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1.
Lancet Oncol ; 23(8): 1078-1086, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915191

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Most kidney transplant recipients with cancer stop or reduce immunosuppressive therapy before starting treatment with an immune checkpoint inhibitor, and approximately 40% of such patients will develop allograft rejection. Isolated immunosuppression reduction might be associated with organ rejection. Whether immunosuppression manipulation, immune checkpoint inhibition, or both, induce organ rejection is difficult to ascertain. The aim of this study was to examine the risk of allograft rejection with immune checkpoint inhibitor exposure when baseline immunosuppression was left unchanged. METHODS: We conducted a multicentre, single-arm, phase 1 study in three hospitals in Australia. Kidney transplant recipients aged 18 years or older with incurable, locally advanced cancer or defined metastatic solid tumours were eligible if they had a creatinine concentration of less than 180 mmol/L, no or low concentrations of donor-specific HLA antibodies, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group status of 0-2. Patients received standard doses of nivolumab (3 mg/kg intravenously every 14 days for five cycles, then 480 mg every 28 days for up to 2 years). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with irretrievable allograft rejection and no evidence of tumour response. Primary outcome analyses and safety analyses were done in the modified intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register, ANZCTR12617000741381, and is completed. FINDINGS: Between May 31, 2017, and Aug 6, 2021, 22 kidney transplant recipients with various solid tumours were screened and enrolled, four of whom chose not to proceed in the study and one of whom had unexpected disease progression. 17 patients (six [35%] women and 11 [65%] men; median age 67 years [IQR 59-71]) were allocated treatment with nivolumab and were included in the analyses. The trial was then stopped due to ongoing difficulties with running clinical trials during COVID-19 health restrictions. Patients were treated with a median of three infusions (IQR 2-10) and median follow-up was 28 months (IQR 16-34). No patients had irretrievable allograft rejection without evidence of tumour response. There were no treatment-related deaths or treatment-related serious adverse events. The most common grade 3 or grade 4 adverse events were decreased lymphocyte count in four (24%) patients, fever or infection in four (24%) patients, decreased haemoglobin in three (18%) patients, and increased creatinine in three (18%) patients. INTERPRETATION: Maintaining baseline immunosuppression before treatment with an immune checkpoint inhibitor in kidney transplant recipients might not affect expected efficacy and might reduce the risk of allograft rejection mediated by immune checkpoint inhibitors. FUNDING: Bristol Myers Squibb.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Aged , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Australia , Creatinine , Female , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/adverse effects , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Male , Nivolumab
2.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 551, 2022 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1849686

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immune-mediated pneumonitis has a high mortality rate; however, information regarding the related risk factors remains limited. This study aimed to analyze risk factors for pneumonitis, including smoking and lung metastasis (LM), in patients with extrapulmonary primary tumors. METHODS: Data of 110 patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) (nivolumab/pembrolizumab) for treating extrapulmonary primary tumors at the Shiga University of Medical Science Hospital between January 2015 and December 2019 were retrospectively collected. The association between the onset of pneumonitis and treatment-related factors was analyzed by logistic regression. The severity of pneumonitis was graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 5.0. Risk factors, such as the absence or presence of interstitial lung disease (ILD) and LM, or other clinical factors, including smoking status before ICI administration, were analyzed. RESULTS: Multivariate analyses indicated that the amount of smoking was significantly associated with an increase in the development of all-grade pneumonitis types (odds ratio (OR) = 20.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 20.03-20.66; p = 0.029). LM and ILD were significantly related to an increase in the development of symptomatic pneumonitis (≥ Grade 2) (OR = 10.08, 95% CI = 1.69-199.81; p = 0.076, and OR = 6.76, 95% CI = 1.13-40.63; p = 0.037, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Pre-screening for ILD and LM and recognizing patients' smoking history is important for determining the risk of ICI-induced pneumonitis and allowing safe ICI administration.


