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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1011829, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154730

ABSTRACT

One of the mechanisms by which viruses can evade the host's immune system is to modify the host's DNA methylation pattern. This work aims to investigate the DNA methylation and gene expression profile of COVID-19 patients, divided into symptomatic and asymptomatic, and healthy controls, focusing on genes involved in the immune response. In this study, changes in the methylome of COVID-19 patients' upper airways cells, the first barrier against respiratory infections and the first cells presenting viral antigens, are shown for the first time. Our results showed alterations in the methylation pattern of genes encoding proteins implicated in the response against pathogens, in particular the HLA-C gene, also important for the T-cell mediated memory response. HLA-C expression significantly decreases in COVID-19 patients, especially in those with a more severe prognosis and without other possibly confounding co-morbidities. Moreover, our bionformatic analysis revealed that the identified methylation alteration overlaps with enhancers regulating HLA-C expression, suggesting an additional mechanism exploited by SARS-CoV-2 to inhibit this fundamental player in the host's immune response. HLA-C could therefore represent both a prognostic marker and an excellent therapeutic target, also suggesting a preventive intervention that conjugate a virus-specific antigenic stimulation with an adjuvant increasing the T-cell mediated memory response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , HLA-C Antigens/genetics , Immune Evasion , RNA
2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 940756, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141958

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) evades the host immune system through a variety of regulatory mechanisms. The genome of SARS-CoV-2 encodes 16 non-structural proteins (NSPs), four structural proteins, and nine accessory proteins that play indispensable roles to suppress the production and signaling of type I and III interferons (IFNs). In this review, we discussed the functions and the underlying mechanisms of different proteins of SARS-CoV-2 that evade the host immune system by suppressing the IFN-ß production and TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1)/interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)1 and STAT2 phosphorylation. We also described different viral proteins inhibiting the nuclear translocation of IRF3, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and STATs. To date, the following proteins of SARS-CoV-2 including NSP1, NSP6, NSP8, NSP12, NSP13, NSP14, NSP15, open reading frame (ORF)3a, ORF6, ORF8, ORF9b, ORF10, and Membrane (M) protein have been well studied. However, the detailed mechanisms of immune evasion by NSP5, ORF3b, ORF9c, and Nucleocapsid (N) proteins are not well elucidated. Additionally, we also elaborated the perspectives of SARS-CoV-2 proteins.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Immune Evasion , Interferons/metabolism , Viral Proteins
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 962079, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114642

ABSTRACT

Despite the efficacy of antiviral drug repositioning, convalescent plasma (CP), and the currently available vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the worldwide coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is still challenging because of the ongoing emergence of certain new SARS-CoV-2 strains known as variants of concern (VOCs). Mutations occurring within the viral genome, characterized by these new emerging VOCs, confer on them the ability to efficiently resist and escape natural and vaccine-induced humoral and cellular immune responses. Consequently, these VOCs have enhanced infectivity, increasing their stable spread in a given population with an important fatality rate. While the humoral immune escape process is well documented, the evasion mechanisms of VOCs from cellular immunity are not well elaborated. In this review, we discussed how SARS-CoV-2 VOCs adapt inside host cells and escape anti-COVID-19 cellular immunity, focusing on the effect of specific SARS-CoV-2 mutations in hampering the activation of CD8+ T-cell immunity.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 , Immune Evasion , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
4.
Nature ; 599(7883): 114-119, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114880

