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1.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(12)2021 Dec 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572561

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the association between prehospital peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) and intensive care unit (ICU) admission in confirmed or suspected coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) patients. Materials and Methods: We carried out a retrospective cohort study on patients requiring prehospital intervention between 11 March 2020 and 4 May 2020. All adult patients in whom a diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia was suspected by the prehospital physician were included. Patients who presented a prehospital confounding respiratory diagnosis and those who were not eligible for ICU admission were excluded. The main exposure was "Low SpO2" defined as a value < 90%. The primary outcome was 48-h ICU admission. Secondary outcomes were 48-h mortality and 30-day mortality. We analyzed the association between low SpO2 and ICU admission or mortality with univariable and multivariable regression models. Results: A total of 145 patients were included. A total of 41 (28.3%) patients had a low prehospital SpO2 and 21 (14.5%) patients were admitted to the ICU during the first 48 h. Low SpO2 was associated with an increase in ICU admission (OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.2-10.0), which remained significant after adjusting for sex and age (aOR = 5.2, 95% CI = 1.8-15.4). Mortality was higher in low SpO2 patients at 48 h (OR = 7.1 95% CI 1.3-38.3) and at 30 days (OR = 3.9, 95% CI 1.4-10.7). Conclusions: In our physician-staffed prehospital system, first low prehospital SpO2 values were associated with a higher risk of ICU admission during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services , Adult , Humans , Hypoxia/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(11): 1595-1599, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415573

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with COVID-19 usually present with fever and respiratory symptoms such as cough, sputum production, and dyspnea. However, they may suffer from severe hypoxemia without a clinical correlation with the respiratory symptoms, also known as silent or apathetic hypoxia. The aim of the study was to assess the predictors and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients without dyspnea. METHODS: A single-center retrospective cohort study, based on data extracted from the electronic hospital information system, with COVID-19 patients over a 10-month period in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. RESULTS: Of the COVID-19 patients presenting at the Emergency Department with a SpO2 < 90%, 13% had silent hypoxia. The majority of the patients required BiPAP, 34% were intubated and 60% were admitted to an intensive care unit. There was no association between dyspnea and gender, age group, body mass index, or comorbidity. Cough, fever, and chronic cardiac diseases were predictive for dyspnea in a regression analysis. There was no difference in the clinical outcome between patients with silent dyspnea or dyspnea. Age and obesity were significantly associated with a decrease in survival, and an increase in the initial SpO2 increased survival. CONCLUSION: Patients with cardiac disease are more likely to present with silent hypoxia. The SpO2 saturation in COVID-19 may be an independent predictor of survival. Silent hypoxia in COVID-19 patients does not appear to have an association with increase in mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypoxia/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256361, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403300

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Critical illness is common throughout the world and has been the focus of a dramatic increase in attention during the COVID-19 pandemic. Severely deranged vital signs such as hypoxia, hypotension and low conscious level can identify critical illness. These vital signs are simple to check and treatments that aim to correct derangements are established, basic and low-cost. The aim of the study was to estimate the unmet need of such essential treatments for severely deranged vital signs in all adults admitted to hospitals in Malawi. METHODS: We conducted a point prevalence cross-sectional study of adult hospitalized patients in Malawi. All in-patients aged ≥18 on single days Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH) and Chiradzulu District Hospital (CDH) were screened. Patients with hypoxia (oxygen saturation <90%), hypotension (systolic blood pressure <90mmHg) and reduced conscious level (Glasgow Coma Scale <9) were included in the study. The a-priori defined essential treatments were oxygen therapy for hypoxia, intravenous fluid for hypotension and an action to protect the airway for reduced consciousness (placing the patient in the lateral position, insertion of an oro-pharyngeal airway or endo-tracheal tube or manual airway protection). RESULTS: Of the 1135 hospital in-patients screened, 45 (4.0%) had hypoxia, 103 (9.1%) had hypotension, and 17 (1.5%) had a reduced conscious level. Of those with hypoxia, 40 were not receiving oxygen (88.9%). Of those with hypotension, 94 were not receiving intravenous fluids (91.3%). Of those with a reduced conscious level, nine were not receiving an action to protect the airway (53.0%). CONCLUSION: There was a large unmet need of essential treatments for critical illness in two hospitals in Malawi.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Health Services Needs and Demand/statistics & numerical data , Hypotension/epidemiology , Hypoxia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Malawi/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged
4.
MEDICC Rev ; 23(3-4): 54-59, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399828

