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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 997851, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115356

ABSTRACT

The immune system is highly networked and complex, which is continuously changing as encountering old and new pathogens. However, reductionism-based researches do not give a systematic understanding of the molecular mechanism of the immune response and viral pathogenesis. Here, we present HUMPPI-2022, a high-quality human protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, containing > 11,000 protein-coding genes with > 78,000 interactions. The network topology and functional characteristics analyses of the immune-related genes (IRGs) reveal that IRGs are mostly located in the center of the network and link genes of diverse biological processes, which may reflect the gene pleiotropy phenomenon. Moreover, the virus-human interactions reveal that pan-viral targets are mostly hubs, located in the center of the network and enriched in fundamental biological processes, but not for coronavirus. Finally, gene age effect was analyzed from the view of the host network for IRGs and virally-targeted genes (VTGs) during evolution, with IRGs gradually became hubs and integrated into host network through bridging functionally differentiated modules. Briefly, HUMPPI-2022 serves as a valuable resource for gaining a better understanding of the composition and evolution of human immune system, as well as the pathogenesis of viruses.


Subject(s)
Viruses , Humans , Viruses/genetics , Protein Interaction Maps , Immune System
2.
Curr Opin Immunol ; 77: 102189, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114695

ABSTRACT

Development of effective vaccines is a critical global health priority. Stimulating antigen-specific B and T cells to elicit long-lasting protection remains the central paradigm of vaccinology. Adjuvants are components that enhance vaccine immunogenicity by targeting specific innate immune receptors and pathways. Recent data highlight the capacity of adjuvants to induce durable epigenetic reprogramming of the innate immune system to engender heightened resistance against pathogens. This raises the prospect of developing epigenetic adjuvants that, in addition to stimulating robust T and B cell responses, convey broad protection against diverse pathogens by training the innate immune system. In this review, we discuss our emerging understanding of the various vaccines and adjuvants and their effects on durable reprogramming of the innate immune response, their putative mechanisms of action, and the promise and challenges of developing epigenetic adjuvants as a universal vaccine strategy.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic , Vaccines , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Epigenesis, Genetic , Humans , Immune System , Immunity, Innate
3.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 17(9): 991-1001, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820723

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Respiratory viruses can directly or indirectly damage the pulmonary defense barrier, potentially contributing to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Despite developments in the understanding of the pathogenesis of ARDS, the underlying pathophysiology still needs to be elucidated.Areas covered: The PubMed database was reviewed for relevant papers published up to 2021. This review summarizes the currently immunological and clinical studies to provide a systemic overview of the epithelial-endothelial barrier, given the recently published immunological profiles upon viral pneumonia, and the potentially detrimental contribution to respiratory function caused by damage to this barrier.Expert opinion: The biophysical structure of host pulmonary defense is intrinsically linked with the ability of alveolar epithelial and capillary endothelial cells, known as the epithelial-endothelial barrier, to respond to, and instruct the delicate immune system to protect the lungs from infections and injuries. Recently published immunological profiles upon viral infection, and its contributions to the damage of respiratory function, suggest a central role for the pulmonary epithelial and endothelial barrier in the pathogenesis of ARDS. We suggest a central role and common pathways by which the epithelial-endothelial barrier contributes to the pathogenesis of ARDS.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Viruses , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Humans , Immune System , Lung
4.
Virol J ; 19(1): 167, 2022 10 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089214