ABSTRACT

The B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first identified in the state of Maharashtra in late 2020 and spread throughout India, outcompeting pre-existing lineages including B.1.617.1 (Kappa) and B.1.1.7 (Alpha)1. In vitro, B.1.617.2 is sixfold less sensitive to serum neutralizing antibodies from recovered individuals, and eightfold less sensitive to vaccine-elicited antibodies, compared with wild-type Wuhan-1 bearing D614G. Serum neutralizing titres against B.1.617.2 were lower in ChAdOx1 vaccinees than in BNT162b2 vaccinees. B.1.617.2 spike pseudotyped viruses exhibited compromised sensitivity to monoclonal antibodies to the receptor-binding domain and the amino-terminal domain. B.1.617.2 demonstrated higher replication efficiency than B.1.1.7 in both airway organoid and human airway epithelial systems, associated with B.1.617.2 spike being in a predominantly cleaved state compared with B.1.1.7 spike. The B.1.617.2 spike protein was able to mediate highly efficient syncytium formation that was less sensitive to inhibition by neutralizing antibody, compared with that of wild-type spike. We also observed that B.1.617.2 had higher replication and spike-mediated entry than B.1.617.1, potentially explaining the B.1.617.2 dominance. In an analysis of more than 130 SARS-CoV-2-infected health care workers across three centres in India during a period of mixed lineage circulation, we observed reduced ChAdOx1 vaccine effectiveness against B.1.617.2 relative to non-B.1.617.2, with the caveat of possible residual confounding. Compromised vaccine efficacy against the highly fit and immune-evasive B.1.617.2 Delta variant warrants continued infection control measures in the post-vaccination era.


Subject(s)
Immune Evasion , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Virus Replication/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cell Fusion , Cell Line , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , India , Kinetics , Male , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vaccination
5.
Nature ; 593(7857): 136-141, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114170

ABSTRACT

Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is uncontrolled in many parts of the world; control is compounded in some areas by the higher transmission potential of the B.1.1.7 variant1, which has now been reported in 94 countries. It is unclear whether the response of the virus to vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 on the basis of the prototypic strain will be affected by the mutations found in B.1.1.7. Here we assess the immune responses of individuals after vaccination with the mRNA-based vaccine BNT162b22. We measured neutralizing antibody responses after the first and second immunizations using pseudoviruses that expressed the wild-type spike protein or a mutated spike protein that contained the eight amino acid changes found in the B.1.1.7 variant. The sera from individuals who received the vaccine exhibited a broad range of neutralizing titres against the wild-type pseudoviruses that were modestly reduced against the B.1.1.7 variant. This reduction was also evident in sera from some patients who had recovered from COVID-19. Decreased neutralization of the B.1.1.7 variant was also observed for monoclonal antibodies that target the N-terminal domain (9 out of 10) and the receptor-binding motif (5 out of 31), but not for monoclonal antibodies that recognize the receptor-binding domain that bind outside the receptor-binding motif. Introduction of the mutation that encodes the E484K substitution in the B.1.1.7 background to reflect a newly emerged variant of concern (VOC 202102/02) led to a more-substantial loss of neutralizing activity by vaccine-elicited antibodies and monoclonal antibodies (19 out of 31) compared with the loss of neutralizing activity conferred by the mutations in B.1.1.7 alone. The emergence of the E484K substitution in a B.1.1.7 background represents a threat to the efficacy of the BNT162b2 vaccine.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immune Evasion/genetics , Immune Evasion/immunology , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage
6.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099866

ABSTRACT

New variants of SARS-CoV-2 continue to evolve. The novel SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern (VOC) B.1.1.529 (Omicron) was particularly menacing due to the presence of numerous consequential mutations. In this study, we reviewed about 12 million SARS-CoV-2 genomic and associated metadata using extensive bioinformatic approaches to understand how evolutionary and mutational changes affect Omicron variant properties. Subsampled global data based analysis of molecular clock in the phylogenetic tree showed 29.56 substitutions per year as the evolutionary rate of five VOCs. We observed extensive mutational changes in the spike structural protein of the Omicron variant. A total of 20% of 7230 amino acid and structural changes exclusive to Omicron's spike protein were detected in the receptor binding domain (RBD), suggesting differential selection pressures exerted during evolution. Analyzing key drug targets revealed mutation-derived differential binding affinities between Delta and Omicron variants. Nine single-RBD substitutions were detected within the binding site of approved therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. T-cell epitope prediction revealed eight immunologically important functional hotspots in three conserved non-structural proteins. A universal vaccine based on these regions may likely protect against all these SARS-CoV-2 variants. We observed key structural changes in the spike protein, which decreased binding affinities, indicating that these changes may help the virus escape host cellular immunity. These findings emphasize the need for continuous genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 to better understand how novel mutations may impact viral spread and disease outcome.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Immune Evasion , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Mutation , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics
7.
Science ; 378(6620): 619-627, 2022 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2078696

