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1.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 194(1): 291-301, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748423

ABSTRACT

Corona virus pandemic outbreak also known as COVID-19 has created an imbalance in this world. Scientists have adopted the use of natural or alternative medicines which are consumed mostly as dietary supplements to boost the immune system as herbal remedies. India is famous for traditional medicinal formulations which includes 'Trikadu'-a combination of three acrids, namely Zingiber officinale, Piper nigrum and Piper longum which have antioxidant properties that boost our immune system hence acting as a strong preventive measure. In this study, AutoDock 4.0 was used to study interaction between the phytocompounds of Trikadu with RNA-dependent polymerase protein and enveloped protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Analysis of the results showed that coumarin, coumaperine and bisdemethoxycurcumin showed strong bonding interactions with both the proteins. We can conclude that Trikadu has the potential molecules; hence, it can be incorporated in the diet to boost the immune system as a preventive measure against the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Phytotherapy , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/drug effects , Dietary Supplements , Ginger/chemistry , Humans , Immune System/drug effects , India , Ligands , Medicine, Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use , Piper/chemistry , Piper nigrum/chemistry , Plant Preparations/isolation & purification , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/drug effects
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(5)2022 Mar 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732070

ABSTRACT

Almost two years have passed since the outbreak reported for the first time in Wuhan of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), due to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 coronavirus, rapidly evolved into a pandemic. This infectious disease has stressed global health care systems. The mortality rate is higher, particularly in elderly population and in patients with comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, chronic lung disease, chronic renal disease, and malignancy. Among them, subjects with diabetes have a high risk of developing severe form of COVID-19 and show increased mortality. How diabetes contributes to COVID-19 severity remains unclear. It has been hypothesized that it may be correlated with the effects of hyperglycemia on systemic inflammatory responses and immune system dysfunction. Vitamin D (VD) is a modulator of immune-response. Data from literature showed that vitamin D deficiency in COVID-19 patients increases COVID-19 severity, likely because of its negative impact on immune and inflammatory responses. Therefore, the use of vitamin D might play a role in some aspects of the infection, particularly the inflammatory state and the immune system function of patients. Moreover, a piece of evidence highlighted a link among vitamin D deficiency, obesity and diabetes, all factors associated with COVID-19 severity. Given this background, we performed an overview of the systematic reviews to assess the association between vitamin D supplementation and inflammatory markers in patients with diabetes; furthermore, vitamin D's possible role in COVID-19 patients was assessed as well. Three databases, namely MEDLINE, PubMed Central and the Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews, were reviewed to retrieve the pertinent data. The aim of this review is to provide insight into the recent advances about the molecular basis of the relationship between vitamin D, immune response, inflammation, diabetes and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Immune System/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Obesity/immunology , Vitamin D/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immune System/drug effects , Meta-Analysis as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Systematic Reviews as Topic , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Vitamins/immunology
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703931

ABSTRACT

The review presents the latest data on the role of selenium-containing agents in the regulation of diseases of the immune system. We mainly considered the contributions of selenium-containing compounds such as sodium selenite, methylseleninic acid, selenomethionine, and methylselenocysteine, as well as selenoproteins and selenium nanoparticles in the regulation of defense mechanisms against various viral infections, including coronavirus infection (COVID-19). A complete description of the available data for each of the above selenium compounds and the mechanisms underlying the regulation of immune processes with the active participation of these selenium agents, as well as their therapeutic and pharmacological potential, is presented. The main purpose of this review is to systematize the available information, supplemented by data obtained in our laboratory, on the important role of selenium compounds in all of these processes. In addition, the presented information makes it possible to understand the key differences in the mechanisms of action of these compounds, depending on their chemical and physical properties, which is important for obtaining a holistic picture and prospects for creating drugs based on them.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Selenium Compounds/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Humans , Immune System/drug effects , Organoselenium Compounds/immunology , Organoselenium Compounds/pharmacokinetics , Organoselenium Compounds/pharmacology , Selenium Compounds/immunology , Selenocysteine/analogs & derivatives , Selenocysteine/immunology , Selenocysteine/pharmacology , Selenomethionine/pharmacokinetics , Selenomethionine/pharmacology , Sodium Selenite/pharmacology
4.
Molecules ; 26(22)2021 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524088