ABSTRACT

The rise of the highly lethal severe acute respiratory syndrome-2 (SARS-2) as corona virus 2019 (COVID-19) reminded us of the history of other pandemics that happened in the last century (Spanish flu) and stayed in the current century, which include Severe-Acute-Respiratory-Syndrome (SARS), Middle-East-Respiratory-Syndrome (MERS), Corona Virus 2019 (COVID-19). We review in this report the newest findings and data on the origin of pandemic respiratory viral diseases, reservoirs, and transmission modes. We analyzed viral adaption needed for host switch and determinants of pathogenicity, causative factors of pandemic viruses, and symptoms and clinical manifestations. After that, we concluded the host factors associated with pandemics morbidity and mortality (immune responses and immunopathology, ages, and effect of pandemics on pregnancy). Additionally, we focused on the burdens of COVID-19, non-pharmaceutical interventions (quarantine, mass gatherings, facemasks, and hygiene), and medical interventions (antiviral therapies and vaccines). Finally, we investigated the nanotechnology between COVID-19 analysis and immune system boosting (Nanoparticles (NPs), antimicrobial NPs as antivirals and immune cytokines). This review presents insights about using nanomaterials to treat COVID-19, improve the bioavailability of the abused drugs, diminish their toxicity, and improve their performance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , History, 20th Century , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Nanotechnology , Immune System , Cytokines
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082187

ABSTRACT

The importance of physical activity for the cardiovascular, metabolic and mental health systems with its repercussions for public health has been studied for some time, although further studies are needed due to the depletion of health services observed during the COVID-19 pandemic [...].


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Public Health , Immune System , Exercise
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082049

ABSTRACT

The emergence of COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) has presented public health professionals with new challenges in the diagnosis of the disease and treatment of patients. Nowadays, the epidemiology, clinical features, prevention and treatment of the disease are studied poorly due to continuous mutation of the pathogen. One of the consequences of the new coronavirus infection could be changes in the immune system of the human population. A detailed analysis of the immunological status of different racial groups under the influence of the new coronavirus infection is currently studied insufficiently, making this work of particular relevance. There is also a reluctance among some Russian residents to be vaccinated, including the population of Perm Krai, due to a lack of research on possible deviations in cellular immunity due to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. At the start of the third wave caused by the new coronavirus infection, only 40% of the Russian population had been vaccinated, which was insufficient to acquire collective immunity. In the autumn of 2021, a QR code measure was introduced for vaccinated residents, which resulted in exceeding the necessary barrier for acquiring collective immunity. Due to the high growth and severity of the disease, we analysed the immunograms of children and adolescents, aged from 5 months to 17 years, in Perm Krai during the pandemic years 2020-2021. The patients' immunological status results were divided into three categories. Laboratory diagnosis of the human immune system was carried out using serological and flow cytophotometric analyses. A total of 247 samples were analysed. The aim of this work was to investigate changes in the immune system of children and adolescents during the pandemic caused by the new coronavirus infection. The methodology was based on the analysis of immunograms, including biochemical studies, immune status and flow cytophotometric analysis. The immunograms were pre-sorted by IgA, IgM, IgG immunoglobulin status into four categories: absence of disease-k1 in which IgA, IgM, IgG immunoglobulin values were within the reference interval, active disease stage-k2 in which IgA, IgM immunoglobulins had gone beyond the reference interval, passive disease stage-k3 characterised by IgG and IgM immunoglobulin status, and patient recovery process-k4. In the immunograms, three immune status indicators were selected for further investigation: phagocytosis absolute value, phagocytic number and phagocytic index and five flow cytometry indices: leukocytes, lymphocytes, NK cells (CD16+CD56+), T helpers (CD3+CD4+) and CD4+/CD8+ immunoregulation index. A quantitative analysis of the deviations of these indicators from the reference intervals was performed in the three studied age groups of children and adolescents living in Perm Krai of the Russian Federation during the pandemic of 2020-2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Humans , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Immunoglobulin M , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin A , Immune System , Antibodies, Viral
7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 928171, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080132

ABSTRACT

The fatal outcomes of COVID-19 are related to the high reactivity of the innate wing of immunity. Estrogens could exert anti-inflammatory effects during SARS-CoV-2 infection at different stages: from increasing the antiviral resistance of individual cells to counteracting the pro-inflammatory cytokine production. A complex relationship between sex hormones and immune system implies that menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) has pleiotropic effects on immunity in peri- and postmenopausal patients. The definite immunological benefits of perimenopausal MHT confirm the important role of estrogens in regulation of immune functionalities. In this review, we attempt to explore how sex hormones and MHT affect immunological parameters of the organism at different level (in vitro, in vivo) and what mechanisms are involved in their protective response to the new coronavirus infection. The correlation of sex steroid levels with severity and lethality of the disease indicates the potential of using hormone therapy to modulate the immune response and increase the resilience to adverse outcomes. The overall success of MHT is based on decades of experience in clinical trials. According to the current standards, MHT should not be discontinued in COVID-19 with the exception of critical cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Estrogens/therapeutic use , Gonadal Steroid Hormones , Humans , Immune System , Menopause , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 155: 113810, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2060455