Subject(s)
Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Lung Neoplasms , Pneumonia , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/adverse effects , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
3.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(7): 1518-1520, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809305

ABSTRACT

Recently, along with increasing use of immune checkpoint inhibitors such as nivolumab, the incidence of immune-related adverse events, including type 1 diabetes mellitus, has become a serious problem. We report a patient who had immune checkpoint inhibitor‒associated type 1 diabetes mellitus that developed after a second mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/chemically induced , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/adverse effects , Nivolumab/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Humans , Japan , Vaccination/adverse effects
4.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 23(2): 143-150, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588071

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Extended interval (EI) dosing for immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) mono- or consolidation therapy initiated due to the COVID-19 pandemic led to a significant reduction in ICI-related site visits for patients with stage III and IV non-small cell lung cancer. Here we report the safety and efficacy compared to standard dose (SD) schedules. METHOD: In this retrospective analysis, patients who received ICI mono- or consolidation therapy, or adjuvant ICI therapy were assessed. Safety and efficacy of EI dosing with data of SD schedules were compared. RESULTS: One hundred seventeen patients received EI dosing for ICI and 88 patients SD. Patient characteristics were comparable. We observed 237 adverse events in the EI dosing cohort versus 118 in the SD group (P= .02). Overall, there was no difference in the occurrence of grade ≥3 adverse events (EI dosing: 21/237 [8.9%]; SD group: 20/118 [17.0%], P = .42), except for the pembrolizumab EI dosing cohort. Of all patients who received an EI dosing schedule, however, only 8 (6.8%) were reduced to SD because of toxicity. In 5 (4.3%) patients ICI was permanently stopped because of severe toxicity compared to 11 (12.5%) discontinuations in the SD group. Short-term treatment interruption occurred with similar frequencies in both groups. Progression-free survival and overall survival were comparable in patients receiving pembrolizumab and in those receiving adjuvant durvalumab. Progression-free survival and OS were better in the EI dosing cohort of nivolumab. CONCLUSION: EI dosing for ICI did not lead to an increase of clinically relevant toxicities resulting in dose reduction and/or treatment discontinuation. Efficacy of EI dosing of pembrolizumab and durvalumab were comparable to SD. Based on our safety and efficacy data EI dosing for ICI seems a safe and effective strategy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Nivolumab/administration & dosage , Nivolumab/adverse effects , Progression-Free Survival , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Br J Cancer ; 126(1): 1-3, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526066

ABSTRACT

The combination of COVID-19 vaccination with immunotherapy by checkpoint inhibitors in cancer patients could intensify immunological stimulation with potential reciprocal benefits. Here, we examine more closely the possible adverse events that can arise in each treatment modality. Our conclusion is that caution should be exercised when combining both treatments.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/adverse effects , Immunotherapy/adverse effects , Neoplasms/therapy , /administration & dosage , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Combined Modality Therapy/adverse effects , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Drug Interactions , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Immunotherapy/methods , Neoplasms/immunology
7.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(7): e13604, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388253

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a concern that influenza vaccination may increase the incidence of immune-related adverse events in patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the available data on the safety and efficacy of influenza vaccination in cancer patients receiving ICIs. METHODS: Studies reporting safety and efficacy outcomes of influenza vaccination in cancer patients receiving ICIs were included. Only descriptive statistics were conducted to obtain a pooled rate of immune-related adverse events in vaccinated patients. RESULTS: Ten studies assessing the safety and eight assessing the efficacy of influenza vaccination in cancer patients receiving ICIs were identified, for a total of 1124 and 986 vaccinated patients, respectively. Most patients had melanoma or lung cancer and received a single agent anti-PD-1, but also other tumour types and immunotherapy combinations were represented. No severe vaccination-related toxicities were reported. The pooled incidence of any grade immune checkpoint inhibitor-related adverse events was 28.9%. In the 6 studies specifying the incidence of grade 3-4 toxicities, the pooled incidence was 7.5%. No grade 5 toxicities were reported. No pooled descriptive analysis was conducted in studies reporting efficacy outcomes due to the heterogeneity of endpoints and data reporting. Nevertheless, among the eight studies included, seven reported positive efficacy outcomes of influenza vaccination. CONCLUSION: The results of this systematic review support the safety and efficacy of influenza vaccination in cancer patients receiving ICIs. These results are particularly relevant in the context of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/adverse effects , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Neoplasms/drug therapy , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Drug Interactions , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Curr Oncol Rep ; 23(7): 79, 2021 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384599

