Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 813
Filter
1.
Cells ; 12(11)2023 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234400

ABSTRACT

In Italy, from January 2021, the Ministry of Health indicated a vaccination plan against COVID for frail patients and physicians based on a three-dose scheme. However, conflicting results have been reported on which biomarkers permit immunization assessment. We used several laboratory approaches (i.e., antibodies serum levels, flow cytometry analysis, and cytokines release by stimulated cells) to investigate the immune response in a cohort of 53 family pediatricians (FPs) at different times after the vaccine. We observed that the BNT162b2-mRNA vaccine induced a significant increase of specific antibodies after the third (booster) dose; however, the antibody titer was not predictive of the risk of developing the infection in the six months following the booster dose. The antigen stimulation of PBMC cells from subjects vaccinated with the third booster jab induced the increase of the activated T cells (i.e., CD4+ CD154+); the frequency of CD4+ CD154+ TNF-α+ cells, as well as the TNF-α secretion, was not modified, while we observed a trend of increase of IFN-γ secretion. Interestingly, the level of CD8+ IFN-γ+ (independently from antibody titer) was significantly increased after the third dose and predicts the risk of developing the infection in the six months following the booster jab. Such results may impact also other virus vaccinations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , BNT162 Vaccine , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Pediatricians , Italy , Immunity
2.
Nat Immunol ; 24(6): 966-978, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245297

ABSTRACT

High-risk groups, including Indigenous people, are at risk of severe COVID-19. Here we found that Australian First Nations peoples elicit effective immune responses to COVID-19 BNT162b2 vaccination, including neutralizing antibodies, receptor-binding domain (RBD) antibodies, SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific B cells, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. In First Nations participants, RBD IgG antibody titers were correlated with body mass index and negatively correlated with age. Reduced RBD antibodies, spike-specific B cells and follicular helper T cells were found in vaccinated participants with chronic conditions (diabetes, renal disease) and were strongly associated with altered glycosylation of IgG and increased interleukin-18 levels in the plasma. These immune perturbations were also found in non-Indigenous people with comorbidities, indicating that they were related to comorbidities rather than ethnicity. However, our study is of a great importance to First Nations peoples who have disproportionate rates of chronic comorbidities and provides evidence of robust immune responses after COVID-19 vaccination in Indigenous people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Australia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunoglobulin G , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Immunity , Antibodies, Viral , Vaccination
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(10)2023 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242199

ABSTRACT

This study characterizes antibody and T-cell immune responses over time until the booster dose of COronaVIrus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines in patients with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) undergoing different disease-modifying treatments (DMTs). We prospectively enrolled 134 PwMS and 99 health care workers (HCWs) having completed the two-dose schedule of a COVID-19 mRNA vaccine within the last 2-4 weeks (T0) and followed them 24 weeks after the first dose (T1) and 4-6 weeks after the booster (T2). PwMS presented a significant reduction in the seroconversion rate and anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD)-Immunoglobulin (IgG) titers from T0 to T1 (p < 0.0001) and a significant increase from T1 to T2 (p < 0.0001). The booster dose in PwMS showed a good improvement in the serologic response, even greater than HCWs, as it promoted a significant five-fold increase of anti-RBD-IgG titers compared with T0 (p < 0.0001). Similarly, the T-cell response showed a significant 1.5- and 3.8-fold increase in PwMS at T2 compared with T0 (p = 0.013) and T1 (p < 0.0001), respectively, without significant modulation in the number of responders. Regardless of the time elapsed since vaccination, most ocrelizumab- (77.3%) and fingolimod-treated patients (93.3%) showed only a T-cell-specific or humoral-specific response, respectively. The booster dose reinforces humoral- and cell-mediated-specific immune responses and highlights specific DMT-induced immune frailties, suggesting the need for specifically tailored strategies for immune-compromised patients to provide primary prophylaxis, early SARS-CoV-2 detection and the timely management of COVID-19 antiviral treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/prevention & control , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , RNA, Messenger , Immunity , mRNA Vaccines , Immunoglobulin G , Antibodies, Viral , Vaccination
5.
J Intern Med ; 293(1): 63-81, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241270

