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1.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 312, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690934

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Structural racism has driven and continues to drive policies that create the social, economic, and community factors resulting in residential segregation, lack of access to adequate healthcare, and lack of employment opportunities that would allow economic mobility. This results in overall poorer population health for minoritized people. In 2020, Black and Hispanic/Latinx communities throughout the United States, including the state of Illinois, experienced disproportionately high rates of COVID-19 cases and deaths. Public health officials in Illinois implemented targeted programs at state and local levels to increase intervention access and reduce disparities. METHODS: To quantify how disparities in COVID outcomes evolved through the epidemic, data on SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic tests, COVID-19 cases, and COVID-19 deaths were obtained from the Illinois National Electronic Disease Surveillance System for the period from March 1 to December 31, 2020. Relative risks of COVID-19 cases and deaths were calculated for Black and Hispanic/Latinx vs. White residents, stratified by age group and epidemic interval. Deaths attributable to racial/ethnic disparities in incidence and case fatality were estimated with counterfactual simulations. RESULTS: Disparities in case and death rates became less drastic after May 2020, but did not disappear, and were more pronounced at younger ages. From March to May of 2020, the risk of a COVID-19 case for Black and Hispanic/Latinx populations was more than twice that of Whites across all age groups. The relative risk of COVID-19 death reached above 10 for Black and Hispanic/Latinx individuals under 50 years of age compared to age-matched Whites in the early epidemic. In all Illinois counties, relative risk of a COVID-19 case was the same or significantly increased for minoritized populations compared to the White population. 79.3 and 86.7% of disparities in deaths among Black and Hispanic/Latinx populations, respectively, were attributable to differences in age-adjusted incidence compared to White populations rather than differences in case fatality ratios. CONCLUSIONS: Racial and ethnic disparities in the COVID-19 pandemic are products of society, not biology. Considering age and geography in addition to race/ethnicity can help to identify the structural factors driving poorer outcomes for certain groups. Studies and policies aimed at reducing inequalities in disease exposure may reduce disparities in mortality more than those focused on drivers of case fatality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Illinois/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
2.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262164, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607493

ABSTRACT

Given the overwhelming worldwide rate of infection and the disappointing pace of vaccination, addressing reinfection is critical. Understanding reinfection, including longevity after natural infection, will allow us to better know the prospect of herd immunity, which hinges on the assumption that natural infection generates sufficient, protective immunity. The primary objective of this observational cohort study is to establish the incidence of reinfection of COVID-19 among healthcare employees who experienced a prior COVID-19 infection over a 10-month period. Of 2,625 participants who experienced at least one COVID-19 infection during the 10-month study period, 156 (5.94%) experienced reinfection and 540 (20.57%) experienced recurrence after prior infection. Median days were 126.50 (105.50-171.00) to reinfection and 31.50 (10.00-72.00) to recurrence. Incidence rate of COVID-19 reinfection was 0.35 cases per 1,000 person-days, with participants working in COVID-clinical and clinical units experiencing 3.77 and 3.57 times, respectively, greater risk of reinfection relative to those working in non-clinical units. Incidence rate of COVID-19 recurrence was 1.47 cases per 1,000 person-days. This study supports the consensus that COVID-19 reinfection, defined as subsequent infection ≥ 90 days after prior infection, is rare, even among a sample of healthcare workers with frequent exposure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Health Personnel , Reinfection/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Humans , Illinois/epidemiology , Wisconsin/epidemiology
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(5152): 1778-1781, 2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596398