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have improved the survival of several cancers. However, they may cause a wide range of immune-related adverse events (irAEs). While most irAEs are manageable with temporary cessation of ICI and immunosuppression, cardiovascular toxicity can be associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. As ICIs evolve to include high-risk patients with preexisting cardiovascular risk factors and disease, the risk and relevance of ICI-associated cardiotoxicity may be even higher. RECENT FINDINGS: Several cardiovascular toxicities such as myocarditis, stress cardiomyopathy, and pericardial disease have been reported in association with ICIs. Recent findings also suggest an increased risk of atherosclerosis with ICI use. ICI-associated myocarditis usually occurs early after initiation and can be fulminant. A high index of suspicion is required for timely diagnosis. Prompt treatment with high-dose corticosteroids is shown to improve outcomes. Although the overall incidence is rare, ICI cardiotoxicity, particularly myocarditis, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, making it a major therapy-limiting adverse event. Early recognition and prompt treatment with the cessation of ICI therapy and initiation of high-dose corticosteroids are crucial to improve outcomes. Cardio-oncologists will need to play an important role not just in the management of acute cardiotoxicity but also to reduce the risk of long-term sequelae.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis/diagnosis , Cardiotoxicity/diagnosis , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Atherosclerosis/chemically induced , Atherosclerosis/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Cardiotoxicity/etiology , Cardiotoxicity/immunology , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/adverse effects , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/immunology , Myocarditis/chemically induced , Myocarditis/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
9.
Future Oncol ; 17(26): 3477-3484, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372053

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has lasted over 1 year and will not disappear in a short time. There is no specific remedy against the virus as yet. Vaccination is thus far one of the most important strategies for preventing COVID-19. Cancer patients with COVID-19 have a higher mortality because of immunosuppression. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are a novel anticancer strategy for blocking inhibitory pathways, which are related to the immune response. There is a question regarding whether COVID-19 vaccination and ICI treatment impact each other in cancer patients. This review explores both sides of the relationship between ICI treatment and COVID-19 vaccination and suggests good efficacy and safety of ICI treatment after COVID-19 vaccination as well as little impact on the virus protection and toxicity associated with COVID-19 vaccination during ICI treatment.


Lay abstract The COVID-19 pandemic has lasted over 1 year. Vaccination is a promising strategy for preventing COVID-19. Cancer patients are prone to infection with COVID-19, and these patients have high mortality. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are a novel anticancer strategy. Whether COVID-19 vaccination and ICI treatment impact each other in cancer patients remains unknown. This review explores both sides of the relationship between ICI treatment and COVID-19 vaccination and suggests good efficacy and safety of ICI treatment after COVID-19 vaccination as well as little impact on the virus protection and toxicity associated with COVID-19 vaccination during ICI treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/adverse effects , Neoplasms/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Clinical Decision-Making , Contraindications, Drug , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Neoplasms/immunology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Selection , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Treatment Outcome
11.
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi ; 24(7): 519-525, 2021 Jul 20.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348716

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitor associated pneumonia (CIP) is a serious side effect of immune checkpoint inhibitors. There is a consensus on the treatment of acute phase of CIP, but the treatment of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis after the acute phase is still a clinical problem to be solved. METHODS: The diagnosis and treatment of a non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patient with immune checkpoint inhibitor associated pneumonia in the Stereotactic Radiotherapy Department of Qingdao Central Hospital were retrospectively analyzed, and literatures were reviewed. RESULTS: A 70-year-old male patient was diagnosed with Poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of left lung with mediastinal lymph node metastasis T3N3M0 stage IIIc, EGFR/ALK/ROS1/RAF negative, PD-L1 (22c3) immunohistochemistry negative. After the progression of first-line chemotherapy, the patient was diagnosed as immune checkpoint inhibitor associated pneumonia grade 3 during second-line monotherapy with Nivolumab. After initial high-dose glucocorticoid pulse therapy, the lung computed tomography (CT) imaging and clinical symptoms of the patients were partially relieved, and then pirfenidone (300 mg tid) was given orally for more than 11 months. During the treatment of pirfenidone, the CT imaging and clinical symptoms of the patients were significantly improved, and there were no other adverse reactions except grade 1 nausea. During this period, chemotherapy and Anlotinib was given concurrently with pirfenidone and showed good safety profile. CONCLUSIONS: This case report is the first report of pirfenidone in the treatment of CIP, which provides a new idea for the clinical practice and research of CIP treatment.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/adverse effects , Lung Neoplasms , Pneumonia , Pyridones , Aged , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Indoles/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Male , Nivolumab/adverse effects , Nivolumab/therapeutic use , Pneumonia/chemically induced , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/antagonists & inhibitors , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Quinolines/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies
12.
Front Immunol ; 12: 679425, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344264

