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1.
Open Heart ; 8(2)2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582998

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Soluble ST2 (sST2) reflects inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and myocardial fibrosis, is produced in the lungs and is an established biomarker in heart failure. We sought to determine the role of sST2 in COVID-19 by assessing pathophysiological correlates and its association to in-hospital outcomes. METHODS: We enrolled 123 consecutive, hospitalised patients with COVID-19 in the prospective, observational COVID-19 MECH study. Biobank samples were collected at baseline, day 3 and day 9. The key exposure variable was sST2, and the outcome was ICU treatment with mechanical ventilation or in-hospital death. RESULTS: Concentrations of sST2 at baseline was median 48 (IQR 37-67) ng/mL, and 74% had elevated concentrations (>37.9 ng/mL). Higher baseline sST2 concentrations were associated with older age, male sex, white race, smoking, diabetes, hypertension and chronic kidney disease. Baseline sST2 also associated with the presence of SARS-CoV-2 viraemia, lower oxygen saturation, higher respiratory rate and increasing concentrations of biomarkers reflecting inflammation, thrombosis and cardiovascular disease. During the hospitalisation, 8 (7%) patients died and 27 (22%) survivors received intensive care unit (ICU) treatment. Baseline sST2 concentrations demonstrated a graded association with disease severity (median, IQR): medical ward 43 (36-59) ng/mL; ICU 67 (39-104) ng/mL and non-survivors 107 (72-116) ng/mL (p<0.001 for all comparisons). These associations persisted at day 3 and day 9 . CONCLUSIONS: sST2 concentrations associate with SARS-CoV-2 viraemia, hypoxaemia and concentrations of inflammatory and cardiovascular biomarkers. There was a robust association between baseline sST2 and disease severity that was independent of, and superior to, established risk factors. sST2 reflects key pathophysiology and may be a promising biomarker in COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04314232.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypoxia , Interleukin-1 Receptor-Like 1 Protein/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viremia , Aged , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Correlation of Data , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypoxia/diagnosis , Hypoxia/etiology , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Norway/epidemiology , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Smoking/epidemiology , Viremia/diagnosis , Viremia/etiology
3.
Drug Discov Ther ; 15(5): 273-277, 2021 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542926

ABSTRACT

Use of systemic corticosteroids is well-established in COVID-19 patients with hypoxia; however, there is scant data on its role in patients with mild disease and prolonged symptoms as a measure to prevent disease progression. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of systemic corticosteroids in preventing hypoxia (SpO2 ≤ 93% on room-air) among mild COVID-19 patients. An observational study was conducted among symptomatic COVID-19 patients taking oral corticosteroids and attending institute teleconsultation facility between 10th-30th June 2021. Patients who were already on corticosteroids for other indication or required oxygen supplementation before or within 24-hours of initiation of corticosteroids were excluded. A total of 140 consecutive symptomatic COVID-19 patients were included. Higher baseline C-reactive protein (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.02-1.06, p < 0.001) and early systemic corticosteroid (within 7 days) initiation (OR: 6.5, 95% CI: 2.1-20.1, p = 0.001) were independent risk factors for developing hypoxia (SpO2 ≤ 93%). Progression to hypoxia was significantly higher in patients who received corticosteroids before day 7 of illness (36.7%, 95% CI, 23.4-51.7%) compared to ≥ 7 of illness (14.3%, 95% CI, 7.8-23.2%) for persistent fever. Systemic corticosteroids within 7 days from symptom-onset were harmful and increased the risk of progression to hypoxia, whereas it may decrease the risk of progression when administered on or beyond 7 days in patients with mild COVID-19 and persistent symptoms. A well-designed randomised controlled trial is required to validate the findings.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hypoxia/prevention & control , Administration, Oral , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Hypoxia/etiology , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome
4.
JAMA ; 326(18): 1807-1817, 2021 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527380

ABSTRACT

Importance: A daily dose with 6 mg of dexamethasone is recommended for up to 10 days in patients with severe and critical COVID-19, but a higher dose may benefit those with more severe disease. Objective: To assess the effects of 12 mg/d vs 6 mg/d of dexamethasone in patients with COVID-19 and severe hypoxemia. Design, Setting, and Participants: A multicenter, randomized clinical trial was conducted between August 2020 and May 2021 at 26 hospitals in Europe and India and included 1000 adults with confirmed COVID-19 requiring at least 10 L/min of oxygen or mechanical ventilation. End of 90-day follow-up was on August 19, 2021. Interventions: Patients were randomized 1:1 to 12 mg/d of intravenous dexamethasone (n = 503) or 6 mg/d of intravenous dexamethasone (n = 497) for up to 10 days. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the number of days alive without life support (invasive mechanical ventilation, circulatory support, or kidney replacement therapy) at 28 days and was adjusted for stratification variables. Of the 8 prespecified secondary outcomes, 5 are included in this analysis (the number of days alive without life support at 90 days, the number of days alive out of the hospital at 90 days, mortality at 28 days and at 90 days, and ≥1 serious adverse reactions at 28 days). Results: Of the 1000 randomized patients, 982 were included (median age, 65 [IQR, 55-73] years; 305 [31%] women) and primary outcome data were available for 971 (491 in the 12 mg of dexamethasone group and 480 in the 6 mg of dexamethasone group). The median number of days alive without life support was 22.0 days (IQR, 6.0-28.0 days) in the 12 mg of dexamethasone group and 20.5 days (IQR, 4.0-28.0 days) in the 6 mg of dexamethasone group (adjusted mean difference, 1.3 days [95% CI, 0-2.6 days]; P = .07). Mortality at 28 days was 27.1% in the 12 mg of dexamethasone group vs 32.3% in the 6 mg of dexamethasone group (adjusted relative risk, 0.86 [99% CI, 0.68-1.08]). Mortality at 90 days was 32.0% in the 12 mg of dexamethasone group vs 37.7% in the 6 mg of dexamethasone group (adjusted relative risk, 0.87 [99% CI, 0.70-1.07]). Serious adverse reactions, including septic shock and invasive fungal infections, occurred in 11.3% in the 12 mg of dexamethasone group vs 13.4% in the 6 mg of dexamethasone group (adjusted relative risk, 0.83 [99% CI, 0.54-1.29]). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with COVID-19 and severe hypoxemia, 12 mg/d of dexamethasone compared with 6 mg/d of dexamethasone did not result in statistically significantly more days alive without life support at 28 days. However, the trial may have been underpowered to identify a significant difference. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04509973 and ctri.nic.in Identifier: CTRI/2020/10/028731.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Life Support Care , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Mycoses/etiology , Respiration, Artificial , Shock, Septic/etiology , Single-Blind Method
5.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e933975, 2021 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485493

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Platypnea orthodeoxia syndrome (POS) presents with positional dyspnea and hypoxemia defined as arterial desaturation of at least 5% or a drop in PaO2 of at least 4 mmHg. Causes of POS include a variety of cardiopulmonary etiologies and has been reported in patients recovering from severe COVID-19 pneumonia. However, clinical presentation and outcomes in a patient with multiple interrelated mechanisms of shunting has not been documented. CASE REPORT An 85-year-old man hospitalized for hypertensive emergency and severe COVID-19 pneumonia was diagnosed with platypnea orthodeoxia on day 28 of illness. During his disease course, the patient required supplemental oxygen by high-flow nasal cannula but never required invasive mechanical ventilation. Chest imaging revealed evolving mixed consolidation and ground-glass opacities with a patchy and diffuse distribution, involving most of the left lung. Echocardiography was ordered to evaluate for intracardiac shunt, which revealed a patent foramen ovale. Closure of the patent foramen ovale was not pursued. Management included graded progression to standing and supplemental oxygen increases when upright. The patient was discharged to a skilled nursing facility and his positional oxygen requirement resolved on approximately day 78. CONCLUSIONS The present case highlights the multiple interrelated mechanisms of shunting in patients with COVID-related lung disease and a patent foramen ovale. Eight prior cases of POS after COVID-19 pneumonia have been reported to date but none with a known patent foramen ovale. In patients with persistent positional oxygen requirements at follow-up, quantifying shunt fraction over time through multiple modalities can guide treatment decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Foramen Ovale, Patent , Aged, 80 and over , Dyspnea/etiology , Foramen Ovale, Patent/complications , Foramen Ovale, Patent/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2
6.
JAMA ; 326(18): 1807-1817, 2021 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482066

ABSTRACT

Importance: A daily dose with 6 mg of dexamethasone is recommended for up to 10 days in patients with severe and critical COVID-19, but a higher dose may benefit those with more severe disease. Objective: To assess the effects of 12 mg/d vs 6 mg/d of dexamethasone in patients with COVID-19 and severe hypoxemia. Design, Setting, and Participants: A multicenter, randomized clinical trial was conducted between August 2020 and May 2021 at 26 hospitals in Europe and India and included 1000 adults with confirmed COVID-19 requiring at least 10 L/min of oxygen or mechanical ventilation. End of 90-day follow-up was on August 19, 2021. Interventions: Patients were randomized 1:1 to 12 mg/d of intravenous dexamethasone (n = 503) or 6 mg/d of intravenous dexamethasone (n = 497) for up to 10 days. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the number of days alive without life support (invasive mechanical ventilation, circulatory support, or kidney replacement therapy) at 28 days and was adjusted for stratification variables. Of the 8 prespecified secondary outcomes, 5 are included in this analysis (the number of days alive without life support at 90 days, the number of days alive out of the hospital at 90 days, mortality at 28 days and at 90 days, and ≥1 serious adverse reactions at 28 days). Results: Of the 1000 randomized patients, 982 were included (median age, 65 [IQR, 55-73] years; 305 [31%] women) and primary outcome data were available for 971 (491 in the 12 mg of dexamethasone group and 480 in the 6 mg of dexamethasone group). The median number of days alive without life support was 22.0 days (IQR, 6.0-28.0 days) in the 12 mg of dexamethasone group and 20.5 days (IQR, 4.0-28.0 days) in the 6 mg of dexamethasone group (adjusted mean difference, 1.3 days [95% CI, 0-2.6 days]; P = .07). Mortality at 28 days was 27.1% in the 12 mg of dexamethasone group vs 32.3% in the 6 mg of dexamethasone group (adjusted relative risk, 0.86 [99% CI, 0.68-1.08]). Mortality at 90 days was 32.0% in the 12 mg of dexamethasone group vs 37.7% in the 6 mg of dexamethasone group (adjusted relative risk, 0.87 [99% CI, 0.70-1.07]). Serious adverse reactions, including septic shock and invasive fungal infections, occurred in 11.3% in the 12 mg of dexamethasone group vs 13.4% in the 6 mg of dexamethasone group (adjusted relative risk, 0.83 [99% CI, 0.54-1.29]). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with COVID-19 and severe hypoxemia, 12 mg/d of dexamethasone compared with 6 mg/d of dexamethasone did not result in statistically significantly more days alive without life support at 28 days. However, the trial may have been underpowered to identify a significant difference. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04509973 and ctri.nic.in Identifier: CTRI/2020/10/028731.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Life Support Care , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Mycoses/etiology , Respiration, Artificial , Shock, Septic/etiology , Single-Blind Method
9.
MEDICC Rev ; 23(3-4): 54-59, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399828

ABSTRACT

One of the most dreadful complications that can occur during the course of COVID-19 is the cytokine storm-also known as cytokine release syndrome-a form of systemic inflammatory response syndrome triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection. The cytokine storm is an activation cascade of auto-amplifying cytokines, which leads to excessive activation of immune cells and generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. It occurs when large numbers of white blood cells are activated and release inflammatory cytokines, in turn activating even more white blood cells, finally resulting in an exaggerated pro-inflammatory-mediated response and ineffective anti-inflammatory control, leading to tissue damage, multiorgan failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome and death. Although cytokine storm pathogenesis is multifactorial, we hypothesize there is a close association between hypoxemia and cytokine storms in COVID-19, although it is difficult to establish the direction of this relationship. Most probably they coexist and, given enough time, one triggers the other in a chain reaction. Careful analysis of the day-to-day clinical evolution of COVID-19 indicates that there are short and slight periods of hypoxemia (confirmed by pulse oximetry and arterial gasometry), even on the day of the onset of persistent cough and/or shortness of breath. We propose the use of continuous positive airway pressure in early stages of COVID-19, at the onset of respiratory symptoms. This non-invasive ventilation method may be useful in individualized treatments to prevent early hypoxemia in COVID-19 patients and thus avoid triggering a cytokine storm. We believe such an approach is relevant everywhere, and in Cuba in particular, since the country has initiated national production of mechanical ventilation systems, including non-invasive ventilators. Moreover, as Cuba's COVID-19 protocols ensure early patient admission to isolation centers or hospitals, clinicians can prescribe the early use of continuous positive airway pressure as soon as respiratory symptoms begin, averting early hypoxemia and its triggering effect on cytokine storm development, and consequently, avoiding acute respiratory distress syndrome, multi-organ failure, and death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cuba , Humans , Hypoxia/epidemiology , Hypoxia/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
10.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247414, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388900

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Facemasks are recommended to reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2, but concern about inadequate gas exchange is an often cited reason for non-compliance. RESEARCH QUESTION: Among adult volunteers, do either cloth masks or surgical masks impair oxygenation or ventilation either at rest or during physical activity? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: With IRB approval and informed consent, we measured heart rate (HR), transcutaneous carbon dioxide (CO2) tension and oxygen levels (SpO2) at the conclusion of six 10-minute phases: sitting quietly and walking briskly without a mask, sitting quietly and walking briskly while wearing a cloth mask, and sitting quietly and walking briskly while wearing a surgical mask. Brisk walking required at least a 10bpm increase in heart rate. Occurrences of hypoxemia (decrease in SpO2 of ≥3% from baseline to a value of ≤94%) and hypercarbia (increase in CO2 tension of ≥5 mmHg from baseline to a value of ≥46 mmHg) in individual subjects were collected. Wilcoxon signed-rank was used for pairwise comparisons among values for the whole cohort (e.g. walking without a mask versus walking with a cloth mask). RESULTS: Among 50 adult volunteers (median age 33 years; 32% with a co-morbidity), there were no episodes of hypoxemia or hypercarbia (0%; 95% confidence interval 0-1.9%). In paired comparisons, there were no statistically significant differences in either CO2 or SpO2 between baseline measurements without a mask and those while wearing either kind of mask mask, both at rest and after walking briskly for ten minutes. INTERPRETATION: The risk of pathologic gas exchange impairment with cloth masks and surgical masks is near-zero in the general adult population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Masks , Oxygen/metabolism , Pulmonary Ventilation/physiology , Adult , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/transmission , Carbon Dioxide/metabolism , Exercise/physiology , Female , Heart Rate/physiology , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/metabolism , Male , Masks/adverse effects , N95 Respirators/adverse effects , Rest/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Walking/physiology
12.
Acta Biomed ; 91(4): e2020139, 2020 12 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389955

ABSTRACT

A new cause of POS hás been recently described: SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Important aspects regarding the case are presented and clarifications requested from the authors. Dr Howard B. Burchell described platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome (POS) in 1949. Burchell´s contributions to Medicine are briefly presented as well as his career.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Pneumonia , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Posture , SARS-CoV-2
16.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 267, 2021 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362053

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study is to estimate the prevalence of atelectasis assessed with computer tomography (CT) in SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and the relationship between the amount of atelectasis with oxygenation impairment, Intensive Care Unit admission rate and the length of in-hospital stay. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two-hundred thirty-seven patients admitted to the hospital with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia diagnosed by clinical, radiology and molecular tests in the nasopharyngeal swab who underwent a chest computed tomography because of a respiratory worsening from Apr 1 to Apr 30, 2020 were included in the study. Patients were divided into three groups depending on the presence and amount of atelectasis at the computed tomography: no atelectasis, small atelectasis (< 5% of the estimated lung volume) or large atelectasis (> 5% of the estimated lung volume). In all patients, clinical severity, oxygen-therapy need, Intensive Care Unit admission rate, the length of in-hospital stay and in-hospital mortality data were collected. RESULTS: Thirty patients (19%) showed small atelectasis while eight patients (5%) showed large atelectasis. One hundred and seventeen patients (76%) did not show atelectasis. Patients with large atelectasis compared to patients with small atelectasis had lower SatO2/FiO2 (182 vs 411 respectively, p = 0.01), needed more days of oxygen therapy (20 vs 5 days respectively, p = 0,02), more frequently Intensive Care Unit admission (75% vs 7% respectively, p < 0.01) and a longer period of hospitalization (40 vs 14 days respectively p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: In patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, atelectasis might appear in up to 24% of patients and the presence of larger amount of atelectasis is associated with worse oxygenation and clinical outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypoxia , Pneumonia, Viral , Pulmonary Atelectasis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Female , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/therapy , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung Volume Measurements/methods , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prevalence , Pulmonary Atelectasis/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Atelectasis/epidemiology , Pulmonary Atelectasis/etiology , Pulmonary Atelectasis/physiopathology , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Spain/epidemiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/statistics & numerical data
17.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 289-295, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351679

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 is one of the world's major health crises. The objective of this study was to determine the predictive factors of severe hypoxemia in patients hospitalized in COVID-19 health facilities in Burkina Faso. PATIENTS AND METHOD: This study was a hospital-based cross-sectional study. The data collected relate to the period of the first wave of the epidemic (March 9 to June 30, 2020). All patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in the requisitioned health facilities of Ouagadougou were included in this study. Predictors of severe hypoxemia were identified using a multivariate logistic regression model. RESULTS: During the study period, 442 patients were included, representing 45.7% of the total number of positive patients in the entire country. The most common co-morbidities were diabetes (55; 12.4%) and arterial hypertension (97; 21.9%). Severe hypoxemia (SpO2 < 90%) was observed in 64 patients (14.5%). Age over 65 years (OR = 8.24; 95% CI: 2.83-24.01) and diabetes (OR = 2.43; 95% CI: 1.17-5.06) were the predictors for occurrence of severe hypoxemia in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: The predictive factors of COVID-19 are similar in African and Caucasian populations. The surveillance of COVID-19 in risk groups should be strengthened to reduce their morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Hypoxia/epidemiology , Hypoxia/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Thorax ; 76(7): 704-713, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322844

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Poor sleep may contribute to chronic kidney disease (CKD) through several pathways, including hypoxia-induced systemic and intraglomerular pressure, inflammation, oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. However, few studies have investigated the association between multiple objectively measured sleep dimensions and CKD. METHODS: We investigated the cross-sectional association between sleep dimensions and CKD among 1895 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Sleep Ancillary Study participants who completed in-home polysomnography, wrist actigraphy and a sleep questionnaire. Using Poisson regression models with robust variance, we estimated separate prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% CIs for moderate-to-severe CKD (glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or albuminuria >30 mg/g) among participants according to multiple sleep dimensions, including very short (≤5 hours) sleep, Apnoea-Hypopnoea Index and sleep apnoea-specific hypoxic burden (SASHB) (total area under the respiratory event-related desaturation curve divided by total sleep duration, %min/hour)). Regression models were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviours and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Of the 1895 participants, mean age was 68.2±9.1 years, 54% were women, 37% were white, 28% black, 24% Hispanic/Latino and 11% Asian. Several sleep metrics were associated with higher adjusted PR of moderate-to-severe CKD: very short versus recommended sleep duration (PR=1.40, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.83); SASHB (Box-Cox transformed SASHB: PR=1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.12); and for participants in the highest quintile of SASHB plus sleep apnoea: PR=1.28, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.63. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep apnoea associated hypoxia and very short sleep, likely representing independent biological mechanisms, were associated with a higher moderate-to-severe CKD prevalence, which highlights the potential role for novel interventions.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis/complications , Hypoxia/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/complications , Sleep/physiology , Actigraphy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Atherosclerosis/ethnology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Polysomnography , Prevalence , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/ethnology , Risk Factors , Self Report , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/ethnology , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/physiopathology , United States/epidemiology
20.
BMJ Health Care Inform ; 28(1)2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322804

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Patients with COVID-19 can present to the emergency department (ED) without immediate indication for admission, but with concern for decompensation. Clinical experience has demonstrated that critical illness may present later in the disease course and hypoxia is often the first indication of disease progression. The objectives of this study are to (a) assess feasibility and describe a protocol for ED-based outpatient pulse-oximetry monitoring with structured follow-up and (b) determine rates of ED return, hospitalisation and hypoxia among participants. METHODS: Prospective observational study of patients presenting to a single academic ED in Boston with suspected COVID-19. Eligible patients were adults being discharged from the ED with presumed COVID-19. Exclusion criteria included resting oxygen saturation <92%, ambulatory oxygen saturation <90%, heart rate >110 beats per minute or inability to use the device. Study personnel made scripted phone calls on postdischarge days 1, 3 and 7 to review the pulse-oximetry readings and to evaluate for decompensation. Return visit and admission information were collected via medical record and 28-day follow-up calls. RESULTS: 81 patients were enrolled of which 10 (12%) developed hypoxia after their initial discharge from the ED. Overall, 23 (28%) of the 81 patients returned to the ED at least once and 10 of those who returned (43%) were admitted. We successfully contacted 76/81 (94%) of subjects via phone at least once for follow-up assessment. DISCUSSION: Patients are eager and willing to participate in home monitoring systems and are comfortable with using technology, which will allow providers and health systems to extend our hospitals capabilities for tracking patient populations in times of crisis. CONCLUSIONS: It is feasible to implement an outpatient pulse-oximetry monitoring protocol to monitor patients discharged from the ED with confirmed or suspected COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital , Guidelines as Topic , Monitoring, Physiologic , Oximetry , Patient Discharge , Aftercare , Boston , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Telemedicine
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