ABSTRACT

One of the most dreadful complications that can occur during the course of COVID-19 is the cytokine storm-also known as cytokine release syndrome-a form of systemic inflammatory response syndrome triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection. The cytokine storm is an activation cascade of auto-amplifying cytokines, which leads to excessive activation of immune cells and generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. It occurs when large numbers of white blood cells are activated and release inflammatory cytokines, in turn activating even more white blood cells, finally resulting in an exaggerated pro-inflammatory-mediated response and ineffective anti-inflammatory control, leading to tissue damage, multiorgan failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome and death. Although cytokine storm pathogenesis is multifactorial, we hypothesize there is a close association between hypoxemia and cytokine storms in COVID-19, although it is difficult to establish the direction of this relationship. Most probably they coexist and, given enough time, one triggers the other in a chain reaction. Careful analysis of the day-to-day clinical evolution of COVID-19 indicates that there are short and slight periods of hypoxemia (confirmed by pulse oximetry and arterial gasometry), even on the day of the onset of persistent cough and/or shortness of breath. We propose the use of continuous positive airway pressure in early stages of COVID-19, at the onset of respiratory symptoms. This non-invasive ventilation method may be useful in individualized treatments to prevent early hypoxemia in COVID-19 patients and thus avoid triggering a cytokine storm. We believe such an approach is relevant everywhere, and in Cuba in particular, since the country has initiated national production of mechanical ventilation systems, including non-invasive ventilators. Moreover, as Cuba's COVID-19 protocols ensure early patient admission to isolation centers or hospitals, clinicians can prescribe the early use of continuous positive airway pressure as soon as respiratory symptoms begin, averting early hypoxemia and its triggering effect on cytokine storm development, and consequently, avoiding acute respiratory distress syndrome, multi-organ failure, and death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cuba , Humans , Hypoxia/epidemiology , Hypoxia/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 289-295, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351679

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 is one of the world's major health crises. The objective of this study was to determine the predictive factors of severe hypoxemia in patients hospitalized in COVID-19 health facilities in Burkina Faso. PATIENTS AND METHOD: This study was a hospital-based cross-sectional study. The data collected relate to the period of the first wave of the epidemic (March 9 to June 30, 2020). All patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in the requisitioned health facilities of Ouagadougou were included in this study. Predictors of severe hypoxemia were identified using a multivariate logistic regression model. RESULTS: During the study period, 442 patients were included, representing 45.7% of the total number of positive patients in the entire country. The most common co-morbidities were diabetes (55; 12.4%) and arterial hypertension (97; 21.9%). Severe hypoxemia (SpO2 < 90%) was observed in 64 patients (14.5%). Age over 65 years (OR = 8.24; 95% CI: 2.83-24.01) and diabetes (OR = 2.43; 95% CI: 1.17-5.06) were the predictors for occurrence of severe hypoxemia in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: The predictive factors of COVID-19 are similar in African and Caucasian populations. The surveillance of COVID-19 in risk groups should be strengthened to reduce their morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Hypoxia/epidemiology , Hypoxia/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e930776, 2021 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344551