ABSTRACT

Plants consistently synthesize and accumulate medically valuable secondary metabolites which can be isolated and clinically tested under in vitro conditions. An advancement with such important phytochemical production has been recognized and utilized as herbal drugs. Bioactive andrographolide (AGL; C20H30O5) isolated from Andrographis paniculate (AP) (Kalmegh) is a diterpenoid lactones having multifunctional medicinal properties including anti-manic, anti-inflammatory, liver, and lung protective. AGL is known for its immunostimulant activity against a variety of microbial infections thereby, regulating classical and alternative macrophage activation, Ag-specific antibody production during immune disorder therapy. In vitro studies with AGL found it to be effective against multiple tumors, neuronal disorders, diabetes, pneumonia, fibrosis, and other diverse therapeutic misadventures. Generally, virus-based diseases like ZIKA, influenza A virus subtype (H1NI), Ebola (EBOV), Dengue (DENV), and coronavirus (COVID-19) epidemics have greatly increased scientific interest and demands to develop more effective and economical immunomodulating drugs with minimal side effects. Trials and in vitro pharmacological studies with AGL and medicinally beneficial herbs might contribute to benefit the human population without using chemical-based synthetic drugs. In this review, we have discussed the possible role of AGL as a promising herbal-chemo remedy during human diseases, viral infections and as an immunity booster.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Diterpenes/chemistry , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/immunology , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Diterpenes/chemical synthesis , Diterpenes/therapeutic use , Health , Humans , Immune System/drug effects
5.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502476

ABSTRACT

l-Arginine is involved in many different biological processes and recent reports indicate that it could also play a crucial role in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Herein, we present an updated systematic overview of the current evidence on the functional contribution of L-Arginine in COVID-19, describing its actions on endothelial cells and the immune system and discussing its potential as a therapeutic tool, emerged from recent clinical experimentations.


Subject(s)
Arginine/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Immune System/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Arginine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Endothelial Cells/immunology , Endothelial Cells/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immune System/drug effects , Immune System/immunology , Immune System/virology , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
6.
Biomolecules ; 11(11)2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502359

ABSTRACT

Immune cells, including dendritic cells, macrophages, and T and B cells, express the vitamin D receptor and 1α-hydroxylase. In vitro studies have shown that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, the active form of vitamin D, has an anti-inflammatory effect. Recent epidemiological evidence has indicated a significant association between vitamin D deficiency and an increased incidence, or aggravation, of infectious diseases and inflammatory autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and multiple sclerosis. However, the impact of vitamin D on treatment and prevention, particularly in infectious diseases such as the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19), remains controversial. Here, we review recent evidence associated with the relationship between vitamin D and inflammatory diseases and describe the underlying immunomodulatory effect of vitamin D.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immune System/drug effects , Inflammation/drug therapy , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Animals , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/prevention & control , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/prevention & control , Macrophages/immunology , Mice , Monocytes/immunology , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis/prevention & control , Receptors, Calcitriol/genetics , Receptors, Calcitriol/physiology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications
7.
Immunology ; 164(4): 722-736, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494730

ABSTRACT

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a TEC kinase with a multifaceted role in B-cell biology and function, highlighted by its position as a critical component of the B-cell receptor signalling pathway. Due to its role as a therapeutic target in several haematological malignancies including chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, BTK has been gaining tremendous momentum in recent years. Within the immune system, BTK plays a part in numerous pathways and cells beyond B cells (i.e. T cells, macrophages). Not surprisingly, BTK has been elucidated to be a driving factor not only in lymphoproliferative disorders but also in autoimmune diseases and response to infection. To extort this role, BTK inhibitors such as ibrutinib have been developed to target BTK in other diseases. However, due to rising levels of resistance, the urgency to develop new inhibitors with alternative modes of targeting BTK is high. To meet this demand, an expanding list of BTK inhibitors is currently being trialled. In this review, we synopsize recent discoveries regarding BTK and its role within different immune cells and pathways. Additionally, we discuss the broad significance and relevance of BTK for various diseases ranging from haematology and rheumatology to the COVID-19 pandemic. Overall, BTK signalling and its targetable nature have emerged as immensely important for a wide range of clinical applications. The development of novel, more specific and less toxic BTK inhibitors could be revolutionary for a significant number of diseases with yet unmet treatment needs.


