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1.
Sci Prog ; 105(2): 368504221092891, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784977

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization; it has affected millions of people and caused hundreds of thousands of deaths. Patients with COVID-19 pneumonia may develop acute hypoxia respiratory failure and require noninvasive respiratory support or invasive respiratory management. Healthcare workers have a high risk of contracting COVID-19 while fitting respiratory devices. Recently, European experts have suggested that the use of helmet continuous positive airway pressure should be the first choice for acute hypoxia respiratory failure caused by COVID-19 because it reduces the spread of the virus in the ambient air. By contrast, in the United States, helmets were restricted for respiratory care before the COVID-19 pandemic until the Food and Drug Administration provided the 'Umbrella Emergency Use Authorization for Ventilators and Ventilator Accessories'. This narrative review provides an evidence-based overview of the use of helmet ventilation for patients with respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , COVID-19/epidemiology , Head Protective Devices/adverse effects , Humans , Hypoxia/complications , Noninvasive Ventilation/adverse effects , Pandemics , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy
2.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 172(3): 283-287, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611428

ABSTRACT

We studied laboratory parameters of patients with COVID-19 against the background of chronic pathologies (cardiovascular pathologies, obesity, type 2 diabetes melitus, and cardiovascular pathologies with allergy to statins). A decrease in pH and a shift in the electrolyte balance of blood plasma were revealed in all studied groups and were most pronounced in patients with cardiovascular pathologies with allergy to statin. It was found that low pH promotes destruction of lipid components of the erythrocyte membranes in patients with chronic pathologies, which was seen from a decrease in Na+/K+-ATPase activity and significant hyponatrenemia. In patients with cardiovascular pathologies and allergy to statins, erythrocyte membranes were most sensitive to a decrease in pH, while erythrocyte membranes of obese patients showed the greatest resistance to low pH and oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hyponatremia/etiology , Hypoxia/complications , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/physiology , Aged , COVID-19/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Case-Control Studies , Chronic Disease , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Drug Hypersensitivity/complications , Drug Hypersensitivity/metabolism , Drug Hypersensitivity/virology , Erythrocyte Membrane/metabolism , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Female , Fluid Shifts/physiology , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Hyponatremia/metabolism , Hyponatremia/virology , Hypoxia/metabolism , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Obesity/metabolism , Obesity/virology , Oxidative Stress/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sodium/metabolism , Stress, Physiological/physiology
3.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0260318, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542187

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic required careful management of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, to reduce ICU overload while facing limitations in resources. We implemented a standardized, physiology-based, ICU admission criteria and analyzed the mortality rate of patients refused from the ICU. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, COVID-19 patients proposed for ICU admission were consecutively analyzed; Do-Not-Resuscitate patients were excluded. Patients presenting an oxygen peripheral saturation (SpO2) lower than 85% and/or dyspnea and/or mental confusion resulted eligible for ICU admission; patients not presenting these criteria remained in the ward with an intensive monitoring protocol. Primary outcome was both groups' survival rate. Secondary outcome was a sub analysis correlating SpO2 cutoff with ICU admission. RESULTS: From March 2020 to January 2021, 1623 patients were admitted to our Center; 208 DNR patients were excluded; 97 patients were evaluated. The ICU-admitted group (n = 63) mortality rate resulted 15.9% at 28 days and 27% at 40 days; the ICU-refused group (n = 34) mortality rate resulted 0% at both intervals (p < 0.001). With a SpO2 cut-off of 85%, a significant correlation was found (p = 0.009), but with a 92% a cut-off there was no correlation with ICU admission (p = 0.26). A similar correlation was also found with dyspnea (p = 0.0002). CONCLUSION: In COVID-19 patients, standardized ICU admission criteria appeared to safely reduce ICU overload. In the absence of dyspnea and/or confusion, a SpO2 cutoff up to 85% for ICU admission was not burdened by negative outcomes. In a pandemic context, the SpO2 cutoff of 92%, as a threshold for ICU admission, needs critical re-evaluation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Critical Illness , Hospitalization , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Hypoxia/complications , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Partial Pressure , Referral and Consultation , Survival Rate
4.
Lipids Health Dis ; 20(1): 126, 2021 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448237

