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2.
Nature ; 608(7923): 593-602, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900499

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron sublineages BA.2.12.1, BA.4 and BA.5 exhibit higher transmissibility than the BA.2 lineage1. The receptor binding and immune-evasion capability of these recently emerged variants require immediate investigation. Here, coupled with structural comparisons of the spike proteins, we show that BA.2.12.1, BA.4 and BA.5 (BA.4 and BA.5 are hereafter referred collectively to as BA.4/BA.5) exhibit similar binding affinities to BA.2 for the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. Of note, BA.2.12.1 and BA.4/BA.5 display increased evasion of neutralizing antibodies compared with BA.2 against plasma from triple-vaccinated individuals or from individuals who developed a BA.1 infection after vaccination. To delineate the underlying antibody-evasion mechanism, we determined the escape mutation profiles2, epitope distribution3 and Omicron-neutralization efficiency of 1,640 neutralizing antibodies directed against the receptor-binding domain of the viral spike protein, including 614 antibodies isolated from people who had recovered from BA.1 infection. BA.1 infection after vaccination predominantly recalls humoral immune memory directed against ancestral (hereafter referred to as wild-type (WT)) SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. The resulting elicited antibodies could neutralize both WT SARS-CoV-2 and BA.1 and are enriched on epitopes on spike that do not bind ACE2. However, most of these cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies are evaded by spike mutants L452Q, L452R and F486V. BA.1 infection can also induce new clones of BA.1-specific antibodies that potently neutralize BA.1. Nevertheless, these neutralizing antibodies are largely evaded by BA.2 and BA.4/BA.5 owing to D405N and F486V mutations, and react weakly to pre-Omicron variants, exhibiting narrow neutralization breadths. The therapeutic neutralizing antibodies bebtelovimab4 and cilgavimab5 can effectively neutralize BA.2.12.1 and BA.4/BA.5, whereas the S371F, D405N and R408S mutations undermine most broadly sarbecovirus-neutralizing antibodies. Together, our results indicate that Omicron may evolve mutations to evade the humoral immunity elicited by BA.1 infection, suggesting that BA.1-derived vaccine boosters may not achieve broad-spectrum protection against new Omicron variants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , Antigenic Drift and Shift , COVID-19 , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte , Immune Tolerance , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigenic Drift and Shift/genetics , Antigenic Drift and Shift/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunization, Secondary , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
3.
Annu Rev Immunol ; 40: 525-557, 2022 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1813277

ABSTRACT

Macrophages and conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) are distributed throughout the body, maintaining tissue homeostasis and tolerance to self and orchestrating innate and adaptive immunity against infection and cancer. As they complement each other, it is important to understand how they cooperate and the mechanisms that integrate their functions. Both are exposed to commensal microbes, pathogens, and other environmental challenges that differ widely among anatomical locations and over time. To adjust to these varying conditions, macrophages and cDCs acquire spatiotemporal adaptations (STAs) at different stages of their life cycle that determine how they respond to infection. The STAs acquired in response to previous infections can result in increased responsiveness to infection, termed training, or in reduced responses, termed paralysis, which in extreme cases can cause immunosuppression. Understanding the developmental stage and location where macrophages and cDCs acquire their STAs, and the molecular and cellular players involved in their induction, may afford opportunities to harness their beneficial outcomes and avoid or reverse their deleterious effects. Here we review our current understanding of macrophage and cDC development, life cycle, function, and STA acquisition before, during, and after infection.We propose a unified framework to explain how these two cell types adjust their activities to changing conditions over space and time to coordinate their immunosurveillance functions.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , Dendritic Cells , Animals , Cell Differentiation , Humans , Immune Tolerance , Macrophages
4.
J Immunol Res ; 2022: 5545319, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807699