ABSTRACT

The human gut microbiota is a complex ecosystem involved in the metabolism, immunity, and health of the host. The microbiome plays a key role in the development of the host's innate and adaptive immune system, while the immune system orchestrates the maintenance of host-microbe symbiosis. Lung diseases are usually accompanied by dysbiosis of the intestinal flora and an immune-inflammatory response. The intestinal flora and its metabolites are directly or indirectly involved in the immune regulation of the host in lung disease. However, the exact mechanism of action of the gut-lung axis crosstalk remains unclear. This review is aimed to summarize the latest advances in gut microbiota and their metabolites in typical lung diseases, such as pulmonary hypertension, COPD, and lung cancer. Especially COVID-19, a problem troubling the world, is also discussed in it. Moreover, it is concentrated on the action mechanisms between the identified gut microbiota or their metabolites and the specific lung diseases, and on the link among the gut microbiota, its metabolites, and immune regulation, which could be used as a breakthrough to find new mechanisms and targets for some diseases without specific therapeutic drugs in clinic. It is also discussed a new therapeutic tool "drug-bacterial interaction" and the potential of therapeutic applications in clinic. This review would provide a clear direction for future research on gut microbiota and lung diseases, and propose a new therapeutic strategy targeting "drug-bacterial interaction" in clinic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Microbiota , Humans , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Dysbiosis/microbiology , Immune System , Bacteria
9.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274228, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021958

ABSTRACT

Serum or plasma have been the primary focus of proteomics studies for COVID-19 to identity biomarkers and potential drug targets. The nasal mucosal environment which consists of lipids, mucosal immune cells, and nasal proteome, has been largely neglected but later revealed to have critical role combating SARS-CoV-2 infection. We present a bottom-up proteomics investigation of the host response to SARS-CoV-2 infection in the nasopharyngeal environment, featuring a noninvasive approach using proteins in nasopharyngeal swabs collected from groups of 76 SARS-CoV-2 positive and 76 negative patients. Results showed that 31 significantly down-regulated and 6 up-regulated proteins were identified (p < 0.05, log2 FC > 1.3) in SARS-CoV-2 positive patient samples as compared to the negatives; these proteins carry potential value as markers for the early detection of COVID-19, disease monitoring, as well as be drug targets. The down-regulation of coagulation factor 5 indicates a thrombotic abnormality in COVID-19 patients and the decreased IgG4 suggests an abnormal immune response at the point of entry in human nasopharyngeal environment, which is in consistent with KEGG and GO pathway analysis. Our study also demonstrated that mass spectrometry proteomics analysis of nasopharyngeal swabs can be used as a powerful early approach to evaluate host response to SARS-CoV-2 viral infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Complement System Proteins , Humans , Immune System , Nasopharynx , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Cell Commun Signal ; 20(1): 131, 2022 08 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021304

ABSTRACT

During SARS-CoV-2 infection, an effective immune response provides the first line of defense; however, excessive inflammatory innate immunity and impaired adaptive immunity may harm tissues. Soluble immune mediators are involved in the dynamic interaction of ligands with membrane-bound receptors to maintain and restore health after pathological events. In some cases, the dysregulation of their expression can lead to disease pathology. In this literature review, we described current knowledge of the basic features of soluble immune mediators and their dysregulation during SARS-CoV-2 infections and highlighted their contribution to disease severity and mortality. Video Abstract.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adaptive Immunity , Humans , Immune System , Immunity, Innate , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 20(1): 380, 2022 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002186