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron sublineages carry distinct spike mutations resulting in escape from antibodies induced by previous infection or vaccination. We show that hybrid immunity or vaccine boosters elicit plasma-neutralizing antibodies against Omicron BA.1, BA.2, BA.2.12.1, and BA.4/5, and that breakthrough infections, but not vaccination alone, induce neutralizing antibodies in the nasal mucosa. Consistent with immunological imprinting, most antibodies derived from memory B cells or plasma cells of Omicron breakthrough cases cross-react with the Wuhan-Hu-1, BA.1, BA.2, and BA.4/5 receptor-binding domains, whereas Omicron primary infections elicit B cells of narrow specificity up to 6 months after infection. Although most clinical antibodies have reduced neutralization of Omicron, we identified an ultrapotent pan-variant-neutralizing antibody that is a strong candidate for clinical development.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19 , Immune Evasion , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Immunologic Memory , Memory B Cells/immunology
8.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 156: 113889, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2068730

ABSTRACT

Many questions on the SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis remain to answer. The SARS-CoV-2 genome encodes some accessory proteins that are essential for infection. Notably, accessory proteins of SARS-CoV-2 play significant roles in affecting immune escape and viral pathogenesis. Therefore SARS-CoV-2 accessory proteins could be considered putative drug targets. IFN-I and IFN-III responses are the primary mechanisms of innate antiviral immunity in infection clearance. Previous research has shown that SARS-CoV-2 suppresses IFN-ß by infecting host cells via ORF3a, ORF3b, ORF6, ORF7a, ORF7b, ORF8, and ORF9b. Furthermore, ORF3a, ORF7a, and ORF7b have a role in blocking IFNα signaling, and ORF8 represses IFNß signaling. The ORF3a, ORF7a, and ORF7b disrupt the STAT1/2 phosphorylation. ORF3a, ORF6, ORF7a, and ORF7b could prevent the ISRE promoter activity. The main SARS-CoV-2 accessory proteins involved in immune evasion are discussed here for comprehensive learning on viral entry, replication, and transmission in vaccines and antiviral development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Immune Evasion , Interferon-beta/genetics , Antiviral Agents
10.
11.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 297, 2022 08 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2013063
12.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 09 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010319

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused an unprecedented global crisis and continues to threaten public health. The etiological agent of this devastating pandemic outbreak is the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 is characterized by delayed immune responses, followed by exaggerated inflammatory responses. It is well-established that the interferon (IFN) and JAK/STAT signaling pathways constitute the first line of defense against viral and bacterial infections. To achieve viral replication, numerous viruses are able to antagonize or hijack these signaling pathways to attain productive infection, including SARS-CoV-2. Multiple studies document the roles of several non-structural proteins (NSPs) of SARS-CoV-2 that facilitate the establishment of viral replication in host cells via immune escape. In this review, we summarize and highlight the functions and characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 NSPs that confer host immune evasion. The molecular mechanisms mediating immune evasion and the related potential therapeutic strategies for controlling the COVID-19 pandemic are also discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Immune Evasion , Immunity, Innate , Interferons , Pandemics
13.
J Virol ; 96(17): e0114022, 2022 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001778

