascular events in women on MTF has been found to be lower to that of men on MTF. Despite some promising results with MTF regarding pregnancy rates in women with PCOS, the management of gestational diabetes, cancer prevention or adjunctive cancer treatment and COVID-19, most robust meta-analyses have yet to confirm such beneficial effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Metformin , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome , COVID-19/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Male , Metformin/pharmacology , Metformin/therapeutic use , Pregnancy , Sex Factors
13.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 186: 109812, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739664

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Muslim people with T1DM should be actively discouraged from fasting during the COVID-19 pandemic, as diabetes has emerged as a significant risk factor for adverse outcomes of COVID-19 infection. We report the experience of young patients with type 1, type 2 and other types diabetes who fasted during Ramadan 2020 at the time of the COVID-19 pandemic time lockdown. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A Post- Ramadan survey was designed for young patients who fasted during Ramadan in 2020 during COVID pandemic time. The study was conducted to compared the basal characteristics and other parameters in children and adolescents (<18 years), with young adults (≥18 years) with diabetes at Paediatric Diabetes Center in BIRDEM in Bangladesh. RESULTS: Among the study participants, a significantly higher number of participants were in older age group who fasted for more than 15 days (p = 0.045). A considerable proportion (30.7%) of patients developed mild hypoglycaemia, and only eight patients (2.6%) developed moderate to severe hypoglycemia. There was significant reduction of post Ramadan basal insulin dose in both groups (p = 0.001). Although increased bolus insulin dose requirements were observed in older age group, but decreased requirement was observed in younger age group during Ramadan (p = 0.001). Post Ramadan median HbA1C in both groups was increased with marked increase in older age group compared to younger age group though it did not reach the statistical significance. (p = 0.239) CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 pandemic had minor impact on fasting during Ramadan in our cohort, they could fast safely with less complications during Ramadan. Our data supports Ramadan focused diabetes education with ample self-care, young people with diabetes can fast safely during Ramadan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Hypoglycemia , Adolescent , Aged , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Fasting/adverse effects , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Hypoglycemia/epidemiology , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Islam , Pandemics , Young Adult
15.
Diabetes Technol Ther ; 24(6): 409-415, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713550

ABSTRACT

Background: Technology for patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), including continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), insulin pumps, and hybrid closed-loop (HCL) systems, is improving, being used more commonly in the pediatric population, and impacts glycemic control. Materials and Methods: We evaluated the use of these technologies and their impact on glycemic control among patients with T1D who were seen at the Barbara Davis Center (n = 4003) between January 2018 and December 2020, <22 years old, with diabetes duration >3 months. Data were analyzed by age group and technology-use group defined as multiple daily injection with blood glucose meter (MDI/BGM), pump with BGM (pump/BGM), MDI with CGM (MDI/CGM), and pump with CGM (pump/CGM). Glycemic control was compared using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and controlling for diabetes duration, race, and insurance. Results: Among 4003 patients, 20% used MDI/BGM (mean hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] = 10.0%); 14.4% used pump/BGM (mean HbA1c = 10.0%); 15.4% used MDI/CGM (mean HbA1c = 8.6%); and 49.8% used pump/CGM (mean HbA1c = 8.1%). Compared with MDI/BGM patients, MDI/CGM and pump/CGM users had a lower HbA1c and were more likely to reach an HbA1c <7.0% (all P < 0.0001). Among pump/CGM users, 35% used HCL technology (mean HbA1c = 7.6%) and had a lower HbA1c and were more likely to reach an HbA1c <7% than non-HCL users (P < 0.001). Conclusions: CGM use was associated with a lower HbA1c in both MDI and pump users. Pump use was only associated with a lower HbA1c if used with CGM. HCL was associated with the lowest HbA1c. Spanish language and minority race/ethnicity were associated with lower rates of pump and CGM use, highlighting the need to reduce disparities.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Adult , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Glycemic Control , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Insulin Infusion Systems , Technology , Young Adult
16.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 79(12): 950-959, 2022 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692260

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Despite high type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) prevalence in Medicare enrollees, newer therapeutic options, and revised treatment guidelines, little is known about US antihyperglycemic prescribing trends after 2015. This research describes recent monthly antihyperglycemic prescribing trends in a large, diverse population of Medicare enrollees from the US Mid-Atlantic region. METHODS: Encounter data (July 2018-July 2020) for Medicare enrollees 65 years of age or older with T2DM were extracted from electronic health records of a large integrated health system. Descriptive time-series regression models were estimated to describe monthly prescribing rates (ie, prescription orders per 100 eligible plan members with T2DM) overall and by medication subgroups for all-eligible and continuously-eligible samples. Trends in monthly prescription orders per 100 eligible plan members with T2DM were reported. RESULTS: The monthly all-eligible member sample (n > 22,000) exhibited an overall positive baseline monthly prescribing rate of 23.88 T2DM medication orders per 100 members with T2DM and a significant positive monthly prescribing rate trend (ie, change) of 0.12 T2DM medication orders per 100 members with T2DM (P < 0.05). Subgroup T2DM medication order rates per 100 members with T2DM at baseline were 16.28 for first-generation medications, 3.87 for human insulins, 3.04 for insulin analogs, 0.58 for second-generation medications, and 0.11 for combination medications. Human insulins, insulin analogs, and second-generation medications had positive monthly trends (P < 0.05). Among second-generation medications, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) agonists had positive monthly trends (P < 0.05). Continuously eligible members with T2DM (n = 19,185) had no significant overall monthly prescribing trend; however, human insulins, insulin analogs, and second-generation medications and the SGLT-2 inhibitor class had positive monthly prescribing trends (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: In a diverse Medicare sample, this study observed increasing monthly trends for second-generation medications, human insulins, and insulin analogs consistent with emerging evidence. Among second-generation medications, SGLT-2 inhibitors became the most commonly prescribed over time.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Aged , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Medicare , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , United States/epidemiology
17.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 23(4): 469-472, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685407