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been raised as a pandemic disease since December 2019. Immunosuppressive cells including T regulatory cells (Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are key players in immunological tolerance and immunoregulation; however, they contribute to the pathogenesis of different diseases including infections. Tregs have been shown to impair the protective role of CD8+ T lymphocytes against viral infections. In COVID-19 patients, most studies reported reduction, while few other studies found elevation in Treg levels. Moreover, Tregs have a dual role, depending on the different stages of COVID-19 disease. At early stages of COVID-19, Tregs have a critical role in decreasing antiviral immune responses, and consequently reducing the viral clearance. On the other side, during late stages, Tregs reduce inflammation-induced organ damage. Therefore, inhibition of Tregs in early stages and their expansion in late stages have potentials to improve clinical outcomes. In viral infections, MDSC levels are highly increased, and they have the potential to suppress T cell proliferation and reduce viral clearance. Some subsets of MDSCs are expanded in the blood of COVID-19 patients; however, there is a controversy whether this expansion has pathogenic or protective effects in COVID-19 patients. In conclusion, further studies are required to investigate the role and function of immunosuppressive cells and their potentials as prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells , Humans , Immune Tolerance , Immunosuppressive Agents , Pandemics , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 749774, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789370

ABSTRACT

The immune system is an efficiently toned machinery that discriminates between friends and foes for achieving both host defense and homeostasis. Deviation of immune recognition from foreign to self and/or long-lasting inflammatory responses results in the breakdown of tolerance. Meanwhile, educating the immune system and developing immunological memory are crucial for mounting defensive immune responses while protecting against autoimmunity. Still to elucidate is how diverse environmental factors could shape autoimmunity. The emergence of a world pandemic such as SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) not only threatens the more vulnerable individuals including those with autoimmune conditions but also promotes an unprecedented shift in people's dietary approaches while urging for extraordinary hygiene measures that likely contribute to the development or exacerbation of autoimmunity. Thus, there is an urgent need to understand how environmental factors modulate systemic autoimmunity to better mitigate the incidence and or severity of COVID-19 among the more vulnerable populations. Here, we discuss the effects of diet (macronutrients and micronutrients) and hygiene (the use of disinfectants) on autoimmunity with a focus on systemic lupus erythematosus.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , Autoimmunity , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Diet/methods , Hygiene , Immune Tolerance , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Incidence , Severity of Illness Index
6.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0266036, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770755

ABSTRACT

Under the condition of resource tolerance, engineering construction projects face the problem of labor force balance in the working face. Notably, a deviation occurs between the distribution and certain demand of the labor force in the limited working face, which affects the realization of an extremely short construction period. To address this problem, we first introduced the stochastic coefficient of labor force equilibrium to measure the degree of labor balance. Second, a labor force equilibrium model with the realization goal of an extremely short construction period was established. Then, the standard particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm was improved from two perspectives to solve the proposed model. The update equation was rounded to solve practical project problems, and a dynamic variable inertia weight was adopted to ensure the PSO algorithm accuracy and convergence speed. Finally, through case analysis, we determined the extremely short construction period and best labor force distribution scheme. Moreover, the case results revealed that the established model is simple, operable and practical and that the proposed algorithm achieves a high search accuracy and efficiency in the model solution process. Overall, under the condition of resource tolerance, this study provides scientific and effective references for managers to realize an extremely short construction period.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Labor, Obstetric , Data Collection , Drug Tolerance , Female , Humans , Immune Tolerance , Pregnancy
7.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 42(6): 839-858, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768958

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first identified as a novel coronavirus in Wuhan, Hubei province, central China, in December 2019, and is responsible for the 2019-to-present pandemic. According to the most recent data released by the World Health Organization, more than 200 million people have been infected by SARS-CoV-2 so far, and more than 4 million people died worldwide. Although our knowledge on SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 is constantly growing, data on COVID-19 in immunocompromised patients are still limited. The aim of the present systematic review is to describe clinical picture, disease severity, proposed treatment regimen, and response to vaccination in patients with different types and severity of immunosuppression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Immune Tolerance
9.
J Leukoc Biol ; 111(2): 497-508, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669515