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in school closures and reduction of in-person learning (1). In August 2021, the Lake County Health Department (LCHD) in Illinois introduced a Test to Stay (TTS) strategy, whereby unvaccinated students, teachers, and staff members with certain school-related COVID-19 exposures could remain in school and participate in school-related extracurricular activities. Eligibility to participate in TTS required the following conditions to be met: 1) the exposure occurred while both the person with COVID-19 (index patient) and the close contact were masked; 2) the close contact remained asymptomatic, practiced consistent mask wearing, and maintained physical distancing; and 3) the close contact underwent testing for SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) on days 1, 3, 5, and 7 after exposure to the index patient. LCHD permitted kindergarten through grade 12 (K-12) schools in Lake County to implement TTS; 90 schools, representing 31 school districts in Lake County, implemented TTS during August 9-October 29, 2021. During the implementation period, 258 COVID-19 cases were reported. Among 1,035 students and staff members enrolled in TTS, the secondary attack risk (number of close contacts who received a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result within 14 days after exposure to an index patient, divided by total number of close contacts) was 1.5% (16 of 1,035). Among the 16 secondary cases identified, all were in students, and none appeared to transmit SARS-CoV-2 to other school-based contacts. However, nine tertiary cases were identified among household contacts of the 16 secondary cases, and four of the nine were fully vaccinated. Assuming a maximum of 8 missed school days for every 10-day quarantine period, up to 8,152 in-person learning days were saved among TTS participants. Implementation of TTS with other concurrent prevention strategies, including masking and physical distancing, limited further spread of SARS-CoV-2 within K-12 schools and allowed students to safely sustain in-person learning. Although vaccination remains the leading public health recommendation to protect against COVID-19 for those aged ≥5 years, schools might consider TTS as an option for allowing close contacts who are not fully vaccinated to remain in the classroom as an alternative to home quarantine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/prevention & control , Quarantine/methods , Schools , Students , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Child, Preschool , Environmental Exposure , Humans , Illinois/epidemiology , Masks
4.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(1): 76-84, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547204

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has the potential for rapid transmission in congregate settings. We describe the multidisciplinary response to an outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in a large homeless shelter in Chicago, Illinois, USA. The response to the outbreak included 4 rounds of mass PCR testing of all staff and residents and subsequent isolation of persons who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. We further describe the dynamics of the shelter outbreak by fitting a modified susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered compartmental model incorporating the widespread SARS-CoV-2 testing and isolation measures implemented in this shelter. Our model demonstrates that rapid transmission of COVID-19 in the shelter occurred before the outbreak was detected; rates of transmission declined after widespread testing and isolation measures were put in place. Overall, we demonstrate the feasibility of mass PCR testing and isolation in congregate settings and suggest the necessity of prompt response to suspected COVID-19 outbreaks in homeless shelters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Homeless Persons , COVID-19 Testing , Chicago/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Illinois/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Am J Public Health ; 111(S3): S204-S207, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496721

ABSTRACT

At the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, neither government officials nor members of the news media fully grasped what was happening in the Latino community. Underreporting of COVID-19 cases led to a systematic neglect of the Latino population and resulted in disproportionately high rates of infection, hospitalization, and death. Illinois Unidos was formed to engage in community mobilization, health communication, advocacy, and policy work in response to inequalities exacerbated by COVID-19 in Latino communities in Illinois. (Am J Public Health. 2021;111(S3):S204-S207. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306407).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Community Health Workers , Health Communication , Health Equity , Health Plan Implementation , Social Justice , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Illinois/epidemiology , Medically Underserved Area
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(35): 1223-1227, 2021 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413074

ABSTRACT

On June 30, 2021, the Illinois Department of Public Health (IDPH) contacted CDC concerning COVID-19 outbreaks at two events sponsored by the same organization: a 5-day overnight church camp for persons aged 14-18 years and a 2-day men's conference. Neither COVID-19 vaccination nor COVID-19 testing was required before either event. As of August 13, a total of 180 confirmed and probable cases had been identified among attendees at the two events and their close contacts. Among the 122 cases associated with the camp or the conference (primary cases), 18 were in persons who were fully vaccinated, with 38 close contacts. Eight of these 38 close contacts subsequently became infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (secondary cases); among the eight close contacts with secondary cases, one half (four) were fully vaccinated. Among the 180 total persons with outbreak-associated cases, five (2.8%) were hospitalized; no deaths occurred. None of the vaccinated persons with cases were hospitalized. Approximately 1,000 persons across at least four states were exposed to SARS-CoV-2 through attendance at these events or through close contact with a person who had a primary case. This investigation underscores the impact of secondary SARS-CoV-2 transmission during large events, such as camps and conferences, when COVID-19 prevention strategies are not implemented. In Los Angeles County, California, during July 2021, when the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant was predominant, unvaccinated residents were five times more likely to be infected and 29 times more likely to be hospitalized from infection than were vaccinated residents (1). Implementation of multiple prevention strategies, including vaccination and nonpharmaceutical interventions such as masking, physical distancing, and screening testing, are critical to preventing SARS-CoV-2 transmission and serious complications from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Camping , Congresses as Topic , Disease Outbreaks , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child , Child, Preschool , Contact Tracing , Female , Humans , Illinois/epidemiology , Male , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Physical Distancing , Young Adult
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(14): 528-532, 2021 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389867