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The durability of SARS-CoV-2 antibody response and the resulting immunity to COVID-19 is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To investigate long-term humoral immunity to SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: In this nationwide, longitudinal study, we determined antibody response in 411 patients aged 0-93 years from two waves of infections (March to December 2020) contributing 1063 blood samples. Each individual had blood drawn on 4-5 occasions 1-15 months after disease onset. We measured total anti-SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) antibody using a qualitative RBD sandwich ELISA, IgM, IgG and IgA levels using an quantitative in-house ELISA-based assay  and neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) using an in-house ELISA-based pseudoneutralizing assay. IgG subclasses were analyzed in a subset of samples by ELISA-based assay. We used nonlinear models to study the durability of SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses and its influence over time. RESULTS: After 15 months, 94% still had detectable circulating antibodies, mainly the IgG isotype, and 92% had detectable NAbs. The distribution of IgG antibodies varied significantly over time, characterized by a biphasic pattern with an initial decline followed by a plateau after approximately 7 months. However, the NAbs remained relatively stable throughout the period. The strength of the antibody response was influenced by smoking and hospitalization, with lower IgG levels in smokers and higher levels in hospitalized individuals. Antibody stability over time was mainly associated with male sex and older age with higher initial levels but more marked decrease. CONCLUSIONS: The humoral immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection varies depending on behavioral factors and disease severity, and antibody stability over 15 months was associated with sex and age.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Longitudinal Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Immunoglobulin G , Denmark , Immunity
6.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238821

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) causes diarrhea and vomiting in neonatal piglets worldwide and has the potential for cross-species transmission. Therefore, virus-like particles (VLPs) are promising vaccine candidates because of their safety and strong immunogenicity. To the best of our knowledge, the present study reported for the first time the generation of PDCoV VLPs using a baculovirus expression vector system, and electron micrograph analyses revealed that PDCoV VLPs appeared as spherical particles with a diameter similar to that of the native virions. Furthermore, PDCoV VLPs effectively induced mice to produce PDCoV-specific IgG and neutralizing antibodies. In addition, VLPs could stimulate mouse splenocytes to produce high levels of cytokines IL-4 and IFN-γ. Moreover, the combination of PDCoV VLPs and Freund's adjuvant could improve the level of the immune response. Together, these data showed that PDCoV VLPs could effectively elicit humoral and cellular immunity in mice, laying a solid foundation for developing VLP-based vaccines to prevent PDCoV infections.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Mice , Swine , Baculoviridae/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Coronavirus/genetics , Immunity , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary
7.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1162211, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231099

ABSTRACT

Spatiotemporal separation of cellular components is vital to ensure biochemical processes. Membrane-bound organelles such as mitochondria and nuclei play a major role in isolating intracellular components, while membraneless organelles (MLOs) are accumulatively uncovered via liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) to mediate cellular spatiotemporal organization. MLOs orchestrate various key cellular processes, including protein localization, supramolecular assembly, gene expression, and signal transduction. During viral infection, LLPS not only participates in viral replication but also contributes to host antiviral immune responses. Therefore, a more comprehensive understanding of the roles of LLPS in virus infection may open up new avenues for treating viral infectious diseases. In this review, we focus on the antiviral defense mechanisms of LLPS in innate immunity and discuss the involvement of LLPS during viral replication and immune evasion escape, as well as the strategy of targeting LLPS to treat viral infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Cell Nucleus , Immunity
8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 960001, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325197

ABSTRACT

Background: To investigate the factors that have significant impact on the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and vaccination induced immune response in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: Serological response was measured by quantifying anti-SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies, while the cell-mediated response was measured by a whole-blood test quantifying the interferon (IFN)-γ response to different SARS-CoV-2-specific domains. Results: We prospectively enrolled 109 RA patients and 43 healthy controls. The median time (IQR) between the confirmed infection or the last vaccination dose and the day when samples were taken ("sampling interval") was 3.67 (2.03, 5.50) months in the RA group. Anti-Spike (anti-S) specific antibodies were detected in 94% of RA patients. Among the investigated patient related variables, age (p<0.004), sampling interval (p<0.001), the brand of the vaccine (p<0.001) and targeted RA therapy (TNF-inhibitor, IL-6 inhibitor, anti-CD20 therapy) had significant effect on the anti-S levels. After covariate adjustment TNF-inhibitor therapy decreased the anti-S antibody concentrations by 80% (p<0.001). The same figures for IL-6 inhibitor and anti-CD20 therapy were 74% (p=0.049) and 97% (p=0.002), respectively. Compared to subjects who were infected but were not vaccinated, the RNA COVID-19 vaccines increased the anti-S antibody levels to 71.1 (mRNA-1273) and 36.0 (BNT162b2) fold (p<0.001). The corresponding figure for the ChAdOx1s vaccine is 18.1(p=0.037). Anti-CCP (anti-cyclic citrullinated peptides) positive patients had 6.28 times (p= 0.00165) higher anti-S levels, than the anti-CCP negative patients. Positive T-cell response was observed in 87% of the healthy volunteer group and in 52% of the RA patient group. Following vaccination or infection it declined significantly (p= 0.044) but more slowly than that of anti-S titer (6%/month versus 25%). Specific T-cell responses were decreased by 65% in patients treated with anti-CD20 therapy (p=0.055). Conclusion: Our study showed that the SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody levels were substantially reduced in RA patients treated with TNF-α-inhibitors (N=51) and IL-6-inhibitor (N=15). In addition, anti-CD20 therapy (N=4) inhibited both SARS-CoV-2-induced humoral and cellular immune responses. Furthermore, the magnitude of humoral and cellular immune response was dependent on the age and decreased over time. The RNA vaccines and ChAdOx1s vaccine effectively increased the level of anti-S antibodies.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Anti-Citrullinated Protein Antibodies , Interleukin-6 , BNT162 Vaccine , Antibodies, Viral , Vaccination , Immunity , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy
9.
Int J Med Sci ; 20(6): 737-748, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327207