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are RNA viruses that cause human respiratory infections. Zoonotic transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus caused the recent COVID-19 pandemic, which led to over 2 million deaths worldwide. Elevated inflammatory responses and cytotoxicity in the lungs are associated with COVID-19 severity in SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals. Bats, which host pathogenic CoVs, operate dampened inflammatory responses and show tolerance to these viruses with mild clinical symptoms. Delineating the mechanisms governing these host-specific inflammatory responses is essential to understand host-virus interactions determining the outcome of pathogenic CoV infections. Here, we describe the essential role of inflammasome activation in determining COVID-19 severity in humans and innate immune tolerance in bats that host several pathogenic CoVs. We further discuss mechanisms leading to inflammasome activation in human SARS-CoV-2 infection and how bats are molecularly adapted to suppress these inflammasome responses. We also report an analysis of functionally important residues of inflammasome components that provide new clues of bat strategies to suppress inflammasome signaling and innate immune responses. As spillover of bat viruses may cause the emergence of new human disease outbreaks, the inflammasome regulation in bats and humans likely provides specific strategies to combat the pathogenic CoV infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Immune Tolerance , Immunity, Innate , Inflammasomes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Chiroptera , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Phylogeny
10.
Viruses ; 14(1)2022 01 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625756

ABSTRACT

Bats are reservoirs of a large number of viruses of global public health significance, including the ancestral virus for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although bats are natural carriers of multiple pathogenic viruses, they rarely display signs of disease. Recent insights suggest that bats have a more balanced host defense and tolerance system to viral infections that may be linked to the evolutionary adaptation to powered flight. Therefore, a deeper understanding of bat immune system may provide intervention strategies to prevent zoonotic disease transmission and to identify new therapeutic targets. Similar to other eutherian mammals, bats have both innate and adaptive immune systems that have evolved to detect and respond to invading pathogens. Bridging these two systems are innate lymphocytes, which are highly abundant within circulation and barrier tissues. These cells share the characteristics of both innate and adaptive immune cells and are poised to mount rapid effector responses. They are ideally suited as the first line of defense against early stages of viral infections. Here, we will focus on the current knowledge of innate lymphocytes in bats, their function, and their potential role in host-pathogen interactions. Moreover, given that studies into bat immune systems are often hindered by a lack of bat-specific research tools, we will discuss strategies that may aid future research in bat immunity, including the potential use of organoid models to delineate the interplay between innate lymphocytes, bat viruses, and host tolerance.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Lymphocytes/immunology , Animals , Chiroptera/virology , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Humans , Immune Tolerance , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/transmission , Viruses/pathogenicity
11.
Curr Opin Immunol ; 72: 286-297, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606955

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is caused by mutations in the Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE) gene, which impair the thymic negative selection of self-reactive T-cells and underlie the development of autoimmunity that targets multiple endocrine and non-endocrine tissues. Beyond autoimmunity, APECED features heightened susceptibility to certain specific infections, which is mediated by anti-cytokine autoantibodies and/or T-cell driven autoimmune tissue injury. These include the 'signature' APECED infection chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC), but also life-threatening coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia, bronchiectasis-associated bacterial pneumonia, and sepsis by encapsulated bacteria. Here we discuss the expanding understanding of the immunological mechanisms that contribute to infection susceptibility in this prototypic syndrome of impaired central tolerance, which provide the foundation for devising improved diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for affected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Candidiasis, Cutaneous/immunology , Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Transcription Factors/genetics , Animals , Autoimmunity , Bronchiectasis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Candidiasis, Cutaneous/epidemiology , Candidiasis, Cutaneous/genetics , Clonal Selection, Antigen-Mediated/genetics , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Immune Tolerance/genetics , Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune/epidemiology , Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune/genetics
12.
J Clin Invest ; 131(24)2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591538