ABSTRACT

During February 2021, an opening event was held indoors at a rural Illinois bar that accommodates approximately 100 persons. The Illinois Department of Public Health (IDPH) and local health department staff members investigated a COVID-19 outbreak associated with this opening event. Overall, 46 COVID-19 cases were linked to the event, including cases in 26 patrons and three staff members who attended the opening event and 17 secondary cases. Four persons with cases had COVID-19-like symptoms on the same day they attended the event. Secondary cases included 12 cases in eight households with children, two on a school sports team, and three in a long-term care facility (LTCF). Transmission associated with the opening event resulted in one school closure affecting 650 children (9,100 lost person-days of school) and hospitalization of one LTCF resident with COVID-19. These findings demonstrate that opening up settings such as bars, where mask wearing and physical distancing are challenging, can increase the risk for community transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. As community businesses begin to reopen, a multicomponent approach should be emphasized in settings such as bars to prevent transmission* (1). This includes enforcing consistent and correct mask use, maintaining ≥6 ft of physical distance between persons, reducing indoor bar occupancy, prioritizing outdoor seating, improving building ventilation, and promoting behaviors such as staying at home when ill, as well as implementing contact tracing in combination with isolation and quarantine when COVID-19 cases are diagnosed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Community-Acquired Infections , Restaurants/organization & administration , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Illinois/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
9.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0253910, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290970

ABSTRACT

The spread of COVID-19 in the Spring of 2020 prompted state and local governments to implement a variety of policies, including stay-at-home (SAH) orders and mandatory mask requirements, aimed at reducing the infection rate and the severity of the pandemic's impact. We implement a discrete choice experiment survey in three major U.S. States-California, Georgia, and Illinois-to empirically quantify individuals' willingness to stay (WTS) home, measured as the number of weeks of a potential new SAH order, to prevent the spread of the COVID-19 disease and explore factors leading to their heterogeneous WTS. Our results demonstrate broad support for statewide mask mandates. In addition, the estimate of WTS to lower new positive cases is quite large, approximately five and half weeks, even though staying home lowers utility. We also find that individuals recognize the trade-offs between case reduction and economic slowdown stemming from SAH orders when they decide to stay home or not. Finally, pandemic related factors such as age, ability to work from home, and unemployment status are the main drivers of the heterogeneity in individuals' WTS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , California/epidemiology , Female , Georgia/epidemiology , Humans , Illinois/epidemiology , Male , Masks , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
10.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1105, 2021 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264175

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Availability of SARS-CoV-2 testing in the United States (U.S.) has fluctuated through the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, including in the U.S. state of Illinois. Despite substantial ramp-up in test volume, access to SARS-CoV-2 testing remains limited, heterogeneous, and insufficient to control spread. METHODS: We compared SARS-CoV-2 testing rates across geographic regions, over time, and by demographic characteristics (i.e., age and racial/ethnic groups) in Illinois during March through December 2020. We compared age-matched case fatality ratios and infection fatality ratios through time to estimate the fraction of SARS-CoV-2 infections that have been detected through diagnostic testing. RESULTS: By the end of 2020, initial geographic differences in testing rates had closed substantially. Case fatality ratios were higher in non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic/Latino populations in Illinois relative to non-Hispanic White populations, suggesting that tests were insufficient to accurately capture the true burden of COVID-19 disease in the minority populations during the initial epidemic wave. While testing disparities decreased during 2020, Hispanic/Latino populations consistently remained the least tested at 1.87 tests per 1000 population per day compared with 2.58 and 2.87 for non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White populations, respectively, at the end of 2020. Despite a large expansion in testing since the beginning of the first wave of the epidemic, we estimated that over half (50-80%) of all SARS-CoV-2 infections were not detected by diagnostic testing and continued to evade surveillance. CONCLUSIONS: Systematic methods for identifying relatively under-tested geographic regions and demographic groups may enable policymakers to regularly monitor and evaluate the shifting landscape of diagnostic testing, allowing officials to prioritize allocation of testing resources to reduce disparities in COVID-19 burden and eventually reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Illinois/epidemiology , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology
11.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(9): 1146-1151, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245823