ABSTRACT

Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors in adults. Despite the fact that they are relatively rare, they cause significant morbidity and mortality. High-grade gliomas or glioblastomas are rapidly progressing tumors with a very poor prognosis. The presence of an intrinsic immune system in the central nervous system is now more accepted. During the last decade, there has been no major progress in glioma therapy. The lack of effective treatment for gliomas can be explained by the strategies that cancer cells use to escape the immune system. This being said, immunotherapy, which involves blockade of immune checkpoint inhibitors, has improved patients' survival in different cancer types. This novel cancer therapy appears to be one of the most promising approaches. In the present study, we will start with a review of the general concept of immune response within the brain and glioma microenvironment. Then, we will try to decipher the role of various immune checkpoint inhibitors within the glioma microenvironment. Finally, we will discuss some promising therapeutic pathways, including immune checkpoint blockade and the body's effective anti-glioma immune response.


Subject(s)
Brain Neoplasms/drug therapy , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Glioma/drug therapy , Glioma/pathology , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Tumor Microenvironment/drug effects , Biomarkers, Tumor , Brain/drug effects , Brain/immunology , Brain/metabolism , Brain/pathology , Brain Neoplasms/etiology , Brain Neoplasms/mortality , Disease Susceptibility , Glioma/etiology , Glioma/mortality , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/adverse effects , Immune Checkpoint Proteins/genetics , Immune Checkpoint Proteins/metabolism , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Prognosis , Treatment Outcome , Tumor Microenvironment/genetics , Tumor Microenvironment/immunology
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1087, 2021 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333934

ABSTRACT

The introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors has demonstrated significant improvements in survival for subsets of cancer patients. However, they carry significant and sometimes life-threatening toxicities. Prompt prediction and monitoring of immune toxicities have the potential to maximise the benefits of immune checkpoint therapy. Herein, we develop a digital nanopillar SERS platform that achieves real-time single cytokine counting and enables dynamic tracking of immune toxicities in cancer patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment - broader applications are anticipated in other disease indications. By analysing four prospective cytokine biomarkers that initiate inflammatory responses, the digital nanopillar SERS assay achieves both highly specific and highly sensitive cytokine detection down to attomolar level. Significantly, we report the capability of the assay to longitudinally monitor 10 melanoma patients during immune inhibitor blockade treatment. Here, we show that elevated cytokine concentrations predict for higher risk of developing severe immune toxicities in our pilot cohort of patients.


Subject(s)
Immunotherapy/methods , Melanoma/therapy , Monitoring, Immunologic/methods , Spectrum Analysis, Raman/methods , Chemokine CX3CL1/immunology , Chemokine CX3CL1/metabolism , Cohort Studies , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor/immunology , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor/metabolism , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/immunology , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/metabolism , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/adverse effects , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/immunology , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Ipilimumab/adverse effects , Ipilimumab/immunology , Ipilimumab/therapeutic use , Melanoma/immunology , Melanoma/metabolism , Microscopy, Confocal/methods , Pilot Projects , Reproducibility of Results
15.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(7)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318086