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, patients presented with COVID-19 pneumonia of varying severity. The phenomenon of severe hypoxemia without signs of respiratory distress is also known as silent or hidden hypoxemia. Although silent hypoxemia is not unique to pneumonia due to SARS-CoV-2 infection, this phenomenon is now recognized to be associated with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Proper management of critically ill patients is the key to reducing mortality. Herein, we summarize the possible and rare factors contributing to silent hypoxemia in patients with COVID-19. Microvascular thrombosis causes dead space ventilation in the lungs, and the flow of pulmonary capillaries is reduced, which leads to an imbalance in the V/Q ratio. The dissociation curve of oxyhemoglobin shifts to the left and limits the release of oxygen to the tissue. SARS-CoV-2 interferes with the synthesis of hemoglobin and reduces the ability to carry oxygen. The accumulation of endogenous carbon monoxide and carboxyhemoglobin will reduce the total oxygen carrying capacity and interfere with pulse oxygen saturation readings. There are also some non-specific factors that cause the difference between pulse oximetry and oxygen partial pressure. We propose some potentially more effective clinical alternatives and recommendations for optimizing the clinical management processes of patients with COVID-19. This review aims to describe the prevalence of silent hypoxemia in COVID-19 pneumonia, to provide an update on what is known of the pathophysiology, and to highlight the importance of diagnosing silent hypoxemia in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Hypoxia/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Asymptomatic Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Hypoxia/epidemiology , Hypoxia/metabolism , Lung/cytology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Microvessels/metabolism , Oximetry , Oxygen/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thrombosis/metabolism , Thrombosis/virology
7.
Auton Neurosci ; 235: 102855, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1312929

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An intriguing feature recently unveiled in some COVID-19 patients is the "silent hypoxemia" phenomenon, which refers to the discrepancy of subjective well-being sensation while suffering hypoxia, manifested as the absence of dyspnea. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics and predictors of silent hypoxemia in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study including consecutive hospitalized adult (≥ 18 years) patients with confirmed COVID-19 presenting to the emergency department with oxygen saturation (SpO2) ≤ 80% on room air from March 15 to June 30, 2020. We analyzed the characteristics, disease severity, and in-hospital outcomes of patients presenting with dyspnea and those without dyspnea (silent hypoxemia). RESULTS: We studied 470 cases (64.4% men; median age 55 years, interquartile range 46-64). There were 447 (95.1%) patients with dyspnea and 23 (4.9%) with silent hypoxemia. The demographic and clinical characteristics, comorbidities, laboratory and imaging findings, disease severity, and outcomes were similar between groups. Higher breathing and heart rates correlated significantly with lower SpO2 in patients with dyspnea but not in those with silent hypoxemia. Independent predictors of silent hypoxemia were the presence of new-onset headache (OR 2.919, 95% CI 1.101-7.742; P = 0.031) and presenting to the emergency department within the first eight days after symptoms onset (OR 3.183, 95% CI 1.024-9.89; P = 0.045). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with silent hypoxemia sought medical attention earlier and had new-onset headache more often. They were also likely to display lower hemodynamic compensatory responses to hypoxemia, which may underestimate the disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hypoxia/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dyspnea/complications , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypoxia/complications , Hypoxia/epidemiology , Inpatients , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies
8.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(4): 360-372, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045088