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2). At present, the COVID-19 has been prevalent worldwide for more than a year and caused more than four million deaths. Liver injury was frequently observed in patients with COVID-19. Recently, a new definition of metabolic dysfunction associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) was proposed by a panel of international experts, and the relationship between MAFLD and COVID-19 has been actively investigated. Several previous studies indicated that the patients with MAFLD had a higher prevalence of COVID-19 and a tendency to develop severe type of respiratory infection, and others indicated that liver injury would be exacerbated in the patients with MAFLD once infected with COVID-19. The mechanism underlying the relationship between MAFLD and COVID-19 infection has not been thoroughly investigated, and recent studies indicated that multifactorial mechanisms, such as altered host angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor expression, direct viral attack, disruption of cholangiocyte function, systemic inflammatory reaction, drug-induced liver injury, hepatic ischemic and hypoxic injury, and MAFLD-related glucose and lipid metabolic disorders, might jointly contribute to both of the adverse hepatic and respiratory outcomes. In this review, we discussed the relationship between MAFLD and COVID-19 based on current available literature, and summarized the recommendations for clinical management of MAFLD patients during the pandemic of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/complications , Hypoxia/complications , Liver/metabolism , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Age Factors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Dipeptides/therapeutic use , Gene Expression Regulation , Glucose/metabolism , Glycyrrhizic Acid/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Hypoxia/pathology , Hypoxia/virology , Liver/drug effects , Liver/pathology , Liver/virology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/virology , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index
5.
Pharmacol Res ; 158: 104950, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318942

ABSTRACT

Patients affected by severe coronavirus induced disease-2019 (Covid-19) often experience hypoxemia due to alveolar involvement and endothelial dysfunction, which leads to the formation of micro thrombi in the pulmonary capillary vessels. Both hypoxemia and a prothrombotic diathesis have been associated with more severe disease and increased risk of death. To date, specific indications to treat this condition are lacking. This was a single center, investigator initiated, compassionate use, proof of concept, case control, phase IIb study (NCT04368377) conducted in the Intermediate Respiratory Care Unit of L. Sacco University Hospital in Milano, Italy. Our objective was to explore the effects of the administration of anti-platelet therapy on arterial oxygenation and clinical outcomes in patients with severe Covid-19 with hypercoagulability. We enrolled five consecutive patients with laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, severe respiratory failure requiring helmet continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and a pro-thrombotic state identified as a D-dimer > 3 times the upper limit of normal. Five patients matched for age, D-dimer value and SOFA score formed the control group. Beyond standard of care, treated patients received 25 µg/Kg/body weight tirofiban as bolus infusion, followed by a continuous infusion of 0.15 µg/Kg/body weight per minute for 48 hours. Before tirofiban, patients received acetylsalicylic acid 250 mg infusion and oral clopidogrel 300 mg; both were continued at a dose of 75 mg daily for 30 days. Fondaparinux2.5 mg/day sub-cutaneous was given for the duration of the hospital stay. All controls were receiving prophylactic or therapeutic dose heparin, according to local standard operating procedures. Treated patients consistently experienced a mean (SD) reduction in A-a O2 gradient of -32.6 mmHg (61.9, P = 0.154), -52.4 mmHg (59.4, P = 0.016) and -151.1 mmHg (56.6, P = 0.011; P = 0.047 vs. controls) at 24, 48 hours and 7 days after treatment. PaO2/FiO2 ratio increased by 52 mmHg (50, P = 0.172), 64 mmHg (47, P = 0.040) and 112 mmHg (51, P = 0.036) after 24, 48 hours and 7 days, respectively. All patients but one were successfully weaned from CPAP after 3 days. This was not true for the control group. No major adverse events were observed. Antiplatelet therapy might be effective in improving the ventilation/perfusion ratio in Covid-19 patients with severe respiratory failure. The effects might be sustained by the prevention and interference on forming clots in lung capillary vessels and by modulating megakaryocytes' function and platelet adhesion. Randomized clinical trials are urgently needed to confirm these results.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Aged , Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Clopidogrel/therapeutic use , Compassionate Use Trials , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Hypoxia/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Proof of Concept Study , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/blood , Thrombophilia/complications , Tirofiban/therapeutic use
6.
Auton Neurosci ; 235: 102855, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1312929