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: One of the most difficult public policy decisions associated with the COVID-19 pandemic has been about how to offer K-12 instruction. We sought to determine whether differences in instruction types at the beginning of the 2020-2021 school year were related to differences in COVID-19 cases, hospitalizations, and deaths in Illinois counties during the first 3 weeks of the school year. METHODS: We divided Illinois counties into 3 groups based on the instruction type used for a majority of K-12 students at the start of the school year: in-person, hybrid, or online-only. We used synthetic control analysis to match counties between the 3 groups. RESULTS: Both majority hybrid and majority online-only counties had significantly fewer new cases than majority in-person counties. There were no significant differences in new cases between majority hybrid counties and majority online-only counties or in new hospital admissions or deaths between any of the 3 county groups. CONCLUSIONS: This paper adds to the growing scientific consensus that at least some forms of in-person K-12 instruction have not contributed significantly to the spread of the pandemic. However, our results suggest that there may be an important difference between fully in-person instruction and hybrid instruction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education/methods , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Illinois/epidemiology , Pandemics , Schools
12.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 147(6): 1469-1471, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223413

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The health care crisis related to the spread of novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) has created new challenges to plastic surgery education, mostly because of the decreased volume of procedures. The plastic surgery program directors in Chicago decided to act and identify ways to promote surgical education through citywide, multi-institutional, systematic clinical case discussions. Although the initiative has no impact on the surgical skill of the trainees, it was welcomed by residents and faculty and promoted clinical core knowledge in plastic surgery and collaboration among the institutions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Internship and Residency/organization & administration , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/education , Surgery, Plastic/education , Universities/organization & administration , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Curriculum , Humans , Illinois/epidemiology , Internship and Residency/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data
13.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol ; 31(3): 525-537, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216444

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neighborhood characteristics have been linked to community incidence of COVID-19, but the modifying effect of age has not been examined. OBJECTIVE: We adapted a neighborhood-wide analysis study (NWAS) design to systematically examine associations between neighborhood characteristics and COVID-19 incidence among different age groups. METHODS: The number of daily cumulative cases of COVID-19 by zip code area in Illinois has been made publicly available by the Illinois Department of Public Health. The number of COVID-19 cases was reported for eight age groups (under 20, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, and 80+). We reviewed this data published from May 23 through June 17, 2020 with complete data for all eight age groups and linked the data to neighborhood characteristics measured by the American Community Survey (ACS). Geographic age-specific cumulative incidence (cases per 1000 people) of COVID-19 was calculated by dividing the number of daily cumulative cases by the population of the same age group at each zip code area. The association between individual characteristics and COVID-19 incidence was examined using Poisson regression models. RESULTS: At the zip code level, neighborhood socioeconomic status was a more important risk factor of COVID-19 incidence in children and working-age adults than in seniors. Social demographics and housing conditions were important risk factors of COVID-19 incidence in older age groups. We additionally observed significant associations between transportation-related variables and COVID-19 incidences in multiple age groups. SIGNIFICANCE: We concluded that age modified the association between neighborhood characteristics and COVID-19 incidence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Child , Humans , Illinois/epidemiology , Residence Characteristics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Class , Socioeconomic Factors
14.
Am J Emerg Med ; 47: 239-243, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1212999

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global healthcare burden of COVID-19 continues to rise. There is currently limited information regarding the disease progression and the need for hospitalizations in patients who present to the Emergency Department (ED) with minimal or no symptoms. OBJECTIVES: This study identifies bounceback rates and timeframes for patients who return to the ED due to COVID-19 after initial discharge on the date of testing. METHODS: Using the NorthShore University Health System's (NSUHS) Enterprise Data Warehouse (EDW), we conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of patients who were tested positive for COVID-19 and were discharged home on the date of testing. A one-month follow-up period was included to ensure the capture of disease progression. RESULTS: Of 1883 positive cases with initially mild symptoms, 14.6% returned to the ED for complaints related to COVID-19. 56.9% of the mildly symptomatic bounceback patients were discharged on the return visit while 39.5% were admitted to the floor and 3.6% to the ICU. Of the 1120 positive cases with no initial symptoms, only four returned to the ED (0.26%) and only one patient was admitted. Median initial testing occurred on day 3 (2-5.6) of illness, and median ED bounceback occurred on day 9 (6.3-12.7). Our statistical model was unable to identify risk factors for ED bouncebacks. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients diagnosed with mild symptoms on initial presentation have a 14.6% rate of bounceback due to progression of illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Patient Readmission/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Illinois/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e2111103, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206732