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation in intensive care for 48 h or longer is associated with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which might be present at the time ventilatory support is instituted or develop afterwards, predominantly during the first 5 days. Survivors of prolonged mechanical ventilation and ARDS are at risk of considerably impaired physical function that can persist for years. An early pathogenic mechanism of lung injury in mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients is inflammation-induced pulmonary fibrin deposition, leading to thrombosis of the microvasculature and hyaline membrane formation in the air sacs. The main aim of this study was to determine if nebulised heparin, which targets fibrin deposition, would limit lung injury and thereby accelerate recovery of physical function in patients with or at risk of ARDS. METHODS: The Can Heparin Administration Reduce Lung Injury (CHARLI) study was an investigator-initiated, multicentre, double-blind, randomised phase 3 trial across nine hospitals in Australia. Adult intensive care patients on invasive ventilation, with impaired oxygenation defined by a PaO2/FiO2 ratio of less than 300, and with the expectation of invasive ventilation beyond the next calendar day were recruited. Key exclusion criteria were heparin allergy, pulmonary bleeding, and platelet count less than 50 X 109/L. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1, with stratification by site and using blocks of variable size and random seed, via a web-based system, to either unfractionated heparin sodium 25 000 IU in 5 mL or identical placebo (sodium chloride 0·9% 5 mL), administered using a vibrating mesh membrane nebuliser every 6 h to day 10 while invasively ventilated. Patients, clinicians, and investigators were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was the Short Form 36 Health Survey Physical Function Score (out of 100) of survivors at day 60. Prespecified secondary outcomes, which are exploratory, included development of ARDS to day 5 among at-risk patients, deterioration of the Murray Lung Injury Score (MLIS) to day 5, mortality at day 60, residence of survivors at day 60, and serious adverse events. Analyses followed the intention-to-treat principle. There was no imputation of missing data. The trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register, number ACTRN12612000418875 . FINDINGS: Between Sept 4, 2012, and Aug 23, 2018, 256 patients were randomised. Final follow-up was on Feb 25, 2019. We excluded three patients who revoked consent and one ineligible participant who received no intervention. Of 252 patients included in data analysis, the mean age was 58 years (SD 15), 157 (62%) were men, and 118 (47%) had ARDS. 128 (51%) patients were assigned to the heparin group and 124 (49%) to the placebo group, all of whom received their assigned intervention. Survivors in the heparin group (n=97) had similar SF-36 Physical Function Scores at day 60 compared to the placebo group (n=94; mean 53·6 [SD 31·6] vs 48·7 [35·7]; difference 4·9 [95% CI -4·8 to 14·5]; p=0·32). Compared with the placebo group, the heparin group had fewer cases of ARDS develop to day 5 among the at-risk patients (nine [15%] of 62 patients vs 21 [30%] of 71 patients; hazard ratio 0·46 [95% CI 0·22 to 0·98]; p=0·0431), less deterioration of the MLIS to day 5 (difference -0·14 [-0·26 to -0·02]; p=0·0215), similar day 60 mortality (23 [18%] of 127 patients vs 18 [15%] of 123 patients; odds ratio [OR] 1·29 [95% CI 0·66 to 2·53]; p=0·46), and more day 60 survivors at home (86 [87%] of 99 patients vs 73 [73%] of 100 patients; OR 2·45 [1·18 to 5·08]; p=0·0165). A similar number of serious adverse events occurred in each group (seven [5%] of 128 patients in the heparin group vs three [2%] of 124 patients in the placebo group; OR 2·33 [0·59 to 9·24]; p=0·23), which were a transient increase in airway pressure during nebulisation (n=3 in the heparin group), major non-pulmonary bleeding (n=2 in each group), haemoptysis (n=1 in the heparin group), tracheotomy site bleeding (n=1 in the heparin group), and hypoxaemia during nebulisation (n=1 in the placebo group). INTERPRETATION: In patients with or at risk of ARDS, nebulised heparin did not improve self-reported performance of daily physical activities, but was well tolerated and exploratory outcomes suggest less progression of lung injury and earlier return home. Further research is justified to establish if nebulised heparin accelerates recovery in those who have or are at risk of ARDS. FUNDING: Rowe Family Foundation, TR and RB Ditchfield Medical Research Endowment Fund, Patricia Madigan Charitable Trust, and The J and R McGauran Trust Fund.


Subject(s)
Critical Care/methods , Heparin/administration & dosage , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Activities of Daily Living , Administration, Inhalation , Adult , Aged , Australia/epidemiology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Hemoptysis/chemically induced , Hemoptysis/epidemiology , Heparin/adverse effects , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypoxia/chemically induced , Hypoxia/epidemiology , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Placebos/administration & dosage , Placebos/adverse effects , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/prevention & control , Self Report/statistics & numerical data , Severity of Illness Index , Survivors/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
9.
Nephron ; 145(3): 256-264, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156029