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An intriguing feature recently unveiled in some COVID-19 patients is the "silent hypoxemia" phenomenon, which refers to the discrepancy of subjective well-being sensation while suffering hypoxia, manifested as the absence of dyspnea. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics and predictors of silent hypoxemia in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study including consecutive hospitalized adult (≥ 18 years) patients with confirmed COVID-19 presenting to the emergency department with oxygen saturation (SpO2) ≤ 80% on room air from March 15 to June 30, 2020. We analyzed the characteristics, disease severity, and in-hospital outcomes of patients presenting with dyspnea and those without dyspnea (silent hypoxemia). RESULTS: We studied 470 cases (64.4% men; median age 55 years, interquartile range 46-64). There were 447 (95.1%) patients with dyspnea and 23 (4.9%) with silent hypoxemia. The demographic and clinical characteristics, comorbidities, laboratory and imaging findings, disease severity, and outcomes were similar between groups. Higher breathing and heart rates correlated significantly with lower SpO2 in patients with dyspnea but not in those with silent hypoxemia. Independent predictors of silent hypoxemia were the presence of new-onset headache (OR 2.919, 95% CI 1.101-7.742; P = 0.031) and presenting to the emergency department within the first eight days after symptoms onset (OR 3.183, 95% CI 1.024-9.89; P = 0.045). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with silent hypoxemia sought medical attention earlier and had new-onset headache more often. They were also likely to display lower hemodynamic compensatory responses to hypoxemia, which may underestimate the disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hypoxia/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dyspnea/complications , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypoxia/complications , Hypoxia/epidemiology , Inpatients , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies
7.
Auton Neurosci ; 235: 102842, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293578

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus-19 (COVID-19), the infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus, has wreaked havoc across the globe since its emergence in December 2019. Reports of patients presenting with syncope and pre-syncope, as well as hypoxemia without symptoms of dyspnea ("silent hypoxemia"), have led researchers to speculate whether SARS-CoV-2 can alter autonomic nervous system function. As viral infections are commonly reported triggers of altered autonomic control, we must consider whether SARS-CoV-2 can also interfere with autonomic activity, at least in some patients. As we are still in the early stages of understanding COVID-19, we still do not know whether syncope and silent hypoxemia are more strongly associated with COVID-19 compared to any other viral infections that severely compromise gas exchange. Therefore, in this perspective we discuss these two intriguing clinical presentations, as they relate to autonomic nervous system function. In our discussion, we will explore COVID-specific, as well as non-COVID specific mechanisms that may affect autonomic activity and potential therapeutic targets. As we move forward in our understanding of COVID-19, well-designed prospective studies with appropriate control and comparator groups will be necessary to identify potential unique effects of COVID-19 on autonomic function.


Subject(s)
Autonomic Nervous System Diseases/complications , COVID-19/complications , Hypoxia/complications , Syncope/complications , Autonomic Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Humans , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Syncope/physiopathology
8.
Life Sci ; 281: 119718, 2021 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1271709

