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1.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 28(6): 660-666, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087890

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the clinical problem and noninvasive treatments of hypoxemia in critically-ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia and describe recent advances in evidence supporting bedside decision making. RECENT FINDINGS: High-flow nasal oxygen and noninvasive ventilation, along with awake prone positioning are potentially helpful therapies for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. High-flow nasal oxygen therapy has been widely implemented as a form of oxygen support supported by prepandemic randomized controlled trials showing possible benefit over noninvasive ventilation. Given the sheer volume of patients, noninvasive ventilation was often required, and based on a well conducted randomized controlled trial there was a developing role for helmet-interface noninvasive. Coupled with noninvasive supports, the use of awake prone positioning demonstrated physiological benefits, but randomized controlled trial data did not demonstrate clear outcome superiority. SUMMARY: The use of noninvasive oxygen strategies and our understanding of the proposed mechanisms are evolving. Variability in patient severity and physiology may dictate a personalized approach to care. High-flow nasal oxygen may be paired with awake and spontaneously breathing prone-positioning to optimize oxygen and lung mechanics but requires further insight before widely applying to clinical practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Hypoxia/therapy , Oxygen , Critical Care , Lung , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
2.
JAMA ; 328(11): 1063-1072, 2022 09 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2047353

ABSTRACT

Importance: Helmet noninvasive ventilation has been used in patients with COVID-19 with the premise that helmet interface is more effective than mask interface in delivering prolonged treatments with high positive airway pressure, but data about its effectiveness are limited. Objective: To evaluate whether helmet noninvasive ventilation compared with usual respiratory support reduces mortality in patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure due to COVID-19 pneumonia. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a multicenter, pragmatic, randomized clinical trial that was conducted in 8 sites in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait between February 8, 2021, and November 16, 2021. Adult patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (n = 320) due to suspected or confirmed COVID-19 were included. The final follow-up date for the primary outcome was December 14, 2021. Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive helmet noninvasive ventilation (n = 159) or usual respiratory support (n = 161), which included mask noninvasive ventilation, high-flow nasal oxygen, and standard oxygen. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was 28-day all-cause mortality. There were 12 prespecified secondary outcomes, including endotracheal intubation, barotrauma, skin pressure injury, and serious adverse events. Results: Among 322 patients who were randomized, 320 were included in the primary analysis, all of whom completed the trial. Median age was 58 years, and 187 were men (58.4%). Within 28 days, 43 of 159 patients (27.0%) died in the helmet noninvasive ventilation group compared with 42 of 161 (26.1%) in the usual respiratory support group (risk difference, 1.0% [95% CI, -8.7% to 10.6%]; relative risk, 1.04 [95% CI, 0.72-1.49]; P = .85). Within 28 days, 75 of 159 patients (47.2%) required endotracheal intubation in the helmet noninvasive ventilation group compared with 81 of 161 (50.3%) in the usual respiratory support group (risk difference, -3.1% [95% CI, -14.1% to 7.8%]; relative risk, 0.94 [95% CI, 0.75-1.17]). There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in any of the prespecified secondary end points. Barotrauma occurred in 30 of 159 patients (18.9%) in the helmet noninvasive ventilation group and 25 of 161 (15.5%) in the usual respiratory support group. Skin pressure injury occurred in 5 of 159 patients (3.1%) in the helmet noninvasive ventilation group and 10 of 161 (6.2%) in the usual respiratory support group. There were 2 serious adverse events in the helmet noninvasive ventilation group and 1 in the usual respiratory support group. Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this study suggest that helmet noninvasive ventilation did not significantly reduce 28-day mortality compared with usual respiratory support among patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure due to COVID-19 pneumonia. However, interpretation of the findings is limited by imprecision in the effect estimate, which does not exclude potentially clinically important benefit or harm. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04477668.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency , Acute Disease , Barotrauma/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/mortality , Hypoxia/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Noninvasive Ventilation/adverse effects , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Oxygen/adverse effects , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/adverse effects , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy
3.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 138, 2022 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038685