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury (AKI) in coronavirus infection disease (COVID-19) is associated with disease severity. We aimed to evaluate risk factors associated with AKI beyond COVID-19 severity. METHODS: A retrospective observational study of COVID-19 patients admitted to a tertiary hospital in Singapore. Logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between risk factors and AKI (based on Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes criteria). Dominance analysis was performed to evaluate the relative importance of individual factors. RESULTS: Seven hundred seven patients were included. Median age was 46 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 29-57) and 57% were male with few comorbidities (93%, Charlson Comorbidity Index [CCI] <1). AKI occurred in 57 patients (8.1%); 39 were in AKI stage 1 (68%), 9 in stage 2 (16%), and 9 in stage 3 (16%). Older age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.07), baseline use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) (aOR 2.86; 95% CI: 1.20-6.83), exposure to vancomycin (aOR 5.84; 95% CI: 2.10-16.19), use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (aOR 3.04; 95% CI: 1.15-8.05), and severe COVID-19 with hypoxia (aOR 13.94; 95% CI: 6.07-31.98) were associated with AKI in the multivariable logistic regression model. The 3 highest ranked predictors were severe COVID-19 with hypoxia, vancomycin exposure, and age, accounting for 79.6% of the predicted variance (41.6, 23.1, and 14.9%, respectively) on dominance analysis. CONCLUSION: Severe COVID-19 is independently associated with increased risk of AKI beyond premorbid conditions and age. Appropriate avoidance of vancomycin and NSAIDs are potentially modifiable means to prevent AKI in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/adverse effects , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypoxia/epidemiology , Hypoxia/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Vancomycin/adverse effects
10.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 96, 2021 Mar 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143203

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gender-related factors might affect vulnerability to Covid-19. The aim of this study was to describe the role of gender on clinical features and 28-day mortality in Covid-19 patients. METHODS: Observational study of Covid-19 patients hospitalized in Bergamo, Italy, during the first three weeks of the outbreak. Medical records, clinical, radiological and laboratory findings upon admission and treatment have been collected. Primary outcome was 28-day mortality since hospitalization. RESULTS: 431 consecutive adult patients were admitted. Female patients were 119 (27.6%) with a mean age of 67.0 ± 14.5 years (vs 67.8 ± 12.5 for males, p = 0.54). Previous history of myocardial infarction, vasculopathy and former smoking habits were more common for males. At the time of admission PaO2/FiO2 was similar between men and women (228 [IQR, 134-273] vs 238 mmHg [150-281], p = 0.28). Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) assistance was needed in the first 24 h more frequently in male patients (25.7% vs 13.0%; p = 0.006). Overall 28-day mortality was 26.1% in women and 38.1% in men (p = 0.018). Gender did not result an independent predictor of death once the parameters related to disease severity at presentation were included in the multivariable analysis (p = 0.898). Accordingly, the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis in female and male patients requiring CPAP or non-invasive ventilation in the first 24 h did not find a significant difference (p = 0.687). CONCLUSION: Hospitalized women are less likely to die from Covid-19; however, once severe disease occurs, the risk of dying is similar to men. Further studies are needed to better investigate the role of gender in clinical course and outcome of Covid-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/statistics & numerical data , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypoxia/epidemiology , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Hypoxia/therapy , Italy/epidemiology , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Noninvasive Ventilation/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Smoking/epidemiology
11.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 87(3): 325-333, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1128285