ABSTRACT

BackgroundAntibody-based strategies for COVID-19 have shown promise in prevention and treatment of early disease. COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) has been widely used but results from randomized trials supporting its benefit in hospitalized patients with pneumonia are limited. Here, we assess the efficacy of CCP in severely ill, hospitalized adults with COVID-19 pneumonia.MethodsWe performed a randomized control trial (PennCCP2), with 80 adults hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia, comparing up to 2 units of locally sourced CCP plus standard care versus standard care alone. The primary efficacy endpoint was comparison of a clinical severity score. Key secondary outcomes include 14- and 28-day mortality, 14- and 28-day maximum 8-point WHO ordinal score (WHO8) score, duration of supplemental oxygenation or mechanical ventilation, respiratory SARS-CoV-2 RNA, and anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.ResultsEighty hospitalized adults with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia were enrolled at median day 6 of symptoms and day 1 of hospitalization; 60% were anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody seronegative. Participants had a median of 3 comorbidities, including risk factors for severe COVID-19 and immunosuppression. CCP treatment was safe and conferred significant benefit by clinical severity score (median [MED] and interquartile range [IQR] 10 [5.5-30] vs. 7 [2.75-12.25], P = 0.037) and 28-day mortality (n = 10, 26% vs. n = 2, 5%; P = 0.013). All other prespecified outcome measures showed weak evidence toward benefit of CCP.ConclusionTwo units of locally sourced CCP administered early in hospitalization to majority seronegative participants conferred a significant benefit in clinical severity score and 28-day mortality. Results suggest CCP may benefit select populations, especially those with comorbidities who are treated early.Trial RegistrationClinicalTrials.gov NCT04397757.FundingUniversity of Pennsylvania.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immune Tolerance , Immunization, Passive/methods , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/therapeutic use , RNA, Viral , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 788769, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581323

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, the disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has threatened public health worldwide. Host antiviral immune responses are essential for viral clearance and disease control, however, remarkably decreased immune cell numbers and exhaustion of host cellular immune responses are commonly observed in patients with COVID-19. This is of concern as it is closely associated with disease severity and poor outcomes. Human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) is a ligand for multiple immune inhibitory receptors, whose expression can be upregulated by viral infections. HLA-G/receptor signalling, such as engagement with immunoglobulin-like transcript 2 (ILT-2) or ILT-4, not only inhibit T and natural killer (NK) cell immune responses, dendritic cell (DC) maturation, and B cell antibody production. It also induces regulatory cells such as myeloid-derived suppressive cells (MDSCs), or M2 type macrophages. Moreover, HLA-G interaction with CD8 and killer inhibitory receptor (KIR) 2DL4 can provoke T cell apoptosis and NK cell senescence. In this context, HLA-G can induce profound immune suppression, which favours the escape of SARS-CoV-2 from immune attack. Although detailed knowledge on the clinical relevance of HLA-G in SARS-CoV-2 infection is limited, we herein review the immunopathological aspects of HLA-G/receptor signalling in SARS-CoV-2 infection, which could provide a better understanding of COVID-19 disease progression and identify potential immunointerventions to counteract SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , HLA-G Antigens/immunology , Immune Tolerance/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
14.
Front Immunol ; 12: 792448, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581318

ABSTRACT

Both severe SARS-CoV-2 infections and bacterial sepsis exhibit an immunological dyscrasia and propensity for secondary infections. The nature of the immunological dyscrasias for these differing etiologies and their time course remain unclear. In this study, thirty hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were compared with ten critically ill patients with bacterial sepsis over 21 days, as well as ten healthy control subjects. Blood was sampled between days 1 and 21 after admission for targeted plasma biomarker analysis, cellular phenotyping, and leukocyte functional analysis via enzyme-linked immunospot assay. We found that circulating inflammatory markers were significantly higher early after bacterial sepsis compared with SARS-CoV-2. Both cohorts exhibited profound immune suppression through 21 days (suppressed HLA-DR expression, reduced mononuclear cell IFN-gamma production), and expanded numbers of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). In addition, MDSC expansion and ex vivo production of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha were resolving over time in bacterial sepsis, whereas in SARS-CoV-2, immunosuppression and inflammation were accelerating. Despite less severe initial physiologic derangement, SARS-CoV-2 patients had similar incidence of secondary infections (23% vs 30%) as bacterial sepsis patients. Finally, COVID patients who developed secondary bacterial infections exhibited profound immunosuppression evident by elevated sPD-L1 and depressed HLA-DR. Although both bacterial sepsis and SARS-CoV-2 are associated with inflammation and immune suppression, their immune dyscrasia temporal patterns and clinical outcomes are different. SARS-CoV-2 patients had less severe early inflammation and organ dysfunction but had persistent inflammation and immunosuppression and suffered worse clinical outcomes, especially when SARS-CoV-2 infection was followed by secondary bacterial infection.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immune Tolerance/immunology , Sepsis/immunology , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(12): e1010085, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559373

ABSTRACT

Regulatory T (Treg) cells, which constitute about 5-10% of CD4+T cells expressing Foxp3 transcription factor and CD25(IL-2 receptor α chain), are key regulators in controlling immunological self-tolerance and various immune responses. However, how Treg cells control antigen-specific immunity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains unclear. In this study, we examined the effect of transient breakdown of the immunological tolerance induced by Treg-cell depletion on adaptive immune responses against administered SARS-CoV-2 antigen, spike protein 1 (S1). Notably, without the use of adjuvants, transient Treg-cell depletion in mice induced anti-S1 antibodies that neutralized authentic SARS-CoV-2, follicular helper T cell formation and S1-binding germinal center B cell responses, but prevented the onset of developing autoimmune diseases. To further clarify the mechanisms, we investigated maturation of dendritic cells (DCs), which is essential to initiate antigen-specific immunity. We found that the transient Treg-cell depletion resulted in maturation of both migratory and resident DCs in draining lymph nodes that captured S1-antigen. Moreover, we observed S1-specific CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells with interferon-γ production. Thus, captured S1 was successfully presented by DCs, including cross-presentation to CD8+ T cells. These data indicate that transient Treg-cell depletion in the absence of adjuvants induces maturation of antigen-presenting DCs and succeeds in generating antigen-specific humoral and cellular immunity against emerging SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Finally, we showed that SARS-CoV-2 antigen-specific immune responses induced by transient Treg-cell depletion in the absence of adjuvants were compatible with those induced with an effective adjuvant, polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidyl acid (poly IC) and that the combination of transient Treg-cell depletion with poly IC induced potent responses. These findings highlight the capacity for manipulating Treg cells to induce protective adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2 with activating antigen-presenting DCs, which may improve the efficacy of ongoing vaccine therapies and help enhance responses to emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Forkhead Transcription Factors/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antigen Presentation/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Female , Germinal Center/immunology , Humans , Immune Tolerance , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Inbred MRL lpr , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , Vero Cells
16.
Front Immunol ; 12: 755579, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556334

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, a phenomenon emerged in which some patients with severe disease were critically ill and could not be discharged from the ICU even though they exhibited negative viral tests. To explore the underlying mechanism, we collected blood samples from these patients and analyzed the gene expression profiles of peripheral immune cells. We found that all enrolled patients, regardless of changes in genes related to different symptoms and inflammatory responses, showed universally and severely decreased expression of adaptive immunity-related genes, especially those related to T/B cell arms and HLA molecules, and that these patients exhibited long-term secondary infections. In addition, no significant change was found in the expression of classic immunosuppression molecules including PD-1, PD-L1, and CTLA-4, suggesting that the adaptive immune suppression may not be due to the change of these genes. According to the published literatures and our data, this adaptive immunosuppression is likely to be caused by the "dysregulated host response" to severe infection, similar to the immunosuppression that exists in other severely infected patients with sepsis.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immune Tolerance/immunology , Adaptive Immunity/genetics , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/genetics , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/genetics , Coinfection/immunology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Immune Tolerance/genetics , Inflammation/genetics , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Smell/genetics , Taste/genetics
17.
Front Immunol ; 12: 732992, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497075

ABSTRACT

Chronic inflammatory disorders (CID), such as autoimmune diseases, are characterized by overactivation of the immune system and loss of immune tolerance. T helper 17 (Th17) cells are strongly associated with the pathogenesis of multiple CID, including psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease. In line with the increasingly recognized contribution of innate immune cells to the modulation of dendritic cell (DC) function and DC-driven adaptive immune responses, we recently showed that neutrophils are required for DC-driven Th17 cell differentiation from human naive T cells. Consequently, recruitment of neutrophils to inflamed tissues and lymph nodes likely creates a highly inflammatory loop through the induction of Th17 cells that should be intercepted to attenuate disease progression. Tolerogenic therapy via DCs, the central orchestrators of the adaptive immune response, is a promising strategy for the treatment of CID. Tolerogenic DCs could restore immune tolerance by driving the development of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the periphery. In this review, we discuss the effects of the tolerogenic adjuvants vitamin D3 (VD3), corticosteroids (CS), and retinoic acid (RA) on both DCs and neutrophils and their potential interplay. We briefly summarize how neutrophils shape DC-driven T-cell development in general. We propose that, for optimization of tolerogenic DC therapy for the treatment of CID, both DCs for tolerance induction and the neutrophil inflammatory loop should be targeted while preserving the potential Treg-enhancing effects of neutrophils.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/therapeutic use , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Autoimmunity/drug effects , Dendritic Cells/drug effects , Immune Tolerance/drug effects , Inflammation/drug therapy , Neutrophils/drug effects , Th17 Cells/drug effects , Animals , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases/metabolism , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Dendritic Cells/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/metabolism , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/metabolism , Th17 Cells/immunology , Th17 Cells/metabolism
18.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 144: 112346, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466071