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The effectiveness of inactivated vaccines against acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS­CoV­2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has become a global concern. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate vaccine safety and to assess immune responses in individuals with chronic respiratory disease (CRD) following a two-dose vaccination. Methods: The study cohort included 191 participants (112 adult CRD patients and 79 healthy controls [HCs]) at least 21 (range, 21-159) days after a second vaccination. Frequencies of memory B cells (MBCs) subsets and titers of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) IgG antibodies (Abs) were analyzed. Results: As compared to the HCs, CRD patients had lower seropositivity rates and titers of both anti-RBD IgG Abs and NAbs, in addition to lower frequencies of RBD-specific MBCs (all, p < 0.05). At 3 months, CRD patients had lower seropositivity rates and titers of anti-RBD IgG Abs than the HCs (p < 0.05). For CoronaVac, the seropositivity rates of both Abs were lower in patients with old pulmonary tuberculosis than HCs. For BBIBP-CorV, the seropositivity rates of CoV-2 NAbs were lower in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease than HCs (all, p < 0.05). Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in overall adverse events between the CRD patients and HCs. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified the time interval following a second vaccination as a risk factor for the production of anti-RBD IgG Abs and CoV-2 NAbs, while the CoronaVac had a positive effect on the titers of both Abs. Female was identified as a protective factor for CoV-2 NAb levels. Conclusion: Inactivated COVID-19 vaccines were safe and well tolerated by CRD patients but resulted in lower Ab responses and the frequencies of RBD-specific MBCs. Therefore, CRD patients should be prioritized for booster vaccinations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Female , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , East Asian People , Immunity , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccine Efficacy , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Respiratory Tract Diseases/immunology , Chronic Disease
11.
Vaccine ; 41(28): 4114-4120, 2023 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323138

ABSTRACT

People with cystic fibrosis (pwCF) were considered to be clinically vulnerable to COVID-19 and were therefore given priority in the vaccination campaign. Vaccines induced a humoral response in these patients that was comparable to the response observed among the general population. However, the role of the cell-mediated immune response in providing long-term protection against SARS-CoV-2 in pwCF has not yet been defined. In this study, humoral (antibody titre) and cell-mediated immune responses (interferon-γ release) to the BNT162b2 vaccine were measured at different time points, from around 6-8 months after the 2nd dose and up to 8 months after the 3rd dose, in 118 CF patients and 26 non-CF subjects. Subjects were sampled between November 2021 and September 2022 and followed-up for breakthrough infection through October 2022. pwCF mounted a cell-mediated response that was similar to that observed in non-CF subjects. Low antibody titres (<1st quartile) were associated with a higher risk of breakthrough infection (HR: 2.39, 95 % CI: 1.17-4.88), while there was no significant association with low INF-γ levels (<0.3 IU/mL) (HR: 1.38, 95 % CI: 0.64-2.99). Further studies are needed in subgroup of pwCF receiving immunosuppressive therapy, such as organ transplant recipients. This data is important for tailoring vaccination strategies for this clinically vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cystic Fibrosis , Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cystic Fibrosis/complications , Vaccination , Breakthrough Infections , Immunity , Antibodies, Viral
12.
Sci Adv ; 9(20): eadf9016, 2023 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322569