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variants were first detected in November 2021, and several Omicron lineages (BA.1, BA.2, BA.3, BA.4, and BA.5) have since rapidly emerged. Studies characterizing the mechanisms of Omicron variant infection and sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies induced upon vaccination are ongoing by several groups. In the present study, we used pseudoviruses to show that the transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) enhances infection of BA.1, BA.1.1, BA.2, and BA.3 Omicron variants to a lesser extent than ancestral D614G. We further show that Omicron variants have higher sensitivity to inhibition by soluble angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the endosomal inhibitor chloroquine compared to D614G. The Omicron variants also more efficiently used ACE2 receptors from 9 out of 10 animal species tested, and unlike the D614G variant, used mouse ACE2 due to the Q493R and Q498R spike substitutions. Finally, neutralization of the Omicron variants by antibodies induced by three doses of Pfizer/BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine was 7- to 8-fold less potent than the D614G. These results provide insights into the transmissibility and immune evasion capacity of the emerging Omicron variants to curb their ongoing spread. IMPORTANCE The ongoing emergence of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variants with an extensive number of spike mutations poses a significant public health and zoonotic concern due to enhanced transmission fitness and escape from neutralizing antibodies. We studied three Omicron lineage variants (BA.1, BA.2, and BA.3) and found that transmembrane serine protease 2 has less influence on Omicron entry into cells than on D614G, and Omicron exhibits greater sensitivity to endosomal entry inhibition compared to D614G. In addition, Omicron displays more efficient usage of diverse animal species ACE2 receptors than D614G. Furthermore, due to Q493R/Q498R substitutions in spike, Omicron, but not D614G, can use the mouse ACE2 receptor. Finally, three doses of Pfizer/BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination elicit high neutralization titers against Omicron variants, although the neutralization titers are still 7- to 8-fold lower those that against D614G. These results may give insights into the transmissibility and immune evasion capacity of the emerging Omicron variants to curb their ongoing spread.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Immune Evasion , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Internalization , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immune Evasion/immunology , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Species Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
14.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e142, 2022 07 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000833

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, first notified in China, has spread around the world causing high morbidity and mortality, which is due to factors such as the subversion of the immune response. The aims of the study are to summarise and present the immunopathological relationship of COVID-19 with innate immunity. This is a systematic review conducted by the National Library of Medicine - National Institutes of Health, USA (PUBMED), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS), Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO) databases with clinical trials, in vitro assays, case-controls, cohort studies, systematic reviews and meta-analyses between February 2020 and July 2021. The version 2 of the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for RCTs (RoB 2), Joana Briggs Institute (JBI) Critical Appraisal (for the review articles) and the Risk of Bias in Non-randomised Studies of Interventions (ROBINS-I) tools were used to evaluate the quality and the risk of bias of the studies included in this review. The innate immune response through the generation of interferons, alternative pathways and complement system lectins and the joint action of innate immune cells and cytokines and chemokines lead to different clinical outcomes, taking into account the exacerbated inflammatory response and pathogenesis. Then, in addition to interacting as a bridge for adaptive immunity, the innate immune response plays an essential role in primary defense and is one of the starting points for immune evasion by SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Immune Evasion , Immunity, Innate , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
15.
Microb Pathog ; 170: 105699, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991210

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent behind the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. This virus is a cumulative outcome of mutations, leading to frequent emergence of new variants and their subvariants. Some of them are a matter of high concern, while others are variants of interest for studying the mutational effect. The major five variants of concern (VOCs) are Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.315), Gamma (P.1), Delta (B.1.617.2), and Omicron (B.1.1.529.*/BA.*). Omicron itself has >100 subvariants at present, among which BA.1 (21K), BA.2 (21L), BA.4 (22A), BA.5 (22B), and BA.2.12.1 (22C) are the dominant ones. Undoubtedly, these variants and sometimes their progeny subvariants have significant differences in their spike region that impart them the unique properties they harbor. But alongside, the mutations in their non-spike regions could also be responsible elements behind their characteristics, such as replication time, virulence, survival, host immune evasion, and such. There exists a probability that these mutations of non-spike proteins may also impart epistatic effects that are yet to be brought to light. The focus of this review encompasses the non-spike mutations of Omicron, especially in its widely circulating subvariants (BA.1, BA.2, BA.4, BA.5, and BA.2.12.1). The mutations such as in NSP3, NSP6, NSP13, M protein, ORF7b, and ORF9b are mentioned few of all, which might have led to the varying properties, including growth advantages, higher transmission rate, lower infectivity, and most importantly better host immune evasion through natural killer cell inactivation, autophagosome-lysosome fusion prevention, host protein synthesis disruption, and so on. This aspect of Omicron subvariants has not yet been explored. Further study of alteration of expression or interaction profile of these non-spike mutations bearing proteins, if present, can add a great deal of knowledge to the current understanding of the viral properties and thus effective prevention strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immune Evasion , Humans , Mutation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
16.
Antioxid Redox Signal ; 35(16): 1376-1392, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1342795