Subject(s)
Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/metabolism , B-Lymphocytes/enzymology , Immune System/enzymology , Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/antagonists & inhibitors , Animals , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Autoimmune Diseases/enzymology , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/drug effects , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Immune System/drug effects , Immune System/immunology , Lymphoproliferative Disorders/drug therapy , Lymphoproliferative Disorders/enzymology , Lymphoproliferative Disorders/immunology , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/metabolism , Receptors, Chemokine/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism
8.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2021: 9632034, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438139

ABSTRACT

The world is currently grappling with the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The infection can cause fever, a dry cough, fatigue, severe pneumonia, respiratory distress syndrome, and in some cases death. There is currently no effective antiviral SARS-CoV-2 drug. To reduce the number of infections and deaths, it is critical to focus on strengthening immunity. This review aims to conduct a comprehensive search on the previous studies using Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, Medline, PubMed, and Scopus for the collection of research papers based on the role of zinc in the immune system, the antiviral activity of zinc, the effect of zinc supplementation in respiratory infections, the therapeutic approaches against viral infections based on medicinal plants, and the role of plants' bioactive molecules in fighting viral infections. In conclusion, we highlighted the pivotal role of zinc in antiviral immunity and we suggested the bioactive molecules derived from medicinal plants as a search matrix for the development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Zinc/pharmacology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immune System/drug effects
9.
Immunology ; 164(4): 722-736, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1429802

ABSTRACT

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a TEC kinase with a multifaceted role in B-cell biology and function, highlighted by its position as a critical component of the B-cell receptor signalling pathway. Due to its role as a therapeutic target in several haematological malignancies including chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, BTK has been gaining tremendous momentum in recent years. Within the immune system, BTK plays a part in numerous pathways and cells beyond B cells (i.e. T cells, macrophages). Not surprisingly, BTK has been elucidated to be a driving factor not only in lymphoproliferative disorders but also in autoimmune diseases and response to infection. To extort this role, BTK inhibitors such as ibrutinib have been developed to target BTK in other diseases. However, due to rising levels of resistance, the urgency to develop new inhibitors with alternative modes of targeting BTK is high. To meet this demand, an expanding list of BTK inhibitors is currently being trialled. In this review, we synopsize recent discoveries regarding BTK and its role within different immune cells and pathways. Additionally, we discuss the broad significance and relevance of BTK for various diseases ranging from haematology and rheumatology to the COVID-19 pandemic. Overall, BTK signalling and its targetable nature have emerged as immensely important for a wide range of clinical applications. The development of novel, more specific and less toxic BTK inhibitors could be revolutionary for a significant number of diseases with yet unmet treatment needs.


Subject(s)
Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/metabolism , B-Lymphocytes/enzymology , Immune System/enzymology , Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/antagonists & inhibitors , Animals , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Autoimmune Diseases/enzymology , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/drug effects , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Immune System/drug effects , Immune System/immunology , Lymphoproliferative Disorders/drug therapy , Lymphoproliferative Disorders/enzymology , Lymphoproliferative Disorders/immunology , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/metabolism , Receptors, Chemokine/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism
10.
Front Immunol ; 11: 631743, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389175

ABSTRACT

The concept of trained immunity has recently emerged as a mechanism contributing to several immune mediated inflammatory conditions. Trained immunity is defined by the immunological memory developed in innate immune cells after a primary non-specific stimulus that, in turn, promotes a heightened inflammatory response upon a secondary challenge. The most characteristic changes associated to this process involve the rewiring of cell metabolism and epigenetic reprogramming. Under physiological conditions, the role of trained immune cells ensures a prompt response. This action is limited by effective resolution of inflammation and tissue repair in order to restore homeostasis. However, unrestrained activation of innate immune cells contributes to the development of chronic inflammation and tissue destruction through the secretion of inflammatory cytokines, proteases and growth factors. Therefore, interventions aimed at reversing the changes induced by trained immunity provide potential therapeutic approaches to treat inflammatory and autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We review cellular approaches that target metabolism and the epigenetic reprogramming of dendritic cells, macrophages, natural killer cells, and other trained cells in the context of autoimmune inflammatory diseases.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Autoimmunity/drug effects , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Immune System/drug effects , Inflammation/drug therapy , Animals , Autoimmune Diseases/genetics , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Energy Metabolism/drug effects , Epigenesis, Genetic/drug effects , Humans , Immune System/immunology , Immune System/metabolism , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunologic Memory/drug effects , Inflammation/genetics , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/metabolism , Signal Transduction
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348645