ABSTRACT

Importance: Understanding youth well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic can help appropriately allocate resources and inform policies to support youth. Objective: To examine caregiver-reported changes in the psychological well-being of their children 3 to 4 months after the start of COVID-19 stay-at-home orders, and to examine the association of caregiver-reported COVID-19 exposure and family stressors with caregiver perceptions of child psychological well-being. Design, Setting, and Participants: This survey study used an anonymous survey distributed via email from June 24 to July 15, 2020, to 350 000 families of students attending public schools in Chicago, Illinois. The a priori hypotheses were that caregivers would report worsening in child psychological well-being during the closure period compared with preclosure and that exposure to COVID-19-related stressors would be associated with a higher probability of worsening child psychological well-being. Data were analyzed from September 10, 2020, to March 15, 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: Outcomes were 7 mental health concerns and 5 positive adjustment characteristics reported by caregivers using a retrospective pre-post design. COVID-19 exposure and family stressors were also reported by caregivers. Results: Among 350 000 families invited to participate, 32 217 caregivers (10 827 [39.3%] White, 8320 [30.2%] Latinx, 6168 [22.4%] Black; 2223 [8.1%] with multiple or other races/ethnicities) completed the survey on behalf of 49 397 children in prekindergarten through 12th grade. Child-specific outcomes were reported for 40 723 to 40 852 children depending on the specific question. The frequency of caregiver endorsement of youth mental health concerns ranged from 0.1 percentage point (suicidal ideation or self-harm, reported by 191 caregivers [0.5%] preclosure vs 246 caregivers [0.6%] during closure; P < .001) to 28.3 percentage points (loneliness, reported by 1452 caregivers [3.6%] preclosure vs 13 019 caregivers [31.9%] during closure; P < .001) higher after the end of in-person instruction compared with preclosure. Frequency of caregiver endorsement of youth positive adjustment characteristics ranged from -13.4 percentage points (plans for the future, reported by 18 114 caregivers [44.3%] preclosure vs 12 601 caregivers [30.9%] during closure; P < .001) to -30.9 percentage points (positive peer relationships, reported by 24 666 caregivers [60.4%] preclosure vs 19 130 caregivers [46.8%] during closure; P < .001) lower after the end of in-person instruction. Significant differences in COVID-19 exposure were observed across racial/ethnic (F3,27 534 = 614.8; P < .001) and household income strata (F5,27 506 = 842.0; P < .001). After accounting for covariates, all mental health concerns increased in probability (eg, angry: odds ratio, 1.55 [95% CI, 1.48-1.62]; P < .001) and all the positive adjustment characteristics decreased in probability (eg, hopeful or positive: odds ratio, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.84-0.92]; P < .001) as COVID-19 exposure and family stressors increased. Conclusions and Relevance: In this survey study of caregivers during the COVID-19 pandemic, COVID-19 and resulting exposure to stress were associated with worse youth psychological well-being, demonstrating the need for a comprehensive public health approach that prioritizes children's well-being and draws broad public attention to the mental health needs of youth.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Caregivers/psychology , Child Health , Child Welfare , Parents/psychology , Stress, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Education, Distance , Family Health , Female , Humans , Illinois/epidemiology , Male , Mental Health/standards , Parent-Child Relations , Physical Distancing , Qualitative Research , Quality Improvement , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
16.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(9): 1129-1135, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163284

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Correctional and detention facilities are disproportionately affected by COVID-19 due to shared space, contact between staff and detained persons, and movement within facilities. On March 18, 2020, Cook County Jail, one of the United States' largest, identified its first suspected case of COVID-19 in a detained person. METHODS: This analysis includes SARS-CoV-2 cases confirmed by molecular detection among detained persons and Cook County Sheriff's Office staff. We examined occurrence of symptomatic cases in each building and proportions of asymptomatic detained persons testing positive, and timing of interventions including social distancing, mask use, and expanded testing and show outbreak trajectory in the jail compared to case counts in Chicago. RESULTS: During March 1-April 30, 907 symptomatic and asymptomatic cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection were detected among detained persons (n = 628) and staff (n = 279). Among asymptomatic detained persons in quarantine, 23.6% tested positive. Programmatic activity and visitation stopped March 9, cells were converted into single occupancy beginning March 26, and universal masking was implemented for staff (April 2) and detained persons (April 13). Cases at the jail declined while cases in Chicago increased. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS: Aggressive intervention strategies coupled with widespread diagnostic testing of detained and staff populations can limit introduction and mitigate transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection in correctional and detention facilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Jails , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Illinois/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
17.
Ann Epidemiol ; 58: 124-127, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152246