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Hypoxia, a pathophysiological condition, is profound in several cardiopulmonary diseases (CPD). Every individual's lethality to a hypoxia state differs in terms of hypoxia exposure time, dosage units and dependent on the individual's genetic makeup. Most of the proposed markers for CPD were generally aim to distinguish disease samples from normal samples. Although, as per the 2018 GOLD guidelines, clinically useful biomarkers for several cardio pulmonary disease patients in stable condition have yet to be identified. We attempt to address these key issues through the identification of Dynamic Network Biomarkers (DNB) to detect hypoxia induced early warning signals of CPD before the catastrophic deterioration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The human microvascular endothelial tissues microarray datasets (GSE11341) of lung and cardiac expose to hypoxia (1% O2) for 3, 24 and 48 h were retrieved from the public repository. The time dependent differentially expressed genes were subjected to tissue specificity and promoter analysis to filtrate the noise levels in the networks and to dissect the tissue specific hypoxia induced genes. These filtered out genes were used to construct the dynamic segmentation networks. The hypoxia induced dynamic differentially expressed genes were validated in the lung and heart tissues of male rats. These rats were exposed to hypobaric hypoxia (simulated altitude of 25,000 or PO2 - 282 mm of Hg) progressively for 3, 24 and 48 h. KEY FINDINGS: To identify the temporal key genes regulated in hypoxia, we ranked the dominant genes based on their consolidated topological features from tissue specific networks, time dependent networks and dynamic networks. Overall topological ranking described VEGFA as a single node dynamic hub and strongly communicated with tissue specific genes to carry forward their tissue specific information. We named this type of VEGFAcentric dynamic networks as "V-DNBs". As a proof of principle, our methodology helped us to identify the V-DNBs specific for lung and cardiac tissues namely V-DNBL and V-DNBC respectively. SIGNIFICANCE: Our experimental studies identified VEGFA, SLC2A3, ADM and ENO2 as the minimum and sufficient candidates of V-DNBL. The dynamic expression patterns could be readily exploited to capture the pre disease state of hypoxia induced pulmonary vascular remodelling. Whereas in V-DNBC the minimum and sufficient candidates are VEGFA, SCL2A3, ADM, NDRG1, ENO2 and BHLHE40. The time dependent single node expansion indicates V-DNBC could also be the pre disease state pathological hallmark for hypoxia-associated cardiovascular remodelling. The network cross-talk and expression pattern between V-DNBL and V-DNBC are completely distinct. On the other hand, the great clinical advantage of V-DNBs for pre disease predictions, a set of samples during the healthy condition should suffice. Future clinical studies might further shed light on the predictive power of V-DNBs as prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers for CPD.


Subject(s)
Heart Diseases/metabolism , Hypoxia/metabolism , Lung Diseases/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Animals , Biomarkers/metabolism , Clinical Deterioration , Gene Expression Regulation , Heart Diseases/etiology , Heart Diseases/pathology , Humans , Hypoxia/complications , Hypoxia/genetics , Lung Diseases/etiology , Lung Diseases/pathology , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
9.
Ethiop J Health Sci ; 31(2): 223-228, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280870

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the occurrence of COVID-19 in the world, it has claimed nearly 1.39 million human lives in the world and more than 1500 lives in Ethiopia. The number of deaths is increasing with variable distribution in the world. Despite its increasing fatality, the clinical characteristics of the deceased patients are not yet fully known. Analyzing the clinical characteristics of deceased patients will help to improve the outcome of infected patients. Hence, this study aimed to determine the clinical characteristics of patients who died due to COVID-19 in Ethiopia. METHODS: Hospital based multi-center cross-sectional study was conducted using chart review of deceased patients. Since the number of COVID-19 related deaths was limited, all consecutive COVID-19 related hospital deaths were analyzed. The data was entered into and analyzed using SPSS version 25.0. Descriptive statistics was used to explain the data collected from the survey. RESULT: A total of 92 deceased patient charts were analyzed. Of these patients, 65(71%) were males. Age ranged from 17 to 92 years (mean age being 59 years). On arrival vital signs, 60.5% of them had hypoxia, 49% had tachycardia and only 32% of patients had fever. Three fourth of the patients 64/85 had at least one comorbidity. Diabetes mellitus (DM) was the commonest comorbidity accounting for 445.9%, followed by hypertension, 23/85(27%), and HIV/ AIDS, 15/85 (17.5%). CONCLUSION: The results of this study showed that COVID-19 deceased patients presented with respiratory failure and hypoxia. However, less than a third of these patients had fever. In addition, the presence of comorbid illnesses and non-COVID-19 diseases like AIDS defining illness in significant amount needs further study to identify their level of contribution to the increasing burden of COVID-19 deaths in Ethiopia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hypoxia/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
11.
Recenti Prog Med ; 112(5): 378-386, 2021 05.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232491

ABSTRACT

High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) are an oxygen therapy device developed in the last years for the treatment of patients with acute or acute on chronic hypoxemic respiratory failure with different etiology and severity (including covid-19 pneumonia). HFNC combine the possibility of delivering high flows of gases, actively humidified and heated, with the use of a comfortable nasal interface, resulting generally well tolerated by most patients. In light of these characteristics, together with the simplicity of use and versatility, they have spread not only in intensive and semi-intensive care units but also in general medical ward in which they can play an important role in the treatment of elderly, frail patients with comorbidity where other more aggressive and invasive methods of ventilations are not indicated or not practicable.