ABSTRACT

Expanding the US Food and Drug Administration-approved indications for immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with cancer has resulted in therapeutic success and immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Neurologic irAEs (irAE-Ns) have an incidence of 1%-12% and a high fatality rate relative to other irAEs. Lack of standardized disease definitions and accurate phenotyping leads to syndrome misclassification and impedes development of evidence-based treatments and translational research. The objective of this study was to develop consensus guidance for an approach to irAE-Ns including disease definitions and severity grading. A working group of four neurologists drafted irAE-N consensus guidance and definitions, which were reviewed by the multidisciplinary Neuro irAE Disease Definition Panel including oncologists and irAE experts. A modified Delphi consensus process was used, with two rounds of anonymous ratings by panelists and two meetings to discuss areas of controversy. Panelists rated content for usability, appropriateness and accuracy on 9-point scales in electronic surveys and provided free text comments. Aggregated survey responses were incorporated into revised definitions. Consensus was based on numeric ratings using the RAND/University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) Appropriateness Method with prespecified definitions. 27 panelists from 15 academic medical centers voted on a total of 53 rating scales (6 general guidance, 24 central and 18 peripheral nervous system disease definition components, 3 severity criteria and 2 clinical trial adjudication statements); of these, 77% (41/53) received first round consensus. After revisions, all items received second round consensus. Consensus definitions were achieved for seven core disorders: irMeningitis, irEncephalitis, irDemyelinating disease, irVasculitis, irNeuropathy, irNeuromuscular junction disorders and irMyopathy. For each disorder, six descriptors of diagnostic components are used: disease subtype, diagnostic certainty, severity, autoantibody association, exacerbation of pre-existing disease or de novo presentation, and presence or absence of concurrent irAE(s). These disease definitions standardize irAE-N classification. Diagnostic certainty is not always directly linked to certainty to treat as an irAE-N (ie, one might treat events in the probable or possible category). Given consensus on accuracy and usability from a representative panel group, we anticipate that the definitions will be used broadly across clinical and research settings.


Subject(s)
Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/diagnosis , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/adverse effects , Immunotherapy/adverse effects , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Consensus , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/chemically induced , Nervous System Diseases/immunology , Neurologists/statistics & numerical data , Oncologists/statistics & numerical data , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Patient Care Team/statistics & numerical data
16.
Future Oncol ; 17(26): 3477-3484, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288755

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has lasted over 1 year and will not disappear in a short time. There is no specific remedy against the virus as yet. Vaccination is thus far one of the most important strategies for preventing COVID-19. Cancer patients with COVID-19 have a higher mortality because of immunosuppression. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are a novel anticancer strategy for blocking inhibitory pathways, which are related to the immune response. There is a question regarding whether COVID-19 vaccination and ICI treatment impact each other in cancer patients. This review explores both sides of the relationship between ICI treatment and COVID-19 vaccination and suggests good efficacy and safety of ICI treatment after COVID-19 vaccination as well as little impact on the virus protection and toxicity associated with COVID-19 vaccination during ICI treatment.


Lay abstract The COVID-19 pandemic has lasted over 1 year. Vaccination is a promising strategy for preventing COVID-19. Cancer patients are prone to infection with COVID-19, and these patients have high mortality. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are a novel anticancer strategy. Whether COVID-19 vaccination and ICI treatment impact each other in cancer patients remains unknown. This review explores both sides of the relationship between ICI treatment and COVID-19 vaccination and suggests good efficacy and safety of ICI treatment after COVID-19 vaccination as well as little impact on the virus protection and toxicity associated with COVID-19 vaccination during ICI treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/adverse effects , Neoplasms/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Clinical Decision-Making , Contraindications, Drug , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Neoplasms/immunology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Selection , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Treatment Outcome
17.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(4)2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209683

ABSTRACT

The clinically indistinguishable overlap between pneumonitis caused due to immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) and pneumonia associated with COVID-19 has posed considerable challenges for patients with cancer and oncologists alike. The cancer community continues to face the challenges that lay at the complex immunological intersection of immune-based cancer therapy and immune dysregulation that results from COVID-19. Is there compounded immune dysregulation that could lead to poor outcomes? Could ICIs, in fact, ameliorate SARS-CoV-2-driven T-cell exhaustion?A little more is known about the kinetics of the viral replication in immunocompromised patients now as compared with earlier during the pandemic. Working knowledge of the diagnostic and therapeutic nuances of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with active cancers, issues related to viability and replication potential of the virus, unclear role of corticosteroids among those with diminished or dysfunctional effector T-cell repertoire, and the type of immunotherapy with differential risk of pneumonitis will inform decision making related to immunotherapy choices and decision for ICI continuation in the era of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy/methods , Neoplasms/therapy , Pneumonia/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/adverse effects , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Immunotherapy/adverse effects , Neoplasms/immunology , Pneumonia/chemically induced , Pneumonia/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism
18.
Trends Immunol ; 42(4): 293-311, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1126887