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the early stages of COVID-19 pneumonia, hypoxemia has been described in absence of dyspnea ("silent" or "happy" hypoxemia). Our aim was to report its prevalence and outcome in a series of hypoxemic patients upon Emergency Department admission. METHODS: In this retrospective observational cohort study we enrolled a study population consisting of 213 COVID-19 patients with PaO2/FiO2 ratio <300 mmHg at hospital admission. Two groups (silent and dyspneic hypoxemia) were defined. Symptoms, blood gas analysis, chest X-ray (CXR) severity, need for intensive care and outcome were recorded. RESULTS: Silent hypoxemic patients (68-31.9%) compared to the dyspneic hypoxemic patients (145-68.1%) showed greater frequency of extra respiratory symptoms (myalgia, diarrhea and nausea) and lower plasmatic LDH. PaO2/FiO2 ratio was 225±68 mmHg and 192±78 mmHg in silent and dyspneic hypoxemia respectively (P=0.002). Eighteen percent of the patients with PaO2/FiO2 from 50 to 150 mmHg presented silent hypoxemia. Silent and dyspneic hypoxemic patients had similar PaCO2 (34.2±6.8 mmHg vs. 33.5±5.7 mmHg, P=0.47) but different respiratory rates (24.6±5.9 bpm vs. 28.6±11.3 bpm respectively, P=0.002). Even when CXR was severely abnormal, 25% of the population was silent hypoxemic. Twenty-six point five percent and 38.6% of silent and dyspneic patients were admitted to the ICU respectively (P=0.082). Mortality rate was 17.6% and 29.7% (log-rank P=0.083) in silent and dyspneic patients. CONCLUSIONS: Silent hypoxemia is remarkably present in COVID-19. The presence of dyspnea is associated with a more severe clinical condition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hypoxia/epidemiology , Hypoxia/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies
12.
J Pediatr ; 230: 23-31.e10, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977144

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the demographic and clinical features of pediatric severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) syndromes and identify admission variables predictive of disease severity. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a multicenter, retrospective, and prospective study of pediatric patients hospitalized with acute SARS-CoV-2 infections and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) at 8 sites in New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. RESULTS: We identified 281 hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infections and divided them into 3 groups based on clinical features. Overall, 143 (51%) had respiratory disease, 69 (25%) had MIS-C, and 69 (25%) had other manifestations including gastrointestinal illness or fever. Patients with MIS-C were more likely to identify as non-Hispanic black compared with patients with respiratory disease (35% vs 18%, P = .02). Seven patients (2%) died and 114 (41%) were admitted to the intensive care unit. In multivariable analyses, obesity (OR 3.39, 95% CI 1.26-9.10, P = .02) and hypoxia on admission (OR 4.01; 95% CI 1.14-14.15; P = .03) were predictive of severe respiratory disease. Lower absolute lymphocyte count (OR 8.33 per unit decrease in 109 cells/L, 95% CI 2.32-33.33, P = .001) and greater C-reactive protein (OR 1.06 per unit increase in mg/dL, 95% CI 1.01-1.12, P = .017) were predictive of severe MIS-C. Race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status were not predictive of disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: We identified variables at the time of hospitalization that may help predict the development of severe SARS-CoV-2 disease manifestations in children and youth. These variables may have implications for future prognostic tools that inform hospital admission and clinical management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Adolescent , Biomarkers/analysis , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , Child , Child, Preschool , Connecticut/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypoxia/epidemiology , Infant , Intensive Care Units , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Multivariate Analysis , New Jersey/epidemiology , New York/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Procalcitonin/blood , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Troponin/blood , Young Adult
13.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 249, 2020 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-792826

ABSTRACT

In the article "The pathophysiology of 'happy' hypoxemia in COVID-19," Dhont et al. (Respir Res 21:198, 2020) discuss pathophysiological mechanisms that may be responsible for the absence of dyspnea in patients with COVID-19 who exhibit severe hypoxemia. The authors review well-known mechanisms that contribute to development of hypoxemia in patients with pneumonia, but are less clear as to why patients should be free of respiratory discomfort despite arterial oxygen levels commonly regarded as life threatening. The authors propose a number of therapeutic measures for patients with COVID-19 and happy hypoxemia; we believe readers should be alerted to problems with the authors' interpretations and recommendations.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Dyspnea/prevention & control , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Oxygen/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Hypoxia/epidemiology , Male , Oximetry/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Treatment Outcome
15.
J Neurol Sci ; 418: 117119, 2020 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-747743