ABSTRACT

Cytokine storm describes a life-threatening, systemic inflammatory syndrome characterized by elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines and immune cell hyperactivation associated with multi-organ dysfunction. Matrix-bound nanovesicles (MBV) are a subclass of extracellular vesicle shown to down-regulate proinflammatory immune responses. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of MBV in mediating influenza-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome and cytokine storm in a murine model. Intravenous administration of MBV decreased influenza-mediated total lung inflammatory cell density, proinflammatory macrophage frequencies, and proinflammatory cytokines at 7 and 21 days following viral inoculation. MBV decreased long-lasting alveolitis and the proportion of lung undergoing inflammatory tissue repair at day 21. MBV increased the proportion of activated anti-viral CD4+ and CD8+ T cells at day 7 and memory-like CD62L+ CD44+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells at day 21. These results show immunomodulatory properties of MBV that may benefit the treatment of viral-mediated pulmonary inflammation with applicability to other viral diseases such as SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Mice , Animals , Humans , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Inflammation/drug therapy , Cytokines , Immunity
13.
J Korean Med Sci ; 38(20): e155, 2023 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322445

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Before the omicron era, health care workers were usually vaccinated with either the primary 2-dose ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Oxford-AstraZeneca) series plus a booster dose of BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) (CCB group) or the primary 2-dose BNT162b2 series plus a booster dose of BNT162b2 (BBB group) in Korea. METHODS: The two groups were compared using quantification of the surrogate virus neutralization test for wild type severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SVNT-WT), the omicron variant (SVNT-O), spike-specific IgG, and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), as well as the omicron breakthrough infection cases. RESULTS: There were 113 participants enrolled in the CCB group and 51 enrolled in the BBB group. Before and after booster vaccination, the median SVNT-WT and SVNT-O values were lower in the CCB (SVNT-WT [before-after]: 72.02-97.61%, SVNT-O: 15.18-42.29%) group than in the BBB group (SVNT-WT: 89.19-98.11%, SVNT-O: 23.58-68.56%; all P < 0.001). Although the median IgG concentrations were different between the CCB and BBB groups after the primary series (2.677 vs. 4.700 AU/mL, respectively, P < 0.001), they were not different between the two groups after the booster vaccination (7.246 vs. 7.979 AU/mL, respectively, P = 0.108). In addition, the median IFN-γ concentration was higher in the BBB group than in the CCB group (550.5 and 387.5 mIU/mL, respectively, P = 0.014). There was also a difference in the cumulative incidence curves over time (CCB group 50.0% vs. BBB group 41.8%; P = 0.045), indicating that breakthrough infection occurred faster in the CCB group. CONCLUSION: The cellular and humoral immune responses were low in the CCB group so that the breakthrough infection occurred faster in the CCB group than in the BBB group.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Humans , Breakthrough Infections , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Interferon-gamma , Vaccination , Immunity , Immunoglobulin G , Antibodies, Viral
14.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 62(28): e202301085, 2023 07 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320921

ABSTRACT

Although numerous chiral small molecules have been discovered and synthesized, the investigation on their enantioselective immunological effects remains limited. In this study, we designed and synthesized a pair of small molecule enantiomers (R/S-ResP) by covalently bonding two immunostimulators (resiquimod/Res) onto a planar chiral framework (paracyclophane/P). Notably, we found that S-ResP exhibits a 4.05-fold higher affinity for toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) than R-ResP, thereby more effectively enhancing the functions of dendritic cells and macrophages in cytokine secretion and antigen internalization. Furthermore, we observed that S-ResP significantly enhances RBD antigen-induced cross-neutralization against various SARS-CoV-2 strains compared to R-ResP. These findings demonstrate the enantioselective effects of small molecules on regulating vaccine-induced immune responses and emphasize the significance of chirality in designing small molecular adjuvants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Stereoisomerism , SARS-CoV-2 , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Immunity , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(9)2023 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320692

ABSTRACT

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a cardiac disease marked by the stretching and thinning of the heart muscle and impaired left ventricular contractile function. While most patients do not develop significant cardiac diseases from myocarditis, disparate immune responses can affect pathological outcomes, including DCM progression. These altered immune responses, which may be caused by genetic variance, can prolong cytotoxicity, induce direct cleavage of host protein, or encourage atypical wound healing responses that result in tissue scarring and impaired mechanical and electrical heart function. However, it is unclear which alterations within host immune profiles are crucial to dictating the outcomes of myocarditis. Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is a well-studied virus that has been identified as a causal agent of myocarditis in various models, along with other viruses such as adenovirus, parvovirus B19, and SARS-CoV-2. This paper takes CVB3 as a pathogenic example to review the recent advances in understanding virus-induced immune responses and differential gene expression that regulates iron, lipid, and glucose metabolic remodeling, the severity of cardiac tissue damage, and the development of DCM and heart failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated , Heart Failure , Myocarditis , Humans , