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1.
Acta Biomed ; 92(5): e2021474, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504914

ABSTRACT

Hyponatraemia is frequently encountered in adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and is associated with poor prognosis. This review aims to describe for the first time the prevalence, aetiology, prognostic value, pathophysiology, and management of hyponatraemia in children and adolescents with COVID-19, taking into account all relevant studies published in PubMed and Cochrane Library studies until 26th September 2021. Literature search did not detect any studies evaluating the prevalence and prognostic value of sodium disorders in paediatric patients with COVID-19. A broader literature review showed a high prevalence of hyponatraemia in children with bacterial pneumonia, while some studies have reported that hyponatraemia is relatively common in Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). In adults with COVID-19, an inverse association between sodium and interleukin-6 levels has been found, indicating that hyponatraemia could be used as a surrogate marker for the risk of cytokine storm and may facilitate the identification of patients who could benefit from immunomodulatory agents. Studies are urgently needed to evaluate the frequency and prognostic impact of electrolyte abnormalities in children with COVID-19. In the meantime, clinicians are urged to consider hyponatraemia in children with COVID-19 as a potential red flag, investigate the cause and administer fluids and other therapies accordingly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hyponatremia , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Hyponatremia/epidemiology , Hyponatremia/etiology , Hyponatremia/therapy , Prevalence , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
2.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 185(1): 137-144, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477604

ABSTRACT

Objective: Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder in hospitalized patients and occurs in about 30% of patients with pneumonia. Hyponatremia has been associated with a worse outcome in several pathologic conditions The main objective of this study was to determine whether serum sodium alterations may be independent predictors of the outcome of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Design and methods: In this observational study, data from 441 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to a University Hospital were collected. After excluding 61 patients (no serum sodium at admission available, saline solution infusion before sodium assessment, transfer from another hospital), data from 380 patients were analyzed. Results: 274 (72.1%) patients had normonatremia at admission, 87 (22.9%) patients had hyponatremia and 19 (5%) patients had hypernatremia. We found an inverse correlation between serum sodium and IL-6, whereas a direct correlation between serum sodium and PaO2/FiO2 ratio was observed. Patients with hyponatremia had a higher prevalence of non-invasive ventilation and ICU transfer than those with normonatremia or hypernatremia. Hyponatremia was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (2.7-fold increase vs normonatremia) and each mEq/L of serum sodium reduction was associated with a 14.4% increased risk of death. Conclusions: These results suggest that serum sodium at admission may be considered as an early prognostic marker of disease severity in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sodium/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Female , Fluorocarbons/blood , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hydrocarbons, Brominated/blood , Hypernatremia/epidemiology , Hyponatremia/epidemiology , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS Virus
3.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 185(4): G35-G42, 2021 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448609

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has changed the nature of medical consultations, emphasizing virtual patient counselling, with relevance for patients with diabetes insipidus (DI) or hyponatraemia. The main complication of desmopressin treatment in DI is dilutional hyponatraemia. Since plasma sodium monitoring is not always possible in times of COVID-19, we recommend to delay the desmopressin dose once a week until aquaresis occurs allowing excess retained water to be excreted. Patients should measure their body weight daily. Patients with DI admitted to the hospital with COVID-19 have a high risk for mortality due to volume depletion. Specialists must supervise fluid replacement and dosing of desmopressin. Patients after pituitary surgery should drink to thirst and measure their body weight daily to early recognize the development of postoperative SIAD. They should know hyponatraemia symptoms. Hyponatraemia in COVID-19 is common with a prevalence of 20-30% and is mostly due to SIAD or hypovolaemia. It mirrors disease severity and is an early predictor of mortality. Hypernatraemia may also develop in COVID-19 patients, with a prevalence of 3-5%, especially in ICU, and derives from different multifactorial reasons, for example, due to insensible water losses from pyrexia, increased respiration rate and use of diuretics. Hypernatraemic dehydration may contribute to the high risk of acute kidney injury in COVID-19. IV fluid replacement should be administered with caution in severe cases of COVID-19 because of the risk of pulmonary oedema.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Insipidus/therapy , Endocrinology/standards , Hyponatremia/therapy , Ambulatory Care/methods , Ambulatory Care/standards , Consensus , Diabetes Insipidus/epidemiology , Diabetes Insipidus/pathology , Distance Counseling/methods , Distance Counseling/standards , Endocrinology/history , Endocrinology/trends , Expert Testimony , History, 21st Century , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hyponatremia/epidemiology , Hyponatremia/pathology , Pandemics , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/history , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/standards , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Telemedicine/history , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/standards
4.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 185(4): R103-R111, 2021 Sep 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348376