ABSTRACT

The expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), known as heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells, is enhanced during several pathological conditions such as inflammatory or viral respiratory infections. It seems that the way MDSCs behave in infection depends on the type and the virulence mechanisms of the invader pathogen, the disease stage, and the infection-related pathology. Increasing evidence showing that in correlation with the severity of the disease, MDSCs are accumulated in COVID-19 patients, in particular in those at severe stages of the disease or ICU patients, contributing to pathogenesis of SARS-CoV2 infection. Based on the involved subsets, MDSCs delay the clearance of the virus through inhibiting T-cell proliferation and responses by employing various mechanisms such as inducing the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-mediated hampering of IFN-γ production, or forcing arginine shortage. While the immunosuppressive characteristic of MDSCs may help to preserve the tissue homeostasis and prevent hyperinflammation at early stages of the infection, hampering of efficient immune responses proved to exert significant pathogenic effects on severe forms of COVID-19, suggesting the targeting of MDSCs as a potential intervention to reactivate T-cell immunity and thereby prevent the infection from developing into severe stages of the disease. This review tried to compile evidence on the roles of different subsets of MDSCs during viral respiratory infections, which is far from being totally understood, and introduce the promising potential of MDSCs for developing novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, especially against COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Drug Discovery , Humans , Immune Tolerance , Immunity, Innate , Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells/drug effects , Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells/physiology , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Front Immunol ; 12: 753558, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463476

ABSTRACT

To date there is limited data on the immune profile and outcomes of solid organ transplant recipients who encounter COVID-19 infection early post-transplant. Here we present a unique case where the kidney recipient's transplant surgery coincided with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test and the patient subsequently developed symptomatic COVID-19 perioperatively. We performed comprehensive immunological monitoring of cellular, proteomic, and serological changes during the first 4 critical months post-infection. We showed that continuation of basiliximab induction and maintenance of triple immunosuppression did not significantly impair the host's ability to mount a robust immune response against symptomatic COVID-19 infection diagnosed within the first week post-transplant.


Subject(s)
Basiliximab/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Glomerulonephritis, IGA/therapy , Graft Rejection/immunology , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Kidney Transplantation , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , Humans , Immune Tolerance , Immunity , Male , Perioperative Period , Transcriptome
20.
Front Immunol ; 12: 733418, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450812

ABSTRACT

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease characterized by muscle weakness and abnormal fatigability due to the antibodies against postsynaptic receptors. Despite the individual discrepancy, patients with MG share common muscle weakness, autoimmune dysfunction, and immunosuppressive treatment, which predispose them to infections that can trigger or exacerbate MG. Vaccination, as a mainstay of prophylaxis, is a major management strategy. However, the past years have seen growth in vaccine hesitancy, owing to safety and efficacy concerns. Ironically, vaccines, serving as an essential and effective means of defense, may induce similar immune cross-reactivity to what they are meant to prevent. Herein, we outline the progress in vaccination, review the current status, and postulate the clinical association among MG, vaccination, and immunosuppression. We also address safety and efficacy concerns of vaccination in MG, in relation to COVID-19. Since only a handful of studies have reported vaccination in individuals with MG, we further review the current clinical studies and guidelines in rheumatic diseases. Overall, our reviews offer a reference to guide future vaccine clinical decision-making and improve the management of MG patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Myasthenia Gravis/immunology , Myasthenia Gravis/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Autoimmunity/immunology , Humans , Immune Tolerance/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Risk , Vaccination/adverse effects
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