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N Engl J Med ; 387(2): 148-159, 2022 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931553


BACKGROUND: Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is an important cause of death as well as long-term disability in survivors. Erythropoietin has been hypothesized to have neuroprotective effects in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, but its effects on neurodevelopmental outcomes when given in conjunction with therapeutic hypothermia are unknown. METHODS: In a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we assigned 501 infants born at 36 weeks or more of gestation with moderate or severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy to receive erythropoietin or placebo, in conjunction with standard therapeutic hypothermia. Erythropoietin (1000 U per kilogram of body weight) or saline placebo was administered intravenously within 26 hours after birth, as well as at 2, 3, 4, and 7 days of age. The primary outcome was death or neurodevelopmental impairment at 22 to 36 months of age. Neurodevelopmental impairment was defined as cerebral palsy, a Gross Motor Function Classification System level of at least 1 (on a scale of 0 [normal] to 5 [most impaired]), or a cognitive score of less than 90 (which corresponds to 0.67 SD below the mean, with higher scores indicating better performance) on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, third edition. RESULTS: Of 500 infants in the modified intention-to-treat analysis, 257 received erythropoietin and 243 received placebo. The incidence of death or neurodevelopmental impairment was 52.5% in the erythropoietin group and 49.5% in the placebo group (relative risk, 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.86 to 1.24; P = 0.74). The mean number of serious adverse events per child was higher in the erythropoietin group than in the placebo group (0.86 vs. 0.67; relative risk, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.57). CONCLUSIONS: The administration of erythropoietin to newborns undergoing therapeutic hypothermia for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy did not result in a lower risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment than placebo and was associated with a higher rate of serious adverse events. (Funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; number, NCT02811263.).

Erythropoietin , Hypothermia, Induced , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain , Neuroprotective Agents , Administration, Intravenous , Cerebral Palsy/etiology , Double-Blind Method , Erythropoietin/administration & dosage , Erythropoietin/adverse effects , Erythropoietin/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypothermia, Induced/methods , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/complications , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/drug therapy , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/therapy , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Neuroprotective Agents/administration & dosage , Neuroprotective Agents/adverse effects , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use
Childs Nerv Syst ; 38(9): 1727-1734, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1888856


PURPOSE: To evaluate change in the severity of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and associated morbidities between pre- and during COVID-19 pandemic periods in Canada. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study extracting the data from level-3 NICUs participating in Canadian Neonatal Network (CNN). The primary outcome was a composite of death in the first week after birth and/or stage 3 HIE (Sarnat and Sarnat). Secondary outcomes included rate and severity of HIE among admitted neonates, overall mortality, brain injury on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), neonates requiring resuscitation, organ dysfunction, and therapeutic hypothermia (TH) usage. We included 1591 neonates with gestational age ≥ 36 weeks with HIE during the specified periods: pandemic cohort from April 1st to December 31st of 2020; pre-pandemic cohort between April 1st and December 31st of 2017, 2018, and 2019. We calculated the odds ratio (OR) and confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: We observed no significant difference in the primary outcome (15% vs. 16%; OR 1.08; 95%CI 0.78-1.48), mortality in the first week after birth (6% vs. 6%; OR 1.10, 95%CI 0.69-1.75), neonates requiring resuscitation, organ dysfunction, TH usage, or rate of brain injury. In the ad hoc analysis, per 1000 live births, there was an increase in the rate of infants with HIE and TH use. CONCLUSIONS: Severity of HIE, associated morbidities, and mortality were not significantly different during the pandemic lockdown compared to a pre-pandemic period in Canada. Anticipated risks and difficulties in accessing healthcare have not increased the mortality and morbidities in neonates with HIE in Canada.

Brain Injuries , COVID-19 , Hypothermia, Induced , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain , Brain Injuries/complications , Canada/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/epidemiology , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/pathology , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/therapy , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Multiple Organ Failure/complications , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e057073, 2022 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854347


INTRODUCTION: Neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) is an important illness associated with death or cerebral palsy. This study aims to assess the safety and tolerability of the allogenic human multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring cell (Muse cell)-based product (CL2020) cells in newborns with HIE. This is the first clinical trial of CL2020 cells in neonates. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a single-centre, open-label, dose-escalation study enrolling up to 12 patients. Neonates with HIE who receive a course of therapeutic hypothermia therapy, which cools to a body temperature of 33°C-34°C for 72 hours, will be included in this study. A single intravenous injection of CL2020 cells will be administered between 5 and 14 days of age. Subjects in the low-dose and high-dose cohorts will receive 1.5 and 15 million cells per dose, respectively. The primary outcome is the occurrence of any adverse events within 12 weeks after administration. The main secondary outcome is the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development Third Edition score and the developmental quotient per the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development 2001 at 78 weeks. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study will be conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and Good Clinical Practice. The Nagoya University Hospital Institutional Review Board (No. 312005) approved this study on 13 November 2019. The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journal and reported in international conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: NCT04261335, jRCT2043190112.

Hypothermia, Induced , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain , Body Temperature , Humans , Hypothermia, Induced/methods , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/therapy , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Protective Devices , Research