ABSTRACT

The trace element selenium (Se) is an essential part of the human diet; moreover, increased health risks have been observed with Se deficiency. A sufficiently high Se status is a prerequisite for adequate immune response, and preventable endemic diseases are known from areas with Se deficiency. Biomarkers of Se status decline strongly in pregnancy, severe illness, or COVID-19, reaching critically low concentrations. Notably, these conditions are associated with an increased risk for autoimmune disease (AID). Positive effects on the immune system are observed with Se supplementation in pregnancy, autoimmune thyroid disease, and recovery from severe illness. However, some studies reported null results; the database is small, and randomized trials are sparse. The current need for research on the link between AID and Se deficiency is particularly obvious for rheumatoid arthritis and type 1 diabetes mellitus. Despite these gaps in knowledge, it seems timely to realize that severe Se deficiency may trigger AID in susceptible subjects. Improved dietary choices or supplemental Se are efficient ways to avoid severe Se deficiency, thereby decreasing AID risk and improving disease course. A personalized approach is needed in clinics and during therapy, while population-wide measures should be considered for areas with habitual low Se intake. Finland has been adding Se to its food chain for more than 35 years-a wise and commendable decision, according to today's knowledge. It is unfortunate that the health risks of Se deficiency are often neglected, while possible side effects of Se supplementation are exaggerated, leading to disregard for this safe and promising preventive and adjuvant treatment options. This is especially true in the follow-up situations of pregnancy, severe illness, or COVID-19, where massive Se deficiencies have developed and are associated with AID risk, long-lasting health impairments, and slow recovery.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immune System/drug effects , Selenium/pharmacology , Trace Elements/pharmacology , Dietary Supplements , Female , Humans , Pregnancy
12.
Trends Mol Med ; 27(6): 538-553, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1187821

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence suggests that microbial therapeutics can prevent and treat respiratory viral diseases, especially when applied directly to the airways. This review presents established beneficial effects of locally administered microbial therapeutics against respiratory viral diseases and the inferred related molecular mechanisms. Several mechanisms established in the intestinal probiotics field as well as novel, niche-specific insights are relevant in the airways. Studies at cellular and organism levels highlight biologically plausible but strain-specific and host and virus context-dependent mechanisms, underlying the potential of beneficial bacteria. Large-scale clinical studies can now be rationally designed to provide a bench-to-bedside translation of the multifactorial bacterial mechanisms within the host respiratory tract, to diminish the incidence and severity of viral infections and the concomitant complications.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Immune System/drug effects , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Animals , Humans , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/virology
13.
J Interferon Cytokine Res ; 41(7): 244-257, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316789

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), which initiated as an endemic from China, converted into a pandemic disease worldwide within a couple of months' time. This has led researchers from all over the world to come together to find and develop possible curative or preventive strategies, including vaccine development, drug repurposing, plasma therapy, drug discovery, and cytokine-based therapies. Herein, we are providing, a summarized overview of immunopathology of the SARS-CoV-2 along with various therapeutic strategies undertaken to COVID-19 with a vision for their possible outcome. High levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-7, G-CSF, IP-10, TNF-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and IL-2 in severe cases of COVID-19 have been observed. Immune responses play significant roles in the determination of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis. Thus, exploring the underlying mechanism of the immune system response to SARS-CoV-2 infection would help in the prediction of disease course and selection of intensive care and therapeutic strategy. As an effort toward developing possible therapeutics for COVID-19, we highlighted different types of vaccines, which are under clinical trials, and also discussed the impact of genome variability on efficacy of vaccine under development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immune System/immunology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immune System/drug effects , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Mutation , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
15.
J Immunol Res ; 2021: 9934134, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295258