ABSTRACT

This review examines the prevalence, aetiology, pathophysiology, prognostic value, and investigation of dysnatraemia in hospitalised COVID-19 patients, taking into account all relevant studies published in PubMed and Cochrane Library studies until March 2021. Hyponatraemia is commonly observed in patients with bacterial pneumonia and is an independent predictor for excess mortality and morbidity. However, it remains unknown whether this association applies to coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Several studies reported a 20-35% prevalence for hyponatraemia and 2-5% for hypernatraemia in patients admitted with COVID-19. In addition, hyponatraemia on admission was a risk factor for progression to severe disease, being associated with an increased likelihood for the need for invasive mechanical ventilation, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.83-3.30. Hyponatraemia seems to be an independent risk factor for mortality, with an OR of 1.40-1.50 compared to normonatraemia, while hypernatraemia is related to even worse outcomes than hyponatraemia. Furthermore, preliminary data show an inverse association between serum sodium and interleukin-6 levels, suggesting that hyponatraemia might be used as a surrogate marker for the risk of a cytokine storm and the need for treatment with interleukin antagonists. In conclusion, dysnatraemia is common and carries a poor prognosis in COVID-19 patients, indicating that it may play a future role in risk stratification and individualising therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypernatremia , Hyponatremia , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hypernatremia/diagnosis , Hypernatremia/epidemiology , Hypernatremia/etiology , Hypernatremia/therapy , Hyponatremia/diagnosis , Hyponatremia/epidemiology , Hyponatremia/etiology , Hyponatremia/therapy , Pandemics , Predictive Value of Tests , Prevalence , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
5.
J Nephrol ; 34(4): 991-998, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171147

ABSTRACT

AIM: Our objective was to describe the impact of hyponatremia on the outcomes of COVID-19 patients [outcomes selected: intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation or death]. METHODS: Two groups of COVID-19 patients were retrospectively screened on the basis of plasma sodium level at admission: hyponatremic (sodium < 135 mM, n = 92) or normonatremic (sodium ≥ 135 mM, n = 198) patients. Pearson's chi-2 (qualitative variables) and Student's T tests (quantitative variables) were used to compare the two groups. A multiple logistic regression model was used to explore the association between patients' clinical data and outcomes. RESULTS: Hyponatremia was frequent but generally mild. There were more male patients in the hyponatremic group (p = 0.014). Pulmonary lesions on the first thoracic CT-scan performed during hospitalization were significantly more extensive in the hyponatremic group (p = 0.010). ICU admission, mechanical ventilation or death were significantly more frequent in hyponatremic compared to normonatremic patients (37 versus 14%; p < 0.001; 17 versus 6%; p = 0.003; 18 versus 9%, p = 0.042, respectively). Hyponatremia was an independent predictor of adverse outcomes (adjusted Odds-ratio: 2.77 [1.26-6.15, p = 0.011]). CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed an independent relationship between hyponatremia at admission and transfer to ICU, use of mechanical ventilation or death in COVID-19 patients. Hyponatremia may reflect the severity of underlying pulmonary lesions. Our results support the use of sodium levels as a simple bedside screening tool for the early identification of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients at high risk of poor outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hyponatremia , Female , Humans , Hyponatremia/diagnosis , Hyponatremia/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium
6.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 184(3): 409-418, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1034947

ABSTRACT

Objective: The pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has rapidly spread globally and infected millions of people. The prevalence and prognostic impact of dysnatremia in COVID-19 is inconclusive. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence and outcome of dysnatremia in COVID-19. Design: The prospective, observational, cohort study included consecutive patients with clinical suspicion of COVID-19 triaged to a Swiss Emergency Department between March and July 2020. Methods: Collected data included clinical, laboratory and disease severity scoring parameters on admission. COVID-19 cases were identified based on a positive nasopharyngeal swab test for SARS-CoV-2, patients with a negative swab test served as controls. The primary analysis was to assess the prognostic impact of dysnatremia on 30-day mortality using a cox proportional hazard model. Results: 172 (17%) cases with COVID-19 and 849 (83%) controls were included. Patients with COVID-19 showed a higher prevalence of hyponatremia compared to controls (28.1% vs 17.5%, P < 0.001); while comparable for hypernatremia (2.9% vs 2.1%, P = 0.34). In COVID-19 but not in controls, hyponatremia was associated with a higher 30-day mortality (HR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.10-16.62, P = 0.05). In both groups, hypernatremia on admission was associated with higher 30-day mortality (COVID-19 - HR: 11.5, 95% CI: 5.00-26.43, P < 0.001; controls - HR: 5.3, 95% CI: 1.60-17.64, P = 0.006). In both groups, hyponatremia and hypernatremia were significantly associated with adverse outcome, for example, intensive care unit admission, longer hospitalization and mechanical ventilation. Conclusion: Our results underline the importance of dysnatremia as predictive marker in COVID-19. Treating physicians should be aware of appropriate treatment measures to be taken for patients with COVID-19 and dysnatremia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hypernatremia/diagnosis , Hypernatremia/epidemiology , Hyponatremia/diagnosis , Hyponatremia/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hypernatremia/complications , Hypernatremia/therapy , Hyponatremia/complications , Hyponatremia/therapy , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Pandemics , Prevalence , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland/epidemiology , Triage
7.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(1)2021 Jan 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1016197

