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1.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6671-6685, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544318

ABSTRACT

Infection by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes a wide spectrum of syndromes involving multiple organ systems and is primarily mediated by viral spike (S) glycoprotein through the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and numerous cellular proteins including ACE2, transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1), and neuropilin-1 (NRP-1). In this study, we examined the entry tropism of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV using S protein-based pseudoviruses to infect 22 cell lines and 3 types of primary cells isolated from respiratory, urinary, digestive, reproductive, and immune systems. At least one cell line or type of primary cell from each organ system was infected by both pseudoviruses. Infection by pseudoviruses is effectively blocked by S1, RBD, and ACE2 recombinant proteins, and more weakly by Kim-1 and NRP-1 recombinant proteins. Furthermore, cells with robust SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus infection had strong expression of either ACE2 or Kim-1 and NRP-1 proteins. ACE2 glycosylation appeared to be critical for the infections of both viruses as there was a positive correlation between infectivity of either SARS-CoV-2 or SARS-CoV pseudovirus with the level of glycosylated ACE2 (gly-ACE2). These results reveal that SARS-CoV-2 cell entry could be mediated by either an ACE2-dependent or -independent mechanism, thus providing a likely molecular basis for its broad tropism for a wide variety of cell types.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Genitalia/virology , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 1/metabolism , Immune System/virology , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Blotting, Western , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Cells, Cultured , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Gastrointestinal Tract/cytology , Genitalia/cytology , Humans , Immune System/cytology , Respiratory System/cytology
2.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502476

ABSTRACT

l-Arginine is involved in many different biological processes and recent reports indicate that it could also play a crucial role in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Herein, we present an updated systematic overview of the current evidence on the functional contribution of L-Arginine in COVID-19, describing its actions on endothelial cells and the immune system and discussing its potential as a therapeutic tool, emerged from recent clinical experimentations.


Subject(s)
Arginine/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Immune System/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Arginine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Endothelial Cells/immunology , Endothelial Cells/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immune System/drug effects , Immune System/immunology , Immune System/virology , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
3.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1383899

ABSTRACT

In 2020, with the advent of a pandemic touching all aspects of global life, there is a renewed interest in nutrition solutions to support the immune system. Infants are vulnerable to infection and breastfeeding has been demonstrated to provide protection. As such, human milk is a great model for sources of functional nutrition ingredients, which may play direct roles in protection against viral diseases. This review aims to summarize the literature around human milk (lactoferrin, milk fat globule membrane, osteopontin, glycerol monolaurate and human milk oligosaccharides) and infant nutrition (polyunsaturated fatty acids, probiotics and postbiotics) inspired ingredients for support against viral infections and the immune system more broadly. We believe that the application of these ingredients can span across all life stages and thus apply to both pediatric and adult nutrition. We highlight the opportunities for further research in this field to help provide tangible nutrition solutions to support one's immune system and fight against infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Food Ingredients/analysis , Immune System/virology , Milk, Human/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Functional Food/analysis , Humans , Infant , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena/immunology , Male , Nutrition Therapy/methods
4.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6671-6685, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330343

ABSTRACT

Infection by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes a wide spectrum of syndromes involving multiple organ systems and is primarily mediated by viral spike (S) glycoprotein through the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and numerous cellular proteins including ACE2, transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1), and neuropilin-1 (NRP-1). In this study, we examined the entry tropism of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV using S protein-based pseudoviruses to infect 22 cell lines and 3 types of primary cells isolated from respiratory, urinary, digestive, reproductive, and immune systems. At least one cell line or type of primary cell from each organ system was infected by both pseudoviruses. Infection by pseudoviruses is effectively blocked by S1, RBD, and ACE2 recombinant proteins, and more weakly by Kim-1 and NRP-1 recombinant proteins. Furthermore, cells with robust SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus infection had strong expression of either ACE2 or Kim-1 and NRP-1 proteins. ACE2 glycosylation appeared to be critical for the infections of both viruses as there was a positive correlation between infectivity of either SARS-CoV-2 or SARS-CoV pseudovirus with the level of glycosylated ACE2 (gly-ACE2). These results reveal that SARS-CoV-2 cell entry could be mediated by either an ACE2-dependent or -independent mechanism, thus providing a likely molecular basis for its broad tropism for a wide variety of cell types.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Genitalia/virology , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 1/metabolism , Immune System/virology , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Blotting, Western , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Cells, Cultured , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Gastrointestinal Tract/cytology , Genitalia/cytology , Humans , Immune System/cytology , Respiratory System/cytology
5.
Mol Neurobiol ; 58(9): 4694-4715, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281328