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To assess the outcome of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for severe adenovirus (Adv) pneumonia with refractory hypoxic respiratory failure (RHRF) in paediatric patients. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was performed in a tertiary paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in China. Patients with RHRF caused by Adv pneumonia who received ECMO support after mechanical ventilation failed to achieve adequate oxygenation between 2017 and 2020 were included. The outcome variables were the in-hospital survival rate and the effects of ECMO on the survival rate. RESULTS: In total, 18 children with RHRF received ECMO. The median age was 19 (9.5, 39.8) months, and the median ECMO duration was 196 (152, 309) h. The in-hospital survival rate was 72.2% (13/18). Thirteen patients (72.2%) required continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) due to fluid imbalance or acute kidney injury (AKI). At ECMO initiation, compared with survivors, nonsurvivors had a lower PaO2/FiO2 ratio [49 (34.5, 62) vs. 63 (56, 71); p = 0.04], higher oxygen index (OI) [41 (34.5, 62) vs. 30 (26.5, 35); p = 0.03], higher vasoactive inotropic score (VIS) [30 (16.3, 80) vs. 100 (60, 142.5); p = 0.04], longer duration from mechanical ventilation to ECMO support [8 (4, 14) vs. 4 (3, 5.5) h, p=0.02], and longer time from confirmed RHRF to ECMO initiation [9 (4.8, 13) vs. 5 (1.3, 5.5) h; p = 0.004]. Patients with PaO2/FiO2 <61 mmHg or an OI >43 and hypoxic respiratory failure for more than 9 days before the initiation of ECMO had worse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: ECMO seemed to be effective, as severe paediatric Adv pneumonia patients with RHRF had a cumulative survival rate of 72.2% in our study. Our study provides insight into ECMO rescue in children with severe Adv pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae Infections , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Pneumonia, Viral , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adenoviridae , Adult , Child , China , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/therapy , Oxygen , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
4.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 16(9): 1017-1021, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2037276

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may result in rapid onset of hypoxemic respiratory failure. This study aimed to characterize the factors and outcomes associated with prolonged hypoxia in patients with COVID-19. Prolonged severe hypoxia (PSH) was defined as hypoxia requiring ≥6 L/min of oxygen by nasal cannula or equivalent for more than 10 days. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study was designed as a single-center retrospective analysis. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to assess factors associated with PSH. RESULTS: The sample included 554 patients with 117 (21%) having PSH. Median length of stay of patients with PSH was significantly longer (median IQR: 18 days vs 6 days, p < 0.0001). Patients with PSH had significantly higher rates of venous thromboembolism (p < 0.0001) and major bleeding (p < 0.004). The presence of cirrhosis (OR 3.32, 95% CI [1.02 to 10.83]) and hypertension (OR 1.99, 95% CI [1.12 to 3.53]) were independently associated with PSH, while outpatient use of anti-platelet agents had an inverse association (OR 0.57, 95% CI [0.36 to 0.91]). CONCLUSION: PSH is associated with increased length of stay, morbidity, and mortality. Hypertension and liver cirrhosis were significantly associated with higher odds of PSH, while use of anti-platelet therapy had a protective effect.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypoxia , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Demography , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypoxia/epidemiology , Hypoxia/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
5.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 152: w30212, 2022 08 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2030233

ABSTRACT

AIMS OF THE STUDY: Awake prone positioning (aPP) in non-intubated patients with severe SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia improves oxygenation and reduces the intubation rate, but no early predictors for success or failure of the strategy have been described. The main objective of this study was to assess whether response to the first aPP in terms of PaO2/FiO2, alveolar-arterial gradient (Aa-O2), respiratory rate and PaCO2 could predict the need for intubation. As secondary objective, we assessed the effects of aPP on the same parameters for all the sessions considered together. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of consecutive SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia patients suffering from acute respiratory failure with moderate to severe hypoxaemia for whom aPP was performed for at least 45 minutes based on the prescription of the clinician in charge according to predefined criteria. Respiratory rate, blood gases and oxygenation parameters (PaO2/FiO2 and Aa-O2), before and after the first aPP were compared between patients who were subsequently intubated or not. Effects of all the aPP sessions together were also analysed. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty-six patients were admitted for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia during the study period. Among them, 50 received aPP lasting at least 45 minutes. Because 17 denied consent for data analysis and 2 were excluded because of a "do not intubate order", 31 patients (for a total of 116 aPP sessions without any severe adverse events reported) were included. Among them, 10 (32.3%) were intubated. Mean age ± standard deviation (SD) was 60 ± 12 years. At ICU admission, respiratory rate was 26 ± 7/minute, median PaO2/FiO2 94 (interquartile range [IQR] 74-116) mm Hg and median Aa-O2 412 (IQR 286-427) mm Hg (markedly increased). Baseline characteristics did not statistically differ between patients who subsequently needed intubation or not. During the first aPP, PaO2/FiO2 increased and Aa-O2 decreased. When comparing patients who later where intubated or not, we observed, in the non intubated group only, a clinically significant decrease in median Aa-O2, from 294 (280-414) to 204 (107-281) mm Hg, corresponding to a 40% (26-56%) reduction, and a PaO2/FiO2 increase, from 103 (84-116) to 162 (138-195), corresponding to an increase of 48% (11-93%). The p value is <0.005 for both. When all the aPP sessions (n = 80) were considered together, aPP was associated with a significant increase in PaO2/FiO2 from 112 (80-132) to 156 (86-183) mm Hg (p <0.001) and Aa-O2 decrease from 304 (244-418) to 224 (148-361) mm Hg (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Awake pronation in spontaneously breathing patients is feasible, and improves PaO2/FiO2 and Aa-O2. Response to the first session seems to be associated with lower intubation rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Hypoxia/complications , Hypoxia/therapy , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Prone Position , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Wakefulness
6.
Ann Intern Med ; 175(9): JC99, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025313