Subject(s)
Cannula , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/instrumentation , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Acidosis, Respiratory/complications , Acidosis, Respiratory/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Equipment Design , Heart Failure/complications , Heart Failure/therapy , Humans , Hypoxia/complications , Hypoxia/therapy , Internal Medicine , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Palliative Care , Pulmonary Edema/complications , Pulmonary Edema/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications
12.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(4): e27503, 2021 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219469

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A decrease in the level of pulse oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry (SpO2) is an indicator of hypoxemia that may occur in various respiratory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), sleep apnea syndrome, and COVID-19. Currently, no mass-market wrist-worn SpO2 monitor meets the medical standards for pulse oximeters. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this monocentric and prospective clinical study with single-blind analysis was to test and validate the accuracy of the reflective pulse oximeter function of the Withings ScanWatch to measure SpO2 levels at different stages of hypoxia. The secondary objective was to confirm the safety of this device when used as intended. METHODS: To achieve these objectives, we included 14 healthy participants aged 23-39 years in the study, and we induced several stable plateaus of arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) ranging from 100%-70% to mimic nonhypoxic conditions and then mild, moderate, and severe hypoxic conditions. We measured the SpO2 level with a Withings ScanWatch on each participant's wrist and the SaO2 from blood samples with a co-oximeter, the ABL90 hemoximeter (Radiometer Medical ApS). RESULTS: After removal of the inconclusive measurements, we obtained 275 and 244 conclusive measurements with the two ScanWatches on the participants' right and left wrists, respectively, evenly distributed among the 3 predetermined SpO2 groups: SpO2≤80%, 80%

Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Hypoxia/blood , Hypoxia/complications , Oximetry/standards , Wrist , Adult , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Lung Diseases/blood , Lung Diseases/complications , Male , Monitoring, Physiologic , Oximetry/adverse effects , Oxygen/blood , Prospective Studies , Single-Blind Method , Young Adult
13.
J Emerg Nurs ; 47(2): 279-287.e1, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195353

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In March and April 2020 of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, site clinical practice guidelines were implemented for prone positioning of patients with suspected coronavirus disease 2019 in hypoxic respiratory distress who are awake, alert, and spontaneously breathing. The purpose of this pandemic disaster practice improvement project was to measure changes in pulse oximetry associated with prone positioning of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 infection in adult acute respiratory distress or adult respiratory distress syndrome, who are awake, alert, spontaneously breathing, and nonintubated. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients who were coronavirus disease 2019 positive in the emergency department from March 30, 2020 to April 30, 2020 was conducted for patients with a room air pulse oximetry <90% and a preprone position pulse oximetry ≤94% who tolerated prone positioning for at least 30 minutes. The primary outcome was the change in pulse oximetry associated with prone positioning, measured on room air, with supplemental oxygen, and approximately 30 minutes after initiating prone positioning. Median and mean differences were compared with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and paired t-test. RESULTS: Of the 440 patients with coronavirus disease 2019, 31 met inclusion criteria. Median pulse oximetry increased as 83% (interquartile range, 75%-86%) on room air, 90% (interquartile range, 89%-93%) with supplemental oxygen, and 96% (interquartile range, 94%-98%) with prone positioning (z = -4.48, P < .001). A total of 45% (n = 14) were intubated during their hospital stay, and 26% (n = 8) of the included patients died. DISCUSSION: In patients with coronavirus disease 2019 who are awake, alert, and spontaneously breathing, an initially low pulse oximetry reading improved with prone positioning. Future studies are needed to determine the association of prone positioning with subsequent endotracheal intubation and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Patient Positioning/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Female , Humans , Hypoxia/complications , Hypoxia/diagnosis , Hypoxia/therapy , Intubation, Intratracheal , Male , Medical Records , Middle Aged , New Jersey , Oximetry , Prone Position , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e928837, 2021 Feb 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1161104