ABSTRACT

The unremitting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) marked a year-long phase of public health adversaries and has severely compromised healthcare globally. Early evidence of COVID-19 noted its impact on the pulmonary and cardiovascular functions, while multiple studies in recent time shed light on its substantial neurological complications, though a comprehensive understanding of the cause(s), the mechanism(s), and their neuropathological outcomes is scarce. In the present review, we conferred evidence of neurological complications in COVID-19 patients and shed light on the SARS-CoV-2 infection routes including the hematogenous, direct/neuronal, lymphatic tissue or cerebrospinal fluid, or infiltration through infected immune cells, while the underlying mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 invasion to the central nervous system (CNS) was also discussed. In an up-to-date manner, we further reviewed the impact of COVID-19 in developing diverse neurologic manifestations associated with CNS, peripheral nervous system (PNS), skeletal muscle, and also pre-existing neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, and myasthenia gravis. Furthermore, we discussed the involvement of key factors including age, sex, comorbidity, and disease severity in exacerbating the neurologic manifestations in COVID-19 patients. An outlook of present therapeutic strategies and state of existing challenges in COVID-19 management was also accessed. Conclusively, the present report provides a comprehensive review of COVID-19-related neurological complications and emphasizes the need for their early clinical management in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System/epidemiology , Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Central Nervous System/virology , Child , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Immune System/virology , Inflammation , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Biological , Muscular Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/drug therapy , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/complications , Neurons/virology , Organ Specificity , Sex Factors , Viremia/chemically induced , Viremia/immunology , Virus Internalization
6.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(16): 7825-7839, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280337

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus pandemic started in China in 2019. The intensity of the disease can range from mild to severe, leading to death in many cases. Despite extensive research in this area, the exact molecular nature of virus is not fully recognized; however, according to pieces of evidence, one of the mechanisms of virus pathogenesis is through the function of viral miRNAs. So, we hypothesized that SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis may be due to targeting important genes in the host with its miRNAs, which involved in the respiratory system, immune pathways and vitamin D pathways, thus possibly contributing to disease progression and virus survival. Potential miRNA precursors and mature miRNA were predicted and confirmed based on the virus genome. The next step was to predict and identify their target genes and perform functional enrichment analysis to recognize the biological processes connected with these genes in the three pathways mentioned above through several comprehensive databases. Finally, cis-acting regulatory elements in 5' regulatory regions were analysed, and the analysis of available RNAseq data determined the expression level of genes. We revealed that thirty-nine mature miRNAs could theoretically derive from the SARS-CoV-2 genome. Functional enrichment analysis elucidated three highlighted pathways involved in SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis: vitamin D, immune system and respiratory system. Our finding highlighted genes' involvement in three crucial molecular pathways and may help develop new therapeutic targets related to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , MicroRNAs , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vitamin D/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Immune System/virology , Molecular Sequence Annotation , Promoter Regions, Genetic , RNA, Viral , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
7.
Pharm Biol ; 59(1): 696-703, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263613

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: COVID-19 is a novel coronavirus that causes a severe infection in the respiratory system. Nigella sativa L. (Ranunculaceae) is an annual flowering plant used traditionally as a natural food supplement and multipurpose medicinal agent. OBJECTIVE: The possible beneficial effects of N. sativa, and its constituent, thymoquinone (TQ) on COVID-19 were reviewed. METHODS: The key words including, COVID-19, N. sativa, thymoquinone, antiviral effects, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects in different databases such as Web of Science (ISI), PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched from 1990 up to February 2021. RESULTS: The current literature review showed that N. sativa and TQ reduced the level of pro-inflammatory mediators including, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-12, while enhancing IFN-γ. Nigella sativa and TQ increased the serum levels of IgG1 and IgG2a, and improved pulmonary function tests in restrictive respiratory disorders. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary data of molecular docking, animal, and clinical studies propose N. sativa and TQ might have beneficial effects on the treatment or control of COVID-19 due to antiviral, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties as well as bronchodilatory effects. The efficacy of N. sativa and TQ on infected patients with COVID-19 in randomize clinical trials will be suggested.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Benzoquinones/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Nigella sativa , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Benzoquinones/isolation & purification , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Immune System/drug effects , Immune System/immunology , Immune System/metabolism , Immune System/virology , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Lung/drug effects , Lung/immunology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Nigella sativa/chemistry , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
8.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244083