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, humanity faces one of the most serious health crises, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. The severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is related to the high rate of interhuman transmission of the virus, variability of clinical presentation, and the absence of specific therapeutic methods. COVID-19 can manifest with non-specific symptoms and signs, especially among the elderly. In some cases, the clinical manifestations of hyponatremia may be the first to appear. The pathophysiological mechanisms of hyponatremia among patients with COVID-19 are diverse, including syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), digestive loss of sodium ions, reduced sodium ion intake or use of diuretic therapy. Hyponatremia may also be considered a negative prognostic factor in patients diagnosed with COVID-19. We need further studies to evaluate the etiology and therapeutic management of hyponatremia in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Hyponatremia/metabolism , Inappropriate ADH Syndrome/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Diuretics/adverse effects , Fluid Therapy/methods , Humans , Hyponatremia/epidemiology , Hyponatremia/etiology , Hyponatremia/therapy , Inappropriate ADH Syndrome/etiology , Incidence , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Saline Solution, Hypertonic/therapeutic use , Sodium, Dietary
8.
Intern Emerg Med ; 16(4): 853-862, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-871549

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The worldwide spread of SARS-CoV-2 has infected millions of people leading to over 0.3 million mortalities. The disruption of sodium homeostasis, tends to be a common occurrence in patients with COVID-19. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 1,254 COVID-19 patients comprising 124 (9.9%) hyponatremic patients (under 135 mmol/L) and 30 (2.4%) hypernatremic patients (over 145 mmol/L) from three hospitals in Hubei, China, were enrolled in the study. The relationships between sodium balance disorders in COVID-19 patients, its clinical features, implications, and the underlying causes were presented. Hyponatremia patients were observed to be elderly, had more comorbidities, with severe pneumonic chest radiographic findings. They were also more likely to have a fever, nausea, higher leukocyte and neutrophils count, and a high sensitivity C-reactive protein (HS-CRP). Compared to normonatremia patients, renal insufficiency was common in both hyponatremia and hypernatremia patients. In addition, hyponatremia patients required extensive treatment with oxygen, antibiotics, and corticosteroids. The only significant differences between the hypernatremia and normonatremia patients were laboratory findings and clinical complications, and patients with hypernatremia were more likely to use traditional Chinese medicine for treatment compared to normonatremia patients. This study indicates that severity of the disease, the length of stay in the hospital of surviving patients, and mortality were higher among COVID-19 patients with sodium balance disorders. CONCLUSION: Sodium balance disorder, particularly hyponatremia, is a common condition among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Hubei, China, and it is associated with a higher risk of severe illness and increased in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hypernatremia/epidemiology , Hyponatremia/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , China , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypernatremia/diagnosis , Hypernatremia/therapy , Hyponatremia/diagnosis , Hyponatremia/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
10.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 32(7): 774-778, 2020 Jul.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-714510

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlation between hyponatremia and the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Clinical data of 12 patients with COVID-19 admitted to Shantou Central Hospital from January 23 to February 5 in 2020 were retrospectively analyzed, including gender, age, symptoms, lab test and clinical outcomes, to analyze the change trend of blood Na+ level in the patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: Among the 12 patients with COVID-19, there were 8 males and 4 females with the mean age of (38.0±16.3) years old, most of them were admitted to the hospital with cough and/or fever. All patients had a positive nucleic acid test for 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), and were discharged after clinical treatment with oxygen therapy, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and nutritional support. All patients were of ordinary type when they were admitted to the hospital. Among them, 1 patient turned into a severe case during the course of the disease, and 1 patient showed a tendency to become severe case. It was found that 10 patients without severe conversion had an average blood Na+ of (138.3±1.3) mmol/L at admission, and the lowest blood Na+ during the course of disease was (135.9±3.1) mmol/L. However, 2 patients who became severe and had a tendency to become severe disease (Na+ levels at admission were 140.0 mmol/L and 138.0 mmol/L, respectively) experienced hyponatremia during the course of the disease (the lowest blood Na+ levels were 129.0 mmol/L and 122.0 mmol/L). Further analysis showed that the lower serum Na+ level, the higher level of white blood cell count (WBC) and C-reactive protein (CRP), but serum Na+ level was consistent with the change trend of lymphocytes, suggesting that hyponatremia was closely correlated with severe inflammation reaction. CONCLUSIONS: Serum Na+ showed decreasing tendency during the development of COVID-19, and hyponatremia was closely related to the severity of COVID-19. It was necessary to pay great attention to the change trend of blood Na+ level. However, further research was needed to obtain more reliable conclusions and explorer the pathophysiological mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Hyponatremia/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
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