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Regulation of the immune system is critical for fighting against viral infections. Both suppression and hyperactivity of the immune system result in failure of treatment. The present study was designed to show the effects of immune system-related medications on mortality and length of stay (LOS) in a cohort of Iranian patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: A data mining study was performed on 6417 cases of COVID-19 covered by 17 educational hospitals of Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran. Association of a researcher-designed drug list with death and LOS was studied. For death outcome, logistic regression was used reporting odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). For LOS, right censored Poisson regression was used reporting incidence rate ratio (IRR) with 95% CI. RESULTS: Among the corticosteroids, prednisolone was a risk factor on death (OR = 1.41, 95%CI = 1.03 - 1.94). This association was increased after adjustment of age interactions (OR = 3.45, 95%CI = 1.01 - 11.81) and was removed after adjustment of ICU admission interactions (OR = 2.64, 95%CI = 0.70 - 9.92). Hydroxychloroquine showed a protecting effect on death (OR = 0.735, 95%CI = 0.627 - 0.862); however, this association was removed after adjustment of age interactions (OR = 0.76, 95%CI = 0.41 - 1.40). Among the antivirals, oseltamivir showed a protecting effect on death (OR = 0.628, 95%CI = 0.451 - 0.873); however, this association was removed after adjustment of age interactions (OR = 0.45, 95%CI = 0.11 - 1.82). For reduction of LOS, the only significant association was for hydroxychloroquine (IRR = 0.85, 95%CI = 0.79 - 0.92). CONCLUSION: The results of such data mining studies can be used in clinics until completing the evidence. Hydroxychloroquine may reduce mortality in some specific groups; however, its association may be confounded by some latent variables and unknown interactions. Administration of corticosteroids should be based on the conditions of each case.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adjuvants, Immunologic/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Data Mining , Female , Humans , Immune System/drug effects , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Iran/epidemiology , Length of Stay , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Young Adult
16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 187: 769-779, 2021 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1283357

ABSTRACT

Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) polysaccharides and triterpenoids are the major bioactive compounds and have been used as traditional medicine for ancient times. Massive demands of G. lucidum have fascinated the researchers towards its application as functional food, nutraceutical and modern medicine owing to wide range of application in various diseases include immunomodulators, anticancer, antiviral, antioxidant, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective. G. lucidum polysaccharides exhibit immunomodulatory properties through boosting the action of antigen-presenting cells, mononuclear phagocyte system, along with humoral and cellular immunity. ß-Glucans isolated from G. lucidum are anticipated to produce an immune response through pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). ß-Glucans after binding with dectin-1 receptor present on different cells include macrophages, monocytes, dendritic cells and neutrophils produce signal transduction that lead to trigger the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), T cells and Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) that refer to cytokines production and contributing to immune response. While triterpenoids produce antiviral effects through inhibiting various enzymes like neuraminidase, HIV-protease, DENV2 NS2B-NS3 protease and HSV multiplication. Polysaccharides and triterpenoids adjunct to other drugs exhibit potential action in prevention and treatment of various diseases. Immunomodulators and antiviral properties of this mushroom could be a potential source to overcome this current pandemic outbreak.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Immune System/drug effects , Reishi , Triterpenes/pharmacology , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , beta-Glucans/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immune System/immunology , Immune System/metabolism , Molecular Structure , Reishi/chemistry , Signal Transduction , Structure-Activity Relationship , Triterpenes/isolation & purification , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Virus Diseases/virology , beta-Glucans/isolation & purification
17.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273493

ABSTRACT

The interplay between inflammation and oxidative stress is a vicious circle, potentially resulting in organ damage. Essential micronutrients such as selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) support anti-oxidative defense systems and are commonly depleted in severe disease. This single-center retrospective study investigated micronutrient levels under Se and Zn supplementation in critically ill patients with COVID-19 induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and explored potential relationships with immunological and clinical parameters. According to intensive care unit (ICU) standard operating procedures, patients received 1.0 mg of intravenous Se daily on top of artificial nutrition, which contained various amounts of Se and Zn. Micronutrients, inflammatory cytokines, lymphocyte subsets and clinical data were extracted from the patient data management system on admission and after 10 to 14 days of treatment. Forty-six patients were screened for eligibility and 22 patients were included in the study. Twenty-one patients (95%) suffered from severe ARDS and 14 patients (64%) survived to ICU discharge. On admission, the majority of patients had low Se status biomarkers and Zn levels, along with elevated inflammatory parameters. Se supplementation significantly elevated Se (p = 0.027) and selenoprotein P levels (SELENOP; p = 0.016) to normal range. Accordingly, glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3) activity increased over time (p = 0.021). Se biomarkers, most notably SELENOP, were inversely correlated with CRP (rs = -0.495), PCT (rs = -0.413), IL-6 (rs = -0.429), IL-1ß (rs = -0.440) and IL-10 (rs = -0.461). Positive associations were found for CD8+ T cells (rs = 0.636), NK cells (rs = 0.772), total IgG (rs = 0.493) and PaO2/FiO2 ratios (rs = 0.504). In addition, survivors tended to have higher Se levels after 10 to 14 days compared to non-survivors (p = 0.075). Sufficient Se and Zn levels may potentially be of clinical significance for an adequate immune response in critically ill patients with severe COVID-19 ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Deficiency Diseases/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Micronutrients/therapeutic use , Selenium/therapeutic use , Zinc/therapeutic use , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Deficiency Diseases/complications , Humans , Immune System/drug effects , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/drug therapy , Intensive Care Units , Interleukins/blood , Male , Micronutrients/blood , Micronutrients/deficiency , Middle Aged , Oxygen/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Selenium/blood , Selenium/deficiency , Selenoprotein P/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Zinc/blood , Zinc/deficiency
18.
Pharm Biol ; 59(1): 696-703, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263613