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) in March 2020. To further reveal the pathologic associations between coronavirus and hypoxemia, we report the findings of 4 complete systematic autopsies of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-positive individuals who died of multiple organ failure caused by severe hypoxemia. MATERIAL AND METHODS We examined the donated corpses of 4 deceased patients who had been diagnosed with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. A complete post-mortem examination was carried out on each corpse, and multiple organs were macroscopically examined. RESULTS The 4 corpses were 2 males and 2 females, with an average age of 69 years. Bilateral lungs showed various degrees of atrophy and consolidation, with diffusely tough and solid texture in the sections. A thromboembolism was found in the main pulmonary artery extending into the atrium in 1 corpse, and significant atherosclerotic plaques tagged in the inner wall of the aortic arch were found in 2 corpses. Two corpses were found to have slightly atrophied bilateral renal parenchyma. Atrophic changes in the spleen were found in 2 corpses. Notably, there were significantly expanded alveolar septa and prominent fibroblastic proliferation. CONCLUSIONS The laboratory data of these corpses showed a progressive decrease in blood oxygen saturation, followed by refractory and irreversible hypoxemia. Clinical and laboratory information and autopsy and histologic presentations of multiple organs showed insufficient air exchange due to abnormalities in the respiratory system, and reduced erythropoiesis in bone marrow may play a role.


Subject(s)
Autopsy , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Hypoxia/complications , Hypoxia/pathology , Pneumonia/pathology , Pneumonia/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Cell Aggregation , Female , Humans , Lung/pathology , Macrophages/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Mucus/metabolism , Myocardium/pathology , Necrosis , Pneumonia/complications , Thoracic Cavity/pathology
15.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0246681, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117478

ABSTRACT

Central nervous system and visual dysfunction is an unfortunate consequence of systemic hypoxia in the setting of cardiopulmonary disease, including infection with SARS-CoV-2, high-altitude cerebral edema and retinopathy and other conditions. Hypoxia-induced inflammatory signaling may lead to retinal inflammation, gliosis and visual disturbances. We investigated the consequences of systemic hypoxia using serial retinal optical coherence tomography and by assessing the earliest changes within 24h after hypoxia by measuring a proteomics panel of 39 cytokines, chemokines and growth factors in the plasma and retina, as well as using retinal histology. We induced severe systemic hypoxia in adult C57BL/6 mice using a hypoxia chamber (10% O2) for 1 week and rapidly assessed measurements within 1h compared with 18h after hypoxia. Optical coherence tomography revealed retinal tissue edema at 18h after hypoxia. Hierarchical clustering of plasma and retinal immune molecules revealed obvious segregation of the 1h posthypoxia group away from that of controls. One hour after hypoxia, there were 10 significantly increased molecules in plasma and 4 in retina. Interleukin-1ß and vascular endothelial growth factor were increased in both tissues. Concomitantly, there was significantly increased aquaporin-4, decreased Kir4.1, and increased gliosis in retinal histology. In summary, the immediate posthypoxic period is characterized by molecular changes consistent with systemic and retinal inflammation and retinal glial changes important in water transport, leading to tissue edema. This posthypoxic inflammation rapidly improves within 24h, consistent with the typically mild and transient visual disturbance in hypoxia, such as in high-altitude retinopathy. Given hypoxia increases risk of vision loss, more studies in at-risk patients, such as plasma immune profiling and in vivo retinal imaging, are needed in order to identify novel diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers of visual impairment in systemic hypoxia.