ABSTRACT

In 2020, with the advent of a pandemic touching all aspects of global life, there is a renewed interest in nutrition solutions to support the immune system. Infants are vulnerable to infection and breastfeeding has been demonstrated to provide protection. As such, human milk is a great model for sources of functional nutrition ingredients, which may play direct roles in protection against viral diseases. This review aims to summarize the literature around human milk (lactoferrin, milk fat globule membrane, osteopontin, glycerol monolaurate and human milk oligosaccharides) and infant nutrition (polyunsaturated fatty acids, probiotics and postbiotics) inspired ingredients for support against viral infections and the immune system more broadly. We believe that the application of these ingredients can span across all life stages and thus apply to both pediatric and adult nutrition. We highlight the opportunities for further research in this field to help provide tangible nutrition solutions to support one's immune system and fight against infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Food Ingredients/analysis , Immune System/virology , Milk, Human/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Functional Food/analysis , Humans , Infant , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena/immunology , Male , Nutrition Therapy/methods
9.
Br J Nutr ; 125(6): 628-632, 2021 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221095

ABSTRACT

As COVID-19 continues to spread worldwide, severe disease and mortality have been observed in obese patients. We discuss how obesity and obesity-associated factors such as 'meta-flammation', dietary fat intake and paradoxical suppression of the innate immune response within the pulmonary compartment may be crucial determinants in the host response to a novel viral pathogen. Modulation of immune cell bioenergetics and metabolic potential plays a central role in the innate immune response to infection, and as we strive to combat this new global health threat, immunometabolism of the innate immune system warrants attention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immune System/virology , Obesity/immunology , Obesity/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Dietary Fats/immunology , Eating/immunology , Energy Metabolism/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Inflammation , Obesity/mortality , Respiratory System/immunology , Respiratory System/virology
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e215493, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178961

ABSTRACT

Importance: Claims that spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) can improve immune function have increased substantially during the COVID-19 pandemic and may have contributed to the rapid spread of both accurate and inaccurate information (referred to as an infodemic by the World Health Organization). Objective: To identify, appraise, and synthesize the scientific literature on the efficacy and effectiveness of SMT in preventing the development of infectious disease or improving disease-specific outcomes in patients with infectious disease and to examine the association between SMT and selected immunological, endocrine, and other physiological biomarkers. Evidence Review: A literature search of MEDLINE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, the Index to Chiropractic Literature, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Embase was conducted from inception to April 15, 2020. Randomized clinical trials and cohort studies were included. Eligible studies were critically appraised, and evidence with high and acceptable quality was synthesized using the Synthesis Without Meta-Analysis guideline. Findings: A total of 2593 records were retrieved; after exclusions, 50 full-text articles were screened, and 16 articles reporting the findings of 13 studies comprising 795 participants were critically appraised. The literature search found no clinical studies that investigated the efficacy or effectiveness of SMT in preventing the development of infectious disease or improving disease-specific outcomes among patients with infectious disease. Eight articles reporting the results of 6 high- and acceptable-quality RCTs comprising 529 participants investigated the effect of SMT on biomarkers. Spinal manipulative therapy was not associated with changes in lymphocyte levels or physiological markers among patients with low back pain or participants who were asymptomatic compared with sham manipulation, a lecture series, and venipuncture control groups. Spinal manipulative therapy was associated with short-term changes in selected immunological biomarkers among asymptomatic participants compared with sham manipulation, a lecture series, and venipuncture control groups. Conclusions and Relevance: In this systematic review of 13 studies, no clinical evidence was found to support or refute claims that SMT was efficacious or effective in changing immune system outcomes. Although there were limited preliminary data from basic scientific studies suggesting that SMT may be associated with short-term changes in immunological and endocrine biomarkers, the clinical relevance of these findings is unknown. Given the lack of evidence that SMT is associated with the prevention of infectious diseases or improvements in immune function, further studies should be completed before claims of efficacy or effectiveness are made.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Communicable Diseases/therapy , Manipulation, Chiropractic/methods , Manipulation, Spinal/methods , Physical Therapy Modalities , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/immunology , Communicable Diseases/immunology , Humans , Immune System/physiopathology , Immune System/virology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143520