ABSTRACT

SOURCE CITATION: Alhazzani W, Parhar KK, Weatherald J, et al. Effect of awake prone positioning on endotracheal intubation in patients with COVID-19 and acute respiratory failure: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2022;327:2104-13. 35569448.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Humans , Hypoxia/therapy , Intubation, Intratracheal , Patient Positioning , Prone Position , Wakefulness
7.
Undersea Hyperb Med ; 49(3): 295-305, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1998882

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Few treatments have demonstrated mortality benefits among hospitalized hypoxic COVID-19 patients. We evaluated the use of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy as a therapeutic intervention among hospitalized patients with a high oxygen requirement prior to vaccine approval. Methods: We extracted data on patients with COVID-19 hypoxia who required oxygen supplementation ranging from a 6L nasal cannula up to a high-flow nasal cannula at 100% FiO2 at 60L/minute with a 100% non-rebreather mask at 15 L/minute and were eligible for off-label HBO2 therapy from October 2020 to February 2021. We followed the Monitored Emergency use of Unregistered and Investigational Interventions or (MEURI) in conjunction with the consistent re-evaluation of the protocol using the Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) tool [1]. We compared patient characteristics and used Fisher's exact test and a survival analysis to assess the primary endpoint of inpatient death. Results: HBO2 therapy was offered to 36 patients, of which 24 received treatment and 12 did not receive treatment. Patients who did not receive treatment were significantly older (p ≺ 0.01) and had worse baseline hypoxia (p = 0.06). Three of the 24 (13%) patients who received treatment died compared to six of 12 (50%) patients who did not receive treatment (RR ratio: 0.25, p = 0.04, 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.83). In the survival analysis, there was a statistically significant reduction in inpatient mortality in the treatment group (HR: 0.19, p = 0.02, 95% CI: 0.05-0.74). However, after adjusting for age and baseline hypoxia, there was no difference in inpatient mortality (hazard ratio: 0.48, p = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.08-2.86). Conclusion: The survival benefit of HBO2 therapy observed in our unadjusted analysis suggests that there may be therapeutic benefits of HBO2 in treating COVID-19 hypoxia as an adjunct to standard care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hyperbaric Oxygenation , Vaccines , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Hyperbaric Oxygenation/methods , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/therapy , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
8.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(8)2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993016