ABSTRACT

Significance: It is estimated that close to 50 million cases of sepsis result in over 11 million annual fatalities worldwide. The pathognomonic feature of sepsis is a dysregulated inflammatory response arising from viral, bacterial, or fungal infections. Immune recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns is a hallmark of the host immune defense to combat microbes and to prevent the progression to sepsis. Mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) is a ubiquitous adaptor protein located at the outer mitochondrial membrane, which is activated by the cytosolic pattern recognition receptors, retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation associated gene 5 (MDA5), following binding of viral RNA agonists. Recent Advances: Substantial progress has been made in deciphering the activation of the MAVS pathway with its interacting proteins, downstream signaling events (interferon [IFN] regulatory factors, nuclear factor kappa B), and context-dependent type I/III IFN response. Critical Issues: In the evolutionary race between pathogens and the host, viruses have developed immune evasion strategies for cleavage, degradation, or blockade of proteins in the MAVS pathway. For example, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) M protein and ORF9b protein antagonize MAVS signaling and a protective type I IFN response. Future Directions: The role of MAVS as a sensor for nonviral pathogens, host cell injury, and metabolic perturbations awaits better characterization in the future. New technical advances in multidimensional single-cell analysis and single-molecule methods will accelerate the rate of new discoveries. The ultimate goal is to manipulate MAVS activities in the form of immune-modulatory therapies to combat infections and sepsis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 35, 1376-1392.


Subject(s)
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/immunology , Sepsis/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Animals , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immune Evasion/immunology , Sepsis/virology
17.
J Virol ; 96(15): e0055822, 2022 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962090

ABSTRACT

As severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to evolve, several variants of concern (VOCs) have arisen which are defined by multiple mutations in their spike proteins. These VOCs have shown variable escape from antibody responses and have been shown to trigger qualitatively different antibody responses during infection. By studying plasma from individuals infected with either the original D614G, Beta, or Delta variants, we showed that the Beta and Delta variants elicit antibody responses that are overall more cross-reactive than those triggered by D614G. Patterns of cross-reactivity varied, and the Beta and Delta variants did not elicit cross-reactive responses to each other. However, Beta-elicited plasma was highly cross-reactive against Delta Plus (Delta+), which differs from Delta by a single K417N mutation in the receptor binding domain, suggesting that the plasma response targets the N417 residue. To probe this further, we isolated monoclonal antibodies from a Beta-infected individual with plasma responses against Beta, Delta+, and Omicron, which all possess the N417 residue. We isolated an N417-dependent antibody, 084-7D, which showed similar neutralization breadth to the plasma. The 084-7D MAb utilized the IGHV3-23*01 germ line gene and had somatic hypermutations similar to those of previously described public antibodies which target the 417 residue. Thus, we have identified a novel antibody which targets a shared epitope found on three distinct VOCs, enabling their cross-neutralization. Understanding antibodies targeting escape mutations, such as K417N, which repeatedly emerge through convergent evolution in SARS-CoV-2 variants, may aid in the development of next-generation antibody therapeutics and vaccines. IMPORTANCE The evolution of SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in variants of concern (VOCs) with distinct spike mutations conferring various immune escape profiles. These variable mutations also influence the cross-reactivity of the antibody response mounted by individuals infected with each of these variants. This study sought to understand the antibody responses elicited by different SARS-CoV-2 variants and to define shared epitopes. We show that Beta and Delta infections resulted in antibody responses that were more cross-reactive than the original D614G variant, but they had differing patterns of cross-reactivity. We further isolated an antibody from Beta infection which targeted the N417 site, enabling cross-neutralization of Beta, Delta+, and Omicron, all of which possess this residue. The discovery of antibodies which target escape mutations common to multiple variants highlights conserved epitopes to target in future vaccines and therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , Cross Reactions , Epitopes , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Epitopes/chemistry , Epitopes/genetics , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Immune Evasion/immunology , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
18.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957453