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Two vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are approved by the World Health Organization (WHO) for minors aged 12 years and over. Currently, people with both type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are prioritized for vaccination. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate possible glycemic control modification, insulin dose adjustment and adverse effects after COVID-19 vaccination in young T1D individuals, users of different technology levels. METHODS: Thirty-nine T1D individuals, who received a whole vaccination cycle of either Moderna or Pfizer- BioNTech vaccines, were enrolled, 24 of whom using advanced hybrid closed loop systems (AHCLs) and 15 using intermittently scanned continuous glucose monitoring (isCGM). Symptoms after each dose and the following variables were considered: time in range 70-180 mg/dl (TIR), time in different glucose ranges, mean glucose levels, coefficient of variation (CV), total daily dose (TDD) and bolus proportion RESULTS: No significant differences in TIR, time in different glucose ranges, mean glucose levels, TDD, bolus proportion, were observed before and after any dose nor before and after the whole vaccination cycle. CV was significantly lower after the whole vaccination cycle (CV pre-vaccination 35.1 ± 6.9% vs. CV post-vaccination 33.5 ± 6.3%; p 0.031) in subjects treated by AHCLs. Side effects after the vaccination were mild and more frequent after the second dose. No severe adverse reactions were reported. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccination was safe and not associated with significant perturbation of glycemic control in adolescents and young adults with T1D. This information could be of clinical use when counseling families about SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in young people with T1D.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Adolescent , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Glycemic Control , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects , Young Adult
19.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 53(2): 363-371, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638608

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with a greater risk of COVID-19 and an increased mortality when the disease is contracted. Metformin use in patients with DM is associated with less COVID-19-related mortality, but the underlying mechanism behind this association remains unclear. Our aim was to explore the effects of metformin on markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and hypercoagulability, and on clinical outcomes. Patients with DM on metformin (n = 34) and metformin naïve (n = 41), and patients without DM (n = 73) were enrolled within 48 h of hospital admission for COVID-19. Patients on metformin compared to naïve patients had a lower white blood cell count (p = 0.02), d-dimer (p = 0.04), urinary 11-dehydro thromboxane B2 (p = 0.01) and urinary liver-type fatty acid binding protein (p = 0.03) levels and had lower sequential organ failure assessment score (p = 0.002), and intubation rate (p = 0.03), fewer hospitalized days (p = 0.13), lower in-hospital mortality (p = 0.12) and lower mortality plus nonfatal thrombotic event occurrences (p = 0.10). Patients on metformin had similar clinical outcomes compared to patients without DM. In a multiple regression analysis, metformin use was associated with less days in hospital and lower intubation rate. In conclusion, metformin treatment in COVID-19 patients with DM was associated with lower markers of inflammation, renal ischemia, and thrombosis, and fewer hospitalized days and intubation requirement. Further focused studies are required to support these findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Hypoglycemic Agents , Metformin , Thrombosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/drug therapy , Metformin/therapeutic use , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Retrospective Studies , Thrombosis/drug therapy
20.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 48, 2022 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633014

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Between March 18th and May 13th 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak in Finland resulted in the closure of schools and the limitation of daycare (i.e. lockdown). Social distancing changed the daily routines of children with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Healthcare professionals were forced to adapt to the pandemic by replacing physical outpatient visits with virtual visits. However, the influence of the lockdown on glycemic control in these patients remained unknown. METHODS: In this retrospective register study from a pediatric diabetes outpatient clinic, we analyzed the glycemic data of T1D patients (n = 245; aged 4 to 16 years) before and under the lockdown. All the participants used continuous glucose monitoring (rtCGM or iCGM), two-thirds were on insulin pumps (CSII), and one-third on multiple daily insulin injections (MDI) therapy. RESULTS: In our patient cohort, time in range (TIR, n = 209) and mean glucose levels (n = 214) were similar prior to and under the lockdown (mean change 0.44% [95%CI: -1.1-2.0], p = 0.56 and -0.13 mmol/mol [95%CI: -0.3-0.1], p = 0.17, respectively). However, children treated with CSII improved their glycemic control significantly during the lockdown: TIR improved on average 2.4% [0.6-4.2] (p = 0.010) and mean blood glucose level decreased -0.3 mmol/mol [-0.6-(-0.1)] (p = 0.008). The difference was more pronounced in girls, adolescents and patients using conventional insulin pumps. CONCLUSIONS: The glycemic control in T1D children did not deteriorate under the lockdown, and patients on CSII even improved their control, which suggests that social distancing might have allowed families to use the insulin pump more accurately as out-of-home activities were on hold.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Adolescent , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Female , Glycemic Control , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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