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Improving hospital oxygen systems can improve quality of care and reduce mortality for children, but we lack data on cost-effectiveness or sustainability. This study evaluated medium-term sustainability and cost-effectiveness of the Nigeria Oxygen Implementation programme. METHODS: Prospective follow-up of a stepped-wedge trial involving 12 secondary-level hospitals. Cross-sectional facility assessment, clinical audit (January-March 2021), summary admission data (January 2018-December 2020), programme cost data. INTERVENTION: pulse oximetry introduction followed by solar-powered oxygen system installation with clinical and technical training and support. PRIMARY OUTCOMES: (i) proportion of children screened with pulse oximetry; (ii) proportion of hypoxaemic (SpO2 <90%) children who received oxygen. Comparison across three time periods: preintervention (2014-2015), intervention (2016-2017) and follow-up (2018-2020) using mixed-effects logistic regression. Calculated cost-effectiveness of the intervention on child pneumonia mortality using programme costs, recorded deaths and estimated counterfactual deaths using effectiveness estimates from our effectiveness study. Reported cost-effectiveness over the original 2-year intervention period (2016-2017) and extrapolated over 5 years (2016-2020). RESULTS: Pulse oximetry coverage for neonates and children remained high during follow-up (83% and 81%) compared with full oxygen system period (94% and 92%) and preintervention (3.9% and 2.9%). Oxygen coverage for hypoxaemic neonates/children was similarly high (94%/88%) compared with full oxygen system period (90%/82%). Functional oxygen sources were present in 11/12 (92%) paediatric areas and all (8/8) neonatal areas; three-quarters (15/20) of wards had a functional oximeter. Of 32 concentrators deployed, 23/32 (72%) passed technical testing and usage was high (median 10 797 hours). Estimated 5-year cost-effectiveness US$86 per patient treated, $2694-4382 per life saved and $82-125 per disability-adjusted life year-averted. We identified practical issues for hospitals and Ministries of Health wishing to adapt and scale up pulse oximetry and oxygen. CONCLUSION: Hospital-level improvements to oxygen and pulse oximetry systems in Nigerian hospitals have been sustained over the medium-term and are a highly cost-effective child pneumonia intervention.


Subject(s)
Hypoxia , Oxygen , Pneumonia , Child , Clinical Trials as Topic , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Hypoxia/therapy , Infant, Newborn , Nigeria , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Pneumonia/therapy , Prospective Studies
11.
Bull World Health Organ ; 100(5): 302-314B, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938580

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate survival in children referred from primary care in Malawi, with a focus on hypoglycaemia and hypoxaemia progression. Methods: The study involved a prospective cohort of children aged 12 years or under referred from primary health-care facilities in Mchinji district, Malawi in 2019 and 2020. Peripheral blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and blood glucose were measured at recruitment and on arrival at a subsequent health-care facility (i.e. four hospitals and 14 primary health-care facilities). Children were followed up 2 weeks after discharge or their last clinical visit. The primary study outcome was the case fatality ratio at 2 weeks. Associations between SpO2 and blood glucose levels and death were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models and the treatment effect of hospitalization was assessed using propensity score matching. Findings: Of 826 children recruited, 784 (94.9%) completed follow-up. At presentation, hypoxaemia was moderate (SpO2: 90-93%) in 13.1% (108/826) and severe (SpO2: < 90%) in 8.6% (71/826) and hypoglycaemia was moderate (blood glucose: 2.5-4.0 mmol/L) in 9.0% (74/826) and severe (blood glucose: < 2.5 mmol/L) in 2.3% (19/826). The case fatality ratio was 3.7% (29/784) overall but 26.3% (5/19) in severely hypoglycaemic children and 12.7% (9/71) in severely hypoxaemic children. Neither moderate hypoglycaemia nor moderate hypoxaemia was associated with mortality. Conclusion: Presumptive pre-referral glucose treatment and better management of hypoglycaemia could reduce the high case fatality ratio observed in children with severe hypoglycaemia. The morbidity and mortality burden of severe hypoxaemia was high; ways of improving hypoxaemia identification and management are needed.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Hypoglycemia , Child , Cohort Studies , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/therapy , Prospective Studies , Referral and Consultation
13.
Respir Care ; 67(9): 1177-1189, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924460

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen and noninvasive ventilation (NIV) have been widely used in patients with acute hypoxic respiratory failure (AHRF) due to COVID-19. However, the impact of HFNC versus NIV on clinical outcomes of COVID-19 is uncertain. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of HFNC versus NIV in COVID-19-related AHRF. METHODS: Several electronic databases were searched through February 10, 2022, for eligible studies comparing HFNC and NIV in COVID-19-related AHRF. Our primary outcome was intubation. The secondary outcomes were mortality, hospital length of stay (LOS), and PaO2 /FIO2 changes. Pooled risk ratio (RR) and mean difference (MD) with the corresponding 95% CI were obtained using a random-effect model. Prediction intervals were calculated to indicate the variance in outcomes that would be expected if new studies were conducted in the future. RESULTS: Nineteen studies involving 3,606 subjects (1,880 received HFNC and 1,726 received NIV) were included. There were no differences in intubation (RR 1.01 [95% CI 0.85-1.20], P = .89) or LOS (MD 0.38 d [95% CI -0.61 to 1.37], P = .45) between groups, with consistent results on the subgroup of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Mortality was lower in NIV (RR 0.81 [95% CI 0.66-0.98], P = .03). However, the prediction interval was 0.41-1.59, and subgroup analysis of RCTs showed no difference in mortality between groups. There was a greater improvement in PaO2 /FIO2 with NIV (MD 22.80 [95% CI 5.30-40.31], P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that despite the greater improvement in PaO2 /FIO2 with NIV, intubation rates and LOS were similar between HFNC and NIV. Although mortality was lower with HFNC than NIV, the prediction interval included the null value, and there was no difference in mortality between HFNC and NIV on a subgroup of RCTs. Future large-scale RCTs are necessary to support our findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , COVID-19/therapy , Cannula , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/therapy , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy
14.
Exp Physiol ; 107(7): 759-770, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909549