ABSTRACT

The recent pandemic Sars-CoV2 infection and studies on previous influenza epidemic have drawn attention to the association between the obesity and infectious diseases susceptibility and worse outcome. Metabolic complications, nutritional aspects, physical inactivity, and a chronic unbalance in the hormonal and adipocytokine microenvironment are major determinants in the severity of viral infections in obesity. By these pleiotropic mechanisms obesity impairs immune surveillance and the higher leptin concentrations produced by adipose tissue and that characterize obesity substantially contribute to such immune response dysregulation. Indeed, leptin not only controls energy balance and body weight, but also plays a regulatory role in the interplay between energy metabolism and immune system. Since leptin receptor is expressed throughout the immune system, leptin may exert effects on cells of both innate and adaptive immune system. Chronic inflammatory states due to metabolic (i.e., obesity) as well as infectious diseases increase leptin concentrations and consequently lead to leptin resistance further fueling inflammation. Multiple factors, including inflammation and ER stress, contribute to leptin resistance. Thus, if leptin is recognized as one of the adipokines responsible for the low grade inflammation found in obesity, on the other hand, impairments of leptin signaling due to leptin resistance appear to blunt the immunologic effects of leptin and possibly contribute to impaired vaccine-induced immune responses. However, many aspects concerning leptin interactions with inflammation and immune system as well as the therapeutical approaches to overcome leptin resistance and reduced vaccine effectiveness in obesity remain a challenge for future research.


Subject(s)
Leptin/immunology , Leptin/metabolism , Obesity/complications , Obesity/virology , Virus Diseases/complications , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Energy Metabolism/immunology , Humans , Immune System/metabolism , Immune System/virology , Obesity/immunology , Obesity/metabolism , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/metabolism
13.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(12): 8873-8924, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1049606

ABSTRACT

Months after the outbreak of a new flu-like disease in China, the entire world is now in a state of caution. The subsequent less-anticipated propagation of the novel coronavirus disease, formally known as COVID-19, not only made it to headlines by an overwhelmingly high transmission rate and fatality reports, but also raised an alarm for the medical community all around the globe. Since the causative agent, SARS-CoV-2, is a recently discovered species, there is no specific medicine for downright treatment of the infection. This has led to an unprecedented societal fear of the newly born disease, adding a psychological aspect to the physical manifestation of the virus. Herein, the COVID-19 structure, epidemiology, pathogenesis, etiology, diagnosis, and therapy have been reviewed.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Immune System/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Biol Rhythms ; 36(1): 23-34, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1044068

ABSTRACT

Circadian rhythms are evolutionarily conserved anticipatory systems that allow the host to prepare and respond to threats in its environment. This article summarizes a European Biological Rhythms Society (EBRS) workshop held in July 2020 to review current knowledge of the interplay between the circadian clock and viral infections to inform therapeutic strategies against SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19. A large body of work supports the role of the circadian clock in regulating various aspects of viral replication, host responses, and associated pathogenesis. We review the evidence describing the multifaceted role of the circadian clock, spanning host susceptibility, antiviral mechanisms, and host resilience. Finally, we define the most pressing research questions and how our knowledge of chronobiology can inform key translational research priorities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Circadian Clocks/physiology , Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Immune System/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immune System/metabolism , Immune System/virology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/genetics , Virus Replication/immunology
15.
Mol Biol Rep ; 48(2): 1925-1934, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1043084

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an acute respiratory syndrome, reported at the end of 2019 in China originally and immediately spread affecting over ten million world population to date. This pandemic is more lethal for the older population and those who previously suffered from other ailments such as cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders, and other immune system affecting abnormalities including cancers. Lung cancer is an important comorbidity of COVID-19. In this review, we emphasized the impact of lung tumor microenvironment (TME) on the possibility of enhanced severity of infection caused by the SARS-Co-V2. The compromised lung TME is further susceptible to the attack of viruses. The lung cells are also abundant in the virus entry receptors. Several SARS-Co-V2 proteins can modulate the lung TME by disrupting the fragile immune mechanisms contributing to cytokine storming and cellular metabolic variations. We also discussed the impact of medication used for lung cancer in the scenario of this infection. Since other respiratory infections can be a risk factor for lung cancer, COVID-19 recovered patients should be monitored for tumor development, especially if there is genetic susceptibility or it involves exposure to other risk factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tumor Microenvironment , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Immune System/immunology , Immune System/metabolism , Immune System/virology , Lung Neoplasms/metabolism , Lung Neoplasms/virology , Pandemics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index
16.
Ethiop J Health Sci ; 30(4): 467-468, 2020 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979194
17.
Med Res Rev ; 41(2): 1167-1194, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-923264