ABSTRACT

Innate immunity is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Innate immune cells can recognize invading pathogens through recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). The recognition of PAMPs by PRRs triggers immune defense mechanisms and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6. However, sustained and overwhelming activation of immune system may disrupt immune homeostasis and contribute to inflammatory disorders. Immunomodulators targeting PRRs may be beneficial to treat infectious diseases and their associated complications. However, therapeutic performances of immunomodulators can be negatively affected by (1) high immune-mediated toxicity, (2) poor solubility and (3) bioactivity loss after long circulation. Recently, nanocarriers have emerged as a very promising tool to overcome these obstacles owning to their unique properties such as sustained circulation, desired bio-distribution, and preferred pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. In this review, we aim to provide an up-to-date overview on the strategies and applications of nanocarrier-assisted innate immune modulation for the management of infections and their associated complications. We first summarize examples of important innate immune modulators. The types of nanomaterials available for drug delivery, as well as their applications for the delivery of immunomodulatory drugs and vaccine adjuvants are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Innate , Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Immune System , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Receptors, Pattern Recognition
13.
Expert Rev Mol Med ; 24: e29, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000812

ABSTRACT

Immune system aging, a process known as immunosenescence, involves a striking rearrangement affecting all immune cells, resulting in an increased rate of infections and a major incidence of autoimmune diseases and cancer. Nonetheless, differences in how individuals of the same chronological age carry out this immunosenescence establishment and thus the aging rate have been reported. In the context of neuroimmunoendocrine communication and its role in the response to stress situations, growing evidence suggests that social environments profoundly influence all physiological responses, especially those linked to immunity. Accordingly, negative contexts (loneliness in humans/social isolation in rodents) were associated with immune impairments and decreased lifespan. However, positive social environments have been correlated with adequate immunity and increased lifespan. Therefore, the social context in which an individual lives is proposed as a decisive modulator of the immunosenescence process and, consequently, of the rate of aging. In this review, the most important findings regarding how different social environments (negative and positive) modulate immunosenescence and therefore the aging rate, as well as the role of stress responses, hormesis, and resilience in these environments will be explained. Finally, several possible molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of negative and positive environments on immunosenescence will be suggested.


Subject(s)
Immunosenescence , Aging , Humans , Immune System , Immunosenescence/physiology , Longevity , Social Environment
14.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 112: 109183, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996289

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection can produce a variety of clinical manifestations, which are either directly related to viral tissue damage or indirectly induced by the antiviral immune response. Molecular mimicry enables this virus to undermine self-tolerance in a host's immune system also immune system's attempts to eliminate SARS-COV-2 may trigger autoimmunity by hyper-activating the innate and adaptive immune systems. Auto immune diseases include Systemic lupus erythematosus, autoimmune thyroid diseases, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Immune thrombocytopenic purpura, and the detection of autoantibodies are the cues to the discovery of the potential of COVID-19 in inducing autoimmunity. As COVID-19 and autoimmune diseases share a common pathogenesis, autoimmune drugs may be an effective treatment option. Susceptible patients must be monitored for autoimmune symptoms after contracting CVID-19. In light of the SARS-COV-2 virus' ability to induce autoimmunity in susceptible patients, will the various COVID-19 vaccines that are the only way to end the pandemic induce autoimmunity?


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Molecular Mimicry , COVID-19 Vaccines , Antiviral Agents , Autoantibodies , Immune System
15.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 887800, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987470

ABSTRACT

The single-stranded viral RNA (ssvRNA) known as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes COVID-19 can be effectively inactivated by a number of natural ribonucleic acid-based host cell defenses. One of the most important of these defenses includes the actions of a class of small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) known as microRNAs (miRNAs). Via base-pair complementarity miRNAs are capable of specifically targeting ssvRNA sequences such as SARS-CoV-2 promoting its inactivation and neutralization. RNA-sequencing and bioinformatics analysis indicate that multiple naturally-occurring human miRNAs have extensive complementarity to the SARS-CoV-2 ssvRNA genome. Since miRNA abundance, speciation, and complexity vary significantly amongst human individuals, this may in part explain the variability in the innate-immune and pathophysiological response of different individuals to SARS-CoV-2 and overall susceptibility to ssvRNA-mediated viral infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , Humans , Immune System , MicroRNAs/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(8): e2226040, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1981505