ABSTRACT

NEW FINDINGS: What is the topic of this review? The use of proning for improving pulmonary gas exchange in critically ill patients. What advances does it highlight? Proning places the lung in its 'natural' posture, and thus optimises the ventilation-perfusion distribution, which enables lung protective ventilation and the alleviation of potentially life-threatening hypoxaemia in COVID-19 and other types of critical illness with respiratory failure. ABSTRACT: The survival benefit of proning patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is well established and has recently been found to improve pulmonary gas exchange in patients with COVID-19-associated ARDS (CARDS). This review outlines the physiological implications of transitioning from supine to prone on alveolar ventilation-perfusion ( V ̇ A -- Q ̇ ${\dot V_{\rm{A}}}\hbox{--}\dot Q$ ) relationships during spontaneous breathing and during general anaesthesia in the healthy state, as well as during invasive mechanical ventilation in patients with ARDS and CARDS. Spontaneously breathing, awake healthy individuals maintain a small vertical (ventral-to-dorsal) V ̇ A / Q ̇ ${\dot V_{\rm{A}}}/\dot Q$ ratio gradient in the supine position, which is largely neutralised in the prone position, mainly through redistribution of perfusion. In anaesthetised and mechanically ventilated healthy individuals, a vertical V ̇ A / Q ̇ ${\dot V_{\rm{A}}}/\dot Q$ ratio gradient is present in both postures, but with better V ̇ A -- Q ̇ ${\dot V_{\rm{A}}}\hbox{--}\dot Q$ matching in the prone position. In ARDS and CARDS, the vertical V ̇ A / Q ̇ ${\dot V_{\rm{A}}}/\dot Q$ ratio gradient in the supine position becomes larger, with intrapulmonary shunting in gravitationally dependent lung regions due to compression atelectasis of the dorsal lung. This is counteracted by proning, mainly through a more homogeneous distribution of ventilation combined with a largely unaffected high perfusion dorsally, and a consequent substantial improvement in arterial oxygenation. The data regarding proning as a therapy in patients with CARDS is still limited and whether the associated improvement in arterial oxygenation translates to a survival benefit remains unknown. Proning is nonetheless an attractive and lung protective manoeuvre with the potential benefit of improving life-threatening hypoxaemia in patients with ARDS and CARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , Humans , Hypoxia/therapy , Prone Position/physiology , Pulmonary Gas Exchange/physiology , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy
15.
Am J Case Rep ; 23: e936651, 2022 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903899

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND COVID-19 continues to place a tremendous burden on the healthcare system, with most deaths resulting from respiratory failure. Management strategies have varied, but the mortality rate for mechanically ventilated patients remains high. Conventional management with ARDSnet ventilation can improve outcomes but alternative and adjunct treatments continue to be explored. High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV), a modality now rarely used in adult critical care medicine, may offer an alternative treatment option by maximizing lung protection and limiting oxygen toxicity in critically ill patients failing conventional ventilator strategies. CASE REPORT We present 3 patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and sepsis due to COVID-19 who all improved clinically after transitioning from conventional ventilation to HFOV. Two patients developed refractory hypoxemia with hemodynamic instability and multiple organ failure requiring vasopressor support and renal replacement therapy. After failing to improve with all available therapies, both patients stabilized and ultimately improved after being placed on HFOV. The third patient developed severe volutrauma/barotrauma despite extreme lung protection and ARDSnet ventilation. He showed improvement in oxygenation and signs of lung trauma slowly improved after initiating HFOV. All 3 patients were ultimately liberated from mechanical ventilation and discharged from the hospital to return to functional independence. CONCLUSIONS Our experience suggests that HFOV offers advantages in the management of certain critically ill patients with ARDS due to COVID-19 pneumonia and might be considered in cases refractory to standard management strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , High-Frequency Ventilation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness , High-Frequency Ventilation/adverse effects , High-Frequency Ventilation/methods , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/therapy , Male , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy
16.
JAMA ; 327(21): 2104-2113, 2022 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898487