ABSTRACT

The evolution and the emergence of new mutations of viruses affect their transmissibility and/or pathogenicity features, depending on different evolutionary scenarios of virus adaptation to the host. A typical trade-off scenario of SARS-CoV-2 evolution has been proposed, which leads to the appearance of an Omicron strain with lowered lethality, yet enhanced transmissibility. This direction of evolution might be partly explained by virus adaptation to therapeutic agents and enhanced escape from vaccine-induced and natural immunity formed by other SARS-CoV-2 strains. Omicron's high mutation rate in the Spike protein, as well as its previously described high genome mutation rate (Kandeel et al., 2021), revealed a gap between it and other SARS-CoV-2 strains, indicating the absence of a transitional evolutionary form to the Omicron strain. Therefore, Omicron has emerged as a new serotype divergent from the evolutionary lineage of other SARS-CoV-2 strains. Omicron is a rapidly evolving variant of high concern, whose new subvariants continue to manifest. Its further understanding and the further monitoring of key mutations that provide virus immune escape and/or high affinity towards the receptor could be useful for vaccine and therapeutic development in order to control the evolutionary direction of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Evolution, Molecular , Immune Evasion , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Mutation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
19.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 899546, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952264

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a global pandemic that has currently infected over 430 million individuals worldwide. With the variant strains of SARS-CoV-2 emerging, a region of high mutation rates in ORF8 was identified during the early pandemic, which resulted in a mutation from leucine (L) to serine (S) at amino acid 84. A typical feature of ORF8 is the immune evasion by suppressing interferon response; however, the mechanisms by which the two variants of ORF8 antagonize the type I interferon (IFN-I) pathway have not yet been clearly investigated. Here, we reported that SARS-CoV-2 ORF8L and ORF8S with no difference inhibit the production of IFN-ß, MDA5, RIG-I, ISG15, ISG56, IRF3, and other IFN-related genes induced by poly(I:C). In addition, both ORF8L and ORF8S proteins were found to suppress the nuclear translocation of IRF3. Mechanistically, the SARS-CoV-2 ORF8 protein interacts with HSP90B1, which was later investigated to induce the production of IFN-ß and IRF3. Taken together, these results indicate that SARS-CoV-2 ORF8 antagonizes the RIG-I/MDA-5 signaling pathway by targeting HSP90B1, which subsequently exhibits an inhibitory effect on the production of IFN-I. These functions appeared not to be influenced by the genotypes of ORF8L and ORF8S. Our study provides an explanation for the antiviral immune suppression of SARS-CoV-2 and suggests implications for the pathogenic mechanism and treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Membrane Glycoproteins , Viral Proteins , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immune Evasion , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Interferon-beta/genetics , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction , Viral Proteins/metabolism
20.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 241, 2022 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937418

ABSTRACT

Recently, a large number of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants continuously emerged and posed a major threat to global public health. Among them, particularly, Omicron variant (B.1.1.529), first identified in November 2021, carried numerous mutations in its spike protein (S), and then quickly spread around the world. Currently, Omicron variant has expanded into more than one hundred sublineages, such as BA.1, BA.2, BA.2.12.1, BA.4 and BA.5, which have already become the globally dominant variants. Different from other variants of concern (VOCs) of SARS-CoV-2, the Omicron variant and its sublineages exhibit increased transmissibility and immune escape from neutralizing antibodies generated through previous infection or vaccination, and have caused numerous re-infections and breakthrough infections. In this prospective, we have focused on the origin, virological features, immune evasion and intervention of Omicron sublineages, which will benefit the development of next-generation vaccines and therapeutics, including pan-sarbecovirus and universal anti-CoV therapeutics, to combat currently circulating and future emerging Omicron sublineages as well as other SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Immune Evasion/genetics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
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