ABSTRACT

Cancer immunotherapies can successfully activate immune responses towards certain tumors. However, this can also result in the development of treatment-induced immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in multiple tissues. Growing evidence suggests that cytokine production in response to these therapeutics potentiates the development of irAEs and may have predictive value as biomarkers for irAE occurrence. In addition, therapeutic agents that inhibit cytokine activity can limit the severity of irAEs, and their use is being tested in the clinical setting. This review provides an in-depth analysis of strategies to uncouple the cytokine response, that precipitates irAEs following cancer immunotherapies, from the benefit gained in promoting antitumor immunity.


Subject(s)
Cytokines , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Neoplasms , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/adverse effects , Immunotherapy/adverse effects , Neoplasms/drug therapy
19.
Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; 4(3): e00246, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122029

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently a major pandemic challenge, and cancer patients are at a heightened risk of severity and mortality from this infection. In recent years, immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) use to treat multiple cancers has increased in oncology, but equally has raised the question of whether ICI therapy and its side-effects is harmful or beneficial during this pandemic. Methods: A combination of published literature in PubMed between January 2010 and December 2020, recommended guidelines in non-cancer patients, and clinical experience was utilized to outline recommendations on glucocorticoid timing and dosing regimens in ICI-treated patients presenting with AI during this COVID-19 pandemic. Results: The potential immune interaction between ICIs and COVID-19 require major consideration because these agents act at the intersection between effective cancer immunotherapy and increasing patient susceptibility, severity and complications from the SARS-CoV-2 sepsis. Furthermore, ICI use can induce autoimmune adrenal insufficiency (AI) that further increases infection susceptibility. Thus, ICI-treated cancer patients with AI may be at greater risk of COVID-19 infection. Glucocorticoids are the cornerstone for replacement therapy, and for treatment and mitigation of adrenal crisis and relief of mass effects in ICI-related hypophysitis. High-dose glucocorticoids have also been used with cytotoxic chemotherapy as part of cancer treatment, and iatrogenic AI may arise after glucocorticoid discontinuation that increases the risk of adrenal crisis. Furthermore, in patients who develop the "long COVID-19" syndrome, when to discontinue glucocorticoid therapy becomes crucial to avoid unnecessary prolongation of therapy and the development of iatrogenic hypercortisolemia. Conclusion: During the COVID-19 pandemic, much of cancer care have been impacted and an important clinical question is how to optimally manage ICI-related AI during these unprecedented times. Herein, we suggest practical recommendations on the timing and dosing regimens of glucocorticoids in different clinical scenarios of ICI-treated cancer patients presenting with AI during this COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Insufficiency/drug therapy , COVID-19 , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/adverse effects , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Adrenal Insufficiency/chemically induced , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pandemics
20.
Immunotherapy ; 13(6): 509-525, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102464

ABSTRACT

In recent years, immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have represented one of the major breakthroughs in advanced non-small cell lung cancer treatment scenario. However, enrollment in registering clinical trials is usually restricted, since frail patients (i.e., elderly, individuals with poor performance status and/or active brain metastases), as well as patients with chronic infections or who take concurrent medications, such as steroids, are routinely excluded. Thus, safety and efficacy of ICIs for these subgroups have not been adequately assessed in clinical trials, although these populations often occur in clinical practice. We reviewed the available data regarding the use of ICIs in these 'special' populations, including a focus on the issues raised by the administration of immunotherapy in lung cancer patients infected with Sars-Cov-2.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Vulnerable Populations , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/adverse effects , Immunotherapy , Patient Selection
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