ABSTRACT

Although novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-mediated pulmonary inflammation has recently attracted great attention, its pathology and pathogenesis are not clear. Notably, due to both its high infective and pathogenicity, SARS-CoV-2 infection may cause a severe sometimes fatal respiratory disease. A specific vaccine, which relies on the analysis of SARS-CoV-2 structural protein-derived antigenic peptides, is indispensable for restraining the spread and reducing the mortality of SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 infections activate cytototxic, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, as well as natural killer, B, helper T, and regulatory T cells, thus further stimulating innate and antigen-specific immune responses. Nevertheless, many immune effector cells cause hyperinflammation and pulmonary immunopathology by releasing proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including interferon (IFN)-α, IFN-ß, IFN-γ, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1A, MIP1B, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-12, IL-17, and IL-18, platelet-derived growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, tumor necrosis factor-α, and induced protein 10. Interestingly, related products derived from SARS-CoV-2 are likely to trigger immune evasion. Therefore, investigating SARS-CoV-2-specific vaccines, blocking immunopathology, and prohibiting immune evasion are urgently required for treating SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this review, we emphatically illuminated the development of a SARS-CoV-2-specific vaccine based on the analysis of epitopes, also expounding the molecular mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2-mediated cytokine release syndrome. Furthermore, we comprehensively discussed SARS-CoV-2-associated immune evasion and lung immunopathology. Lastly, potential therapeutic strategies against SARS-CoV-2 were explored.


Subject(s)
Immune System/virology , Immunotherapy , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Humans
18.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 415, 2020 11 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-916349

ABSTRACT

On December 12, 2019 a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, China, triggering a pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome in humans (COVID-19). Today, the scientific community is investing all the resources available to find any therapy and prevention strategies to defeat COVID-19. In this context, immunonutrition can play a pivotal role in improving immune responses against viral infections. Immunonutrition has been based on the concept that malnutrition impairs immune function. Therefore, immunonutrition involves feeding enriched with various pharmaconutrients (Omega 3 Fatty Acids, Vitamin C, Arginine, Glutamine, Selenium, Zinc, Vitamin, E and Vitamin D) to modulate inflammatory responses, acquired immune response and to improve patient outcomes. In literature, significant evidences indicate that obesity, a malnutrition state, negatively impacts on immune system functionality and on host defense, impairing protection from infections. Immunonutrients can promote patient recovery by inhibiting inflammatory responses and regulating immune function. Immune system dysfunction is considered to increase the risk of viral infections, such as SARS-CoV-2, and was observed in different pathological situations. Obese patients develop severe COVID-19 sequelae, due to the high concentrations of TNF-α, MCP-1 and IL-6 produced in the meantime by visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue and by innate immunity. Moreover, leptin, released by adipose tissue, helps to increase inflammatory milieu with a dysregulation of the immune response. Additionally, gut microbiota plays a crucial role in the maturation, development and functions of both innate and adaptive immune system, as well as contributing to develop obese phenotype. The gut microbiota has been shown to affect lung health through a vital crosstalk between gut microbiota and lungs, called the "gut-lung axis". This axis communicates through a bi-directional pathway in which endotoxins, or microbial metabolites, may affect the lung through the blood and when inflammation occurs in the lung, this in turn can affect the gut microbiota. Therefore, the modulation of gut microbiota in obese COVID-19 patients can play a key role in immunonutrition therapeutic strategy. This umbrella review seeks to answer the question of whether a nutritional approach can be used to enhance the immune system's response to obesity in obese patients affected by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immune System/pathology , Immune System/virology , Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Obesity/complications , Obesity/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/microbiology , Humans , Microbiota , Obesity/microbiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 255: 124-128, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-866670

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the 3rd epidemic coronavirus after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Since December 2019, the outbreak of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has aroused great attention around the world. Pregnant women and their fetuses have been concerned as a high-risk population. We explained why pregnant women are susceptible to coronavirus in terms of their adaptive changes in physiology and immune system during pregnancy, and described the associations between maternal clinical symptoms, perinatal outcomes and coronavirus infections.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immune System/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Fetus/virology , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Risk Factors
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