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is known to cause hypoxemia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in a significant portion of those with severe disease. Survivors of critical illness and ARDS often experience neurocognitive impairment but, to date, there is scant literature correlating radiographic hypoxic brain injury to hypoxemia related to ARDS. In this case series, we describe three cases of hypoxic brain injury seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with hypoxemia secondary to COVID-19-related ARDS. The lack of severe observed hypoxemia in two of the cases suggests that unrecognized or asymptomatic hypoxemia may play a role in hypoxic brain injury related to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hypoxia/diagnostic imaging , Hypoxia/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Illinois/epidemiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim (Engl Ed) ; 67(8): 425-437, 2020 Oct.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-724420

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical course of COVID-19 critically ill patients, during their admission in the intensive care unit (UCI), including medical and infectious complications and support therapies, as well as their association with in-ICU mortality has not been fully reported. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe clinical characteristics and clinical course of ICU COVID-19 patients, and to determine risk factors for ICU mortality of COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Prospective, multicentre, cohort study that enrolled critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted into 30 ICUs from Spain and Andorra. Consecutive patients from March 12th to May 26th, 2020 were enrolled if they had died or were discharged from ICU during the study period. Demographics, symptoms, vital signs, laboratory markers, supportive therapies, pharmacological treatments, medical and infectious complications were reported and compared between deceased and discharged patients. RESULTS: A total of 663 patients were included. Overall ICU mortality was 31% (203 patients). At ICU admission non-survivors were more hypoxemic [SpO2 with non-rebreather mask, 90 (IQR 83 to 93) vs. 91 (IQR 87 to 94); P<.001] and with higher sequential organ failure assessment score [SOFA, 7 (IQR 5 to 9) vs. 4 (IQR 3 to 7); P<.001]. Complications were more frequent in non-survivors: acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (95% vs. 89%; P=.009), acute kidney injury (AKI) (58% vs. 24%; P<10-16), shock (42% vs. 14%; P<10-13), and arrhythmias (24% vs. 11%; P<10-4). Respiratory super-infection, bloodstream infection and septic shock were higher in non-survivors (33% vs. 25%; P=.03, 33% vs. 23%; P=.01 and 15% vs. 3%, P=10-7), respectively. The multivariable regression model showed that age was associated with mortality, with every year increasing risk-of-death by 1% (95%CI: 1 to 10, P=.014). Each 5-point increase in APACHE II independently predicted mortality [OR: 1.508 (1.081, 2.104), P=.015]. Patients with AKI [OR: 2.468 (1.628, 3.741), P<10-4)], cardiac arrest [OR: 11.099 (3.389, 36.353), P=.0001], and septic shock [OR: 3.224 (1.486, 6.994), P=.002] had an increased risk-of-death. CONCLUSIONS: Older COVID-19 patients with higher APACHE II scores on admission, those who developed AKI grades ii or iii and/or septic shock during ICU stay had an increased risk-of-death. ICU mortality was 31%.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , APACHE , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Age Factors , Aged , Andorra/epidemiology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Hypoxia/epidemiology , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prospective Studies , Regression Analysis , Respiratory Therapy/methods , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Shock/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology
18.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227346, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-660587