Subject(s)
Hypoxia/complications , Inflammation/etiology , Retina/pathology , Animals , Central Nervous System/pathology , Cytokines/analysis , Cytokines/blood , Female , Hypoxia/blood , Hypoxia/pathology , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/pathology , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/analysis , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/blood , Male , Mice, Inbred C57BL
16.
J Emerg Nurs ; 47(2): 279-287.e1, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1071601

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In March and April 2020 of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, site clinical practice guidelines were implemented for prone positioning of patients with suspected coronavirus disease 2019 in hypoxic respiratory distress who are awake, alert, and spontaneously breathing. The purpose of this pandemic disaster practice improvement project was to measure changes in pulse oximetry associated with prone positioning of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 infection in adult acute respiratory distress or adult respiratory distress syndrome, who are awake, alert, spontaneously breathing, and nonintubated. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients who were coronavirus disease 2019 positive in the emergency department from March 30, 2020 to April 30, 2020 was conducted for patients with a room air pulse oximetry <90% and a preprone position pulse oximetry ≤94% who tolerated prone positioning for at least 30 minutes. The primary outcome was the change in pulse oximetry associated with prone positioning, measured on room air, with supplemental oxygen, and approximately 30 minutes after initiating prone positioning. Median and mean differences were compared with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and paired t-test. RESULTS: Of the 440 patients with coronavirus disease 2019, 31 met inclusion criteria. Median pulse oximetry increased as 83% (interquartile range, 75%-86%) on room air, 90% (interquartile range, 89%-93%) with supplemental oxygen, and 96% (interquartile range, 94%-98%) with prone positioning (z = -4.48, P < .001). A total of 45% (n = 14) were intubated during their hospital stay, and 26% (n = 8) of the included patients died. DISCUSSION: In patients with coronavirus disease 2019 who are awake, alert, and spontaneously breathing, an initially low pulse oximetry reading improved with prone positioning. Future studies are needed to determine the association of prone positioning with subsequent endotracheal intubation and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Patient Positioning/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Female , Humans , Hypoxia/complications , Hypoxia/diagnosis , Hypoxia/therapy , Intubation, Intratracheal , Male , Medical Records , Middle Aged , New Jersey , Oximetry , Prone Position , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 55(1): 229-235, 2020 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064409

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In utero diaphragm development is critically important for postnatal respiratory function and any disturbance to fetal development may lead to diaphragm dysfunction and respiratory complications in the postnatal period. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been shown to affect respiratory function in a sex-dependent manner; however, the effect of IUGR on diaphragm function is unknown. AIM: This study used a maternal hypoxia-induced mouse model of IUGR to investigate the impact of IUGR on diaphragm function and structure in male and female adult offspring. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pregnant BALB/c mice were housed under hypoxic conditions (10.5% O2 ) from gestational days 11 to 17.5 and then returned to normoxic conditions. Control mice were housed under normoxic conditions throughout pregnancy. At 8 weeks of age, offspring were euthanized and diaphragms isolated for functional assessment in organ bath experiments and for histological analysis. RESULTS: IUGR offspring were lighter at birth and remained lighter at 8 weeks of age compared to Controls. While diaphragm force (maximal or twitch) was not affected by treatment or sex, the IUGR group exhibited a longer half-relaxation time after twitch contractions compared to Control. Female offspring had a lower maximum rate of force development and higher fatigue resistance compared to males, independent of IUGR. There was no difference in the diaphragm myofibre cross-sectional area between groups or sexes. CONCLUSION: Sex and IUGR independently affect diaphragm contraction in adult mice without changes in structure. This study demonstrates that IUGR affects diaphragm contractile function in later life and could impair respiratory function if exacerbated under conditions of increased respiratory load.


Subject(s)
Diaphragm/physiopathology , Fetal Growth Retardation/physiopathology , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Fetal Growth Retardation/etiology , Hypoxia/complications , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Pregnancy
18.
Placenta ; 105: 7-13, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1047776