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has led to substantial morbidity and mortality world-wide. Evidence suggests that ethnic and racial minorities have been disproportionately affected in the United States, particularly within major population centers. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic in Cook County, Illinois, and found that the rate of years of potential life lost (YPLL) was 4.8 times greater in the most affected racial group (YPLL: 2289/100,000 population in Hispanic people) than in the least affected group (YPLL: 480/100,000 population in Asian people).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Illinois/epidemiology , Life Expectancy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(3): e211283, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125121

ABSTRACT

Importance: Risks for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among health care personnel (HCP) are unclear. Objective: To evaluate the risk factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity among HCP with the a priori hypothesis that community exposure but not health care exposure was associated with seropositivity. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study was conducted among volunteer HCP at 4 large health care systems in 3 US states. Sites shared deidentified data sets, including previously collected serology results, questionnaire results on community and workplace exposures at the time of serology, and 3-digit residential zip code prefix of HCP. Site-specific responses were mapped to a common metadata set. Residential weekly coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cumulative incidence was calculated from state-based COVID-19 case and census data. Exposures: Model variables included demographic (age, race, sex, ethnicity), community (known COVID-19 contact, COVID-19 cumulative incidence by 3-digit zip code prefix), and health care (workplace, job role, COVID-19 patient contact) factors. Main Outcome and Measures: The main outcome was SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity. Risk factors for seropositivity were estimated using a mixed-effects logistic regression model with a random intercept to account for clustering by site. Results: Among 24 749 HCP, most were younger than 50 years (17 233 [69.6%]), were women (19 361 [78.2%]), were White individuals (15 157 [61.2%]), and reported workplace contact with patients with COVID-19 (12 413 [50.2%]). Many HCP worked in the inpatient setting (8893 [35.9%]) and were nurses (7830 [31.6%]). Cumulative incidence of COVID-19 per 10 000 in the community up to 1 week prior to serology testing ranged from 8.2 to 275.6; 20 072 HCP (81.1%) reported no COVID-19 contact in the community. Seropositivity was 4.4% (95% CI, 4.1%-4.6%; 1080 HCP) overall. In multivariable analysis, community COVID-19 contact and community COVID-19 cumulative incidence were associated with seropositivity (community contact: adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.5; 95% CI, 2.9-4.1; community cumulative incidence: aOR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.3-2.6). No assessed workplace factors were associated with seropositivity, including nurse job role (aOR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.9-1.3), working in the emergency department (aOR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.8-1.3), or workplace contact with patients with COVID-19 (aOR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.9-1.3). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study of US HCP in 3 states, community exposures were associated with seropositivity to SARS-CoV-2, but workplace factors, including workplace role, environment, or contact with patients with known COVID-19, were not. These findings provide reassurance that current infection prevention practices in diverse health care settings are effective in preventing transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from patients to HCP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Hotspot , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Georgia/epidemiology , Humans , Illinois/epidemiology , Male , Maryland/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Residence Characteristics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , United States/epidemiology
20.
Diabetes Technol Ther ; 23(S1): S1-S7, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116560

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic disrupted the lives of people with diabetes. Use of real-time continuous glucose monitoring (rtCGM) helped manage diabetes effectively. Some of these disruptions may be reflected in population-scale changes to metrics of glycemic control, such as time-in-range (TIR). Methods: We examined data from 65,067 U.S.-based users of the G6 rtCGM System (Dexcom, Inc., San Diego, CA) who had uploaded data before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Users associated with three counties that included the cities of Los Angeles, Chicago, and New York or with five regions designated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) were compared. Public data were used to associate regions with prepandemic and intrapandemic glycemic parameters, COVID-19 mortality, and median household income. Results: Compared with an 8-week prepandemic interval before stay-at-home orders (January 6, 2020, to March 1, 2020), overall mean (standard deviation) TIR improved from 59.0 (20.1)% to 61.0 (20.4)% during the early pandemic period (April 20, 2020 to June 14, 2020, P < 0.001). TIR improvements were noted in all three counties and in all five CDC-designated regions. Higher COVID-19 mortality was associated with higher proportions of individuals experiencing TIR improvements of ≥5 percentage points. Users in economically wealthier zip codes had higher pre- and intrapandemic TIR values and greater relative improvements in TIR. TIR and pandemic-related improvements in TIR varied across CDC-designated regions. Conclusions: Population-level rtCGM data may be used to monitor changes in glycemic control with temporal and geographic specificity. The COVID-19 pandemic is associated with improvements in TIR, which were not evenly distributed across the United States.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Glycemic Control/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Illinois/epidemiology , Income , Los Angeles/epidemiology , Mobile Applications/statistics & numerical data , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Patient Isolation , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology
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