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is heterogeneous. As an indication of the heterogeneity of ARDS, there are patients whose syndrome improves rapidly (i.e., within 24 hours), others whose hypoxemia improves gradually and still others whose severe hypoxemia persists for several days. The latter group of patients with persistent severe ARDS poses challenges to clinicians. We attempted to assess the baseline characteristics and outcomes of persistent severe ARDS and to identify which variables are useful to predict it. METHODS: A secondary analysis of patient-level data from the ALTA, EDEN and SAILS ARDSNet clinical trials was conducted. We defined persistent severe ARDS as a partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (PaO2:FiO2) of equal to or less than 100 mmHg on the second study day following enrollment. Regularized logistic regression with an L1 penalty [Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO)] techniques were used to identify predictive variables of persistent severe ARDS. RESULTS: Of the 1531 individuals with ARDS alive on the second study day after enrollment, 232 (15%) had persistent severe ARDS. Of the latter, 100 (43%) individuals had mild or moderate hypoxemia at baseline. Usage of vasopressors was greater [144/232 (62%) versus 623/1299 (48%); p<0.001] and baseline severity of illness was higher in patients with versus without persistent severe ARDS. Mortality at 60 days [95/232 (41%) versus 233/1299 (18%); p<0.001] was higher, and ventilator-free (p<0.001), intensive care unit-free [0 (0-14) versus 19 (7-23); p<0.001] and non-pulmonary organ failure-free [3 (0-21) versus 20 (1-26); p<0.001] days were fewer in patients with versus without persistent severe ARDS. PaO2:FiO2, FiO2, hepatic failure and positive end-expiratory pressure at enrollment were useful predictive variables. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with persistent severe ARDS have distinct baseline characteristics and poor prognosis. Identifying such patients at enrollment may be useful for the prognostic enrichment of trials.


Subject(s)
Hypoxia/epidemiology , Prognosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Adult , Arterial Pressure/physiology , Female , Humans , Hypoxia/complications , Hypoxia/diagnosis , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/metabolism , Partial Pressure , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology
19.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 156: 190-199, 2020 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-641158

ABSTRACT

Studies have shown that infection, excessive coagulation, cytokine storm, leukopenia, lymphopenia, hypoxemia and oxidative stress have also been observed in critically ill Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) patients in addition to the onset symptoms. There are still no approved drugs or vaccines. Dietary supplements could possibly improve the patient's recovery. Omega-3 fatty acids, specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), present an anti-inflammatory effect that could ameliorate some patients need for intensive care unit (ICU) admission. EPA and DHA replace arachidonic acid (ARA) in the phospholipid membranes. When oxidized by enzymes, EPA and DHA contribute to the synthesis of less inflammatory eicosanoids and specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs), such as resolvins, maresins and protectins. This reduces inflammation. In contrast, some studies have reported that EPA and DHA can make cell membranes more susceptible to non-enzymatic oxidation mediated by reactive oxygen species, leading to the formation of potentially toxic oxidation products and increasing the oxidative stress. Although the inflammatory resolution improved by EPA and DHA could contribute to the recovery of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation cannot be recommended before randomized and controlled trials are carried out.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diet therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diet therapy , Dietary Supplements , Docosahexaenoic Acids/administration & dosage , Eicosapentaenoic Acid/administration & dosage , Leukopenia/diet therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diet therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/epidemiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diet therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/epidemiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/metabolism , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Humans , Hypoxia/diet therapy , Hypoxia/epidemiology , Hypoxia/metabolism , Hypoxia/virology , Leukopenia/epidemiology , Leukopenia/metabolism , Leukopenia/virology , Oxidative Stress , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Reactive Oxygen Species/antagonists & inhibitors , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Epilepsia ; 61(6): e49-e53, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-637375

ABSTRACT

Our aim was to clarify the incidence and risk of acute symptomatic seizures in people with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This multicenter retrospective study enrolled people with COVID-19 from January 18 to February 18, 2020 at 42 government-designated hospitals in Hubei province, the epicenter of the epidemic in China; Sichuan province; and Chongqing municipality. Data were collected from medical records by 11 neurologists using a standard case report form. A total of 304 people were enrolled, of whom 108 had a severe condition. None in this cohort had a known history of epilepsy. Neither acute symptomatic seizures nor status epilepticus was observed. Two people had seizurelike symptoms during hospitalization due to acute stress reaction and hypocalcemia, and 84 (27%) had brain insults or metabolic imbalances during the disease course known to increase the risk of seizures. There was no evidence suggesting an additional risk of acute symptomatic seizures in people with COVID-19. Neither the virus nor potential risk factors for seizures seem to be significant risks for the occurrence of acute symptomatic seizures in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hypoxia/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Seizures/epidemiology , Water-Electrolyte Imbalance/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
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