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Recent reports suggest SARS-CoV-2, the virus causing COVID-19, may be transmittable from pregnant mother to placenta and fetus, albeit rarely. The efficacy of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 critically depends on the availability of its receptor, ACE2, in the placenta. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that placental ACE2 expression is oxygenation-dependent by studying the expression of ACE2 and associated cell entry regulators in the monochorionic twin anemia-polycythemia (TAPS) placenta, a model of discordant placental oxygenation. METHODS: We performed a retrospective comparative immunohistochemical, immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis of ACE2, TMPRSS2 and Cathepsin B expression in anemic and polycythemic territories of TAPS placentas (N = 14). RESULTS: ACE2 protein levels were significantly higher in the anemic twin territories than in the corresponding polycythemic territories, associated with upregulation of the key ACE2-related cell entry regulators, TMPRSS2 and Cathepsin B, immunolocalized to villous trophoblastic and stromal cells. Cellular colocalization of ACE2 and TMPRSS2, suggestive of functionality of this cell entry axis, was demonstrated by double immunofluorescence studies. DISCUSSION: Placental hypoxia is associated with upregulation of ACE2 expression, concomitant with increased expression of its key cell entry proteases. ACE2-regulated placental functions, both infection- and non-infection related, may be highly oxygenation-dependent.


Subject(s)
Anemia/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Fetal Diseases/metabolism , Hypoxia/metabolism , Placenta/metabolism , Polycythemia/metabolism , Pregnancy, Twin , Adult , Anemia/complications , Anemia/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Diseases in Twins/metabolism , Diseases in Twins/pathology , Female , Fetal Diseases/pathology , Humans , Hypoxia/complications , Hypoxia/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Infant, Newborn , Male , Placenta/pathology , Polycythemia/complications , Polycythemia/pathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy, Twin/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Up-Regulation
19.
Rev Neurosci ; 32(3): 341-349, 2021 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1021723

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), due to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged in Wuhan city, China in December 2019 and rapidly spread to other countries. The most common reported symptoms are fever, dry cough, myalgia and fatigue, headache, anorexia, and breathlessness. Anosmia and dysgeusia as well as gastrointestinal symptoms including nausea and diarrhea are other notable symptoms. This virus also can exhibit neurotropic properties and may also cause neurological diseases, including epileptic seizures, cerebrovascular accident, Guillian barre syndrome, acute transverse myelitis, and acute encephalitis. In this study, we discuss stroke as a complication of the new coronavirus and its possible mechanisms of damage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Stroke/physiopathology , Thrombophilia/physiopathology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Blood Viscosity , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Hypoxia/complications , Myocarditis/complications , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Renin-Angiotensin System , Risk , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Stroke/blood , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/metabolism , Thrombophilia/blood , Thrombophilia/etiology
20.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 885: 173494, 2020 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-959753

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a global catastrophic event that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome. The mechanism of the disease remains unclear, and hypoxia is one of the main complications. There is no currently approved protocol for treatment. The microbial threat as induced by COVID-19 causes the activation of macrophages to produce a huge amount of inflammatory molecules and nitric oxide (NO). Activation of macrophages population into a pro-inflammatory phenotype induces a self-reinforcing cycle. Oxidative stress and NO contribute to this cycle, establishing a cascade inflammatory state that can kill the patient. Interrupting this vicious cycle by a simple remedy may save critical patients' lives. Nitrite, nitrate (the metabolites of NO), methemoglobin, and prooxidant-antioxidant-balance levels were measured in 25 ICU COVID-19 patients and 25 healthy individuals. As the last therapeutic option, five patients were administered methylene blue-vitamin C-N-acetyl Cysteine (MCN). Nitrite, nitrate, methemoglobin, and oxidative stress were significantly increased in patients in comparison to healthy individuals. Four of the five patients responded well to treatment. In conclusion, NO, methemoglobin and oxidative stress may play a central role in the pathogenesis of critical COVID-19 disease. MCN treatment seems to increase the survival rate of these patients. Considering the vicious cycle of macrophage activation leading to deadly NO, oxidative stress, and cytokine cascade syndrome; the therapeutic effect of MCN seems to be reasonable. Accordingly, a wider clinical trial has been designed. It should be noted that the protocol is using the low-cost drugs which the FDA approved for other diseases. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04370288.


Subject(s)
Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Critical Illness , Methylene Blue/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , COVID-19 , Compassionate Use Trials , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Female , Humans , Hypoxia/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications
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