ABSTRACT

Importance: Cold, flu, and immunity dietary supplement product sales have skyrocketed since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. Supporting or boosting the immune system has become an important reason for using dietary supplements, and many consumers are purchasing products through online platforms. Objectives: To examine whether select dietary supplement products advertised as supporting or boosting the immune system are accurately labeled according to the Supplement Facts label of listed ingredients and to qualitatively describe the product labels' characteristics in terms of claims made. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this case series, 30 featured immune health dietary supplements were selected and purchased from Amazon.com in May 2021. Product analysis was performed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The list of ingredients detected through analysis for each product was compared with the ingredients on the product's Supplement Facts label to determine whether the product's label was accurate. Claims made on product labels were also evaluated by using the Operation Supplement Safety Scorecard's set of questions to describe the labels' characteristics. Results: A total of 30 select dietary supplement products were evaluated. Thirteen of the 30 products had accurate labels based on the product analysis. Of the 17 products with inaccurate labels, 13 had ingredients listed on the labels that were not detected through analysis, such that their labels were misbranded. Nine products had substances detected that were not claimed on the product labels, some of which may be considered adulterated. Five were misbranded and contained additional components not claimed on the label. No product had third-party certification seals present on the packaging. Ten of the 13 products with accurate labels received a score of 4 or more when applying the Operation Supplement Safety Scorecard, meaning the product was "likely okay/less risky." Conclusions and Relevance: In this case series study, most of the products tested had inaccurate labels and claims that were inconsistent with requirements the US Food and Drug Administration has put forward for dietary supplements. Quality control measures seem to be insufficient for most of these select products, and claims made on labels may be misleading consumers who purchase products.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Humans , Immune System , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(14)2022 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964007

ABSTRACT

Inflammation caused by infection, tissue trauma, and disease states such as arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease is perceived by the Central nervous System (CNS) through different routes that, by means of neural reflex circuits, regulate the immune system response [...].


Subject(s)
Inflammation , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Central Nervous System , Cholinergic Agents , Humans , Immune System
19.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 18(9): 961-981, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960664

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Aging causes several changes in the immune system, although immune aging is strongly influenced by individual immunological history, as well as genetic and environmental factors leading to inter-individual variability. AREAS COVERED: We focused on the biological and clinical meaning of immunosenescence. SARS-CoV-2 and Yellow Fever vaccine have demonstrated the clinical relevance of immunosenescence, while inconsistent results, obtained from longitudinal studies aimed at looking for immune risk phenotypes, have revealed that immunosenescence is highly context-dependent. Large projects allowed the delineation of the drivers of immune system variance, including genetic and environmental factors, sex, smoking, and co-habitation. Therefore, it is difficult to identify the interventions that can be envisaged to maintain or improve immune function in older people. That suggests that drug treatment of immunosenescence should require personalized intervention. Regarding this, we discussed the role of changes in lifestyle as a potential therapeutic approach. EXPERT OPINION: Our review points out that age is only part of the problem of immunosenescence. Everyone ages differently because is unique in genetics and experience of life and this applies even more to the immune system (immunobiography). Finally, the review shows how appreciable results in the modification of immunosenescence biomarkers can be achieved with lifestyle modification.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunosenescence , Aging , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immune System , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Behav Brain Sci ; 45: e148, 2022 07 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960160

ABSTRACT

Studies of the activation of the behavioral immune system triggered by the coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic have demonstrated that evolutionary explanations of individual differences in self-protection should not be based only on parental investment and sexual selection theory. An evolutionary model must also incorporate individual differences that arise within each sex as a result of life history strategies and attachment patterns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biological Evolution , Female , Humans , Immune System , Pandemics
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