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: COVID-19 is a novel coronavirus that causes a severe infection in the respiratory system. Nigella sativa L. (Ranunculaceae) is an annual flowering plant used traditionally as a natural food supplement and multipurpose medicinal agent. OBJECTIVE: The possible beneficial effects of N. sativa, and its constituent, thymoquinone (TQ) on COVID-19 were reviewed. METHODS: The key words including, COVID-19, N. sativa, thymoquinone, antiviral effects, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects in different databases such as Web of Science (ISI), PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched from 1990 up to February 2021. RESULTS: The current literature review showed that N. sativa and TQ reduced the level of pro-inflammatory mediators including, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-12, while enhancing IFN-γ. Nigella sativa and TQ increased the serum levels of IgG1 and IgG2a, and improved pulmonary function tests in restrictive respiratory disorders. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary data of molecular docking, animal, and clinical studies propose N. sativa and TQ might have beneficial effects on the treatment or control of COVID-19 due to antiviral, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties as well as bronchodilatory effects. The efficacy of N. sativa and TQ on infected patients with COVID-19 in randomize clinical trials will be suggested.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Benzoquinones/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Nigella sativa , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Benzoquinones/isolation & purification , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Immune System/drug effects , Immune System/immunology , Immune System/metabolism , Immune System/virology , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Lung/drug effects , Lung/immunology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Nigella sativa/chemistry , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
19.
Inflammopharmacology ; 29(4): 1001-1016, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263162

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) known as coronavirus disease (COVID-19), emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. On March 11, 2020, it was declared a global pandemic. As the world grapples with COVID-19 and the paucity of clinically meaningful therapies, attention has been shifted to modalities that may aid in immune system strengthening. Taking into consideration that the COVID-19 infection strongly affects the immune system via multiple inflammatory responses, pharmaceutical companies are working to develop targeted drugs and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19. A balanced nutritional diet may play an essential role in maintaining general wellbeing by controlling chronic infectious diseases. A balanced diet including vitamin A, B, C, D, E, and K, and some micronutrients such as zinc, sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, and phosphorus may be beneficial in various infectious diseases. This study aimed to discuss and present recent data regarding the role of vitamins and minerals in the treatment of COVID-19. A deficiency of these vitamins and minerals in the plasma concentration may lead to a reduction in the good performance of the immune system, which is one of the constituents that lead to a poor immune state. This is a narrative review concerning the features of the COVID-19 and data related to the usage of vitamins and minerals as preventive measures to decrease the morbidity and mortality rate in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dietary Supplements , Immune System/immunology , Micronutrients/administration & dosage , Minerals/administration & dosage , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Humans , Immune System/drug effects
20.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 67: 126789, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230638

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a kind of SARS-CoV-2 viral infectious pneumonia. This research aims to perform a bibliometric analysis of the published studies of vitamins and trace elements in the Scopus database with a special focus on COVID-19 disease. To achieve the goal of the study, network and density visualizations were used to introduce an overall picture of the published literature. Following the bibliometric analysis, we discuss the potential benefits of vitamins and trace elements on immune system function and COVID-19, supporting the discussion with evidence from published clinical studies. The previous studies show that D and A vitamins demonstrated a higher potential benefit, while Selenium, Copper, and Zinc were found to have favorable effects on immune modulation in viral respiratory infections among trace elements. The principles of nutrition from the findings of this research could be useful in preventing and treating COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Clinical Trials as Topic , Trace Elements/pharmacology , Vitamins/pharmacology , Bibliometrics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Immune System/drug effects
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