ABSTRACT

Importance: The efficacy and safety of prone positioning is unclear in nonintubated patients with acute hypoxemia and COVID-19. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and adverse events of prone positioning in nonintubated adult patients with acute hypoxemia and COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: Pragmatic, unblinded randomized clinical trial conducted at 21 hospitals in Canada, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and the US. Eligible adult patients with COVID-19 were not intubated and required oxygen (≥40%) or noninvasive ventilation. A total of 400 patients were enrolled between May 19, 2020, and May 18, 2021, and final follow-up was completed in July 2021. Intervention: Patients were randomized to awake prone positioning (n = 205) or usual care without prone positioning (control; n = 195). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was endotracheal intubation within 30 days of randomization. The secondary outcomes included mortality at 60 days, days free from invasive mechanical ventilation or noninvasive ventilation at 30 days, days free from the intensive care unit or hospital at 60 days, adverse events, and serious adverse events. Results: Among the 400 patients who were randomized (mean age, 57.6 years [SD, 12.83 years]; 117 [29.3%] were women), all (100%) completed the trial. In the first 4 days after randomization, the median duration of prone positioning was 4.8 h/d (IQR, 1.8 to 8.0 h/d) in the awake prone positioning group vs 0 h/d (IQR, 0 to 0 h/d) in the control group. By day 30, 70 of 205 patients (34.1%) in the prone positioning group were intubated vs 79 of 195 patients (40.5%) in the control group (hazard ratio, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.59 to 1.12], P = .20; absolute difference, -6.37% [95% CI, -15.83% to 3.10%]). Prone positioning did not significantly reduce mortality at 60 days (hazard ratio, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.62 to 1.40], P = .54; absolute difference, -1.15% [95% CI, -9.40% to 7.10%]) and had no significant effect on days free from invasive mechanical ventilation or noninvasive ventilation at 30 days or on days free from the intensive care unit or hospital at 60 days. There were no serious adverse events in either group. In the awake prone positioning group, 21 patients (10%) experienced adverse events and the most frequently reported were musculoskeletal pain or discomfort from prone positioning (13 of 205 patients [6.34%]) and desaturation (2 of 205 patients [0.98%]). There were no reported adverse events in the control group. Conclusions and Relevance: In patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure from COVID-19, prone positioning, compared with usual care without prone positioning, did not significantly reduce endotracheal intubation at 30 days. However, the effect size for the primary study outcome was imprecise and does not exclude a clinically important benefit. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04350723.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intubation, Intratracheal , Prone Position , Respiratory Insufficiency , Wakefulness , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/therapy , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy
18.
J Int Med Res ; 50(5): 3000605221101970, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874963

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) with multiple programmed levels of positive end expiratory pressure (programmed multi-level ventilation; PMLV) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, retrospective study from November 2020 to February 2021. PMLV was used with PCV in all patients with intensive care admission until improvement in oxygenation (fraction of inspired oxygen [FiO2] ≤0.50 and oxygen saturation [SpO2] >92%). The observed outcomes were improvement of hypoxemia, length of mechanical ventilation, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) stability, and adverse events. RESULTS: Of 188 mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19-related ARDS, we analyzed 60 patients treated with PMLV. Hypoxemia improved in 55 (92%) patients, as measured by the change in partial pressure of oxygen/FiO2 and SpO2/FiO2 ratios on day 3 versus day 1, and in 32 (66%) ventilated patients on day 7 versus day 3. The median (interquartile range) length of mechanical ventilation for survivors and non-survivors was 8.4 (4.7-14.9) and 6.7 (3.6-10.3) days, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: PMLV appears to be a safe and effective ventilation strategy for improving hypoxemia in patients with COVID-19-related ARDS. Further studies are needed comparing the PMLV mode with the conventional ARDS ventilatory approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/therapy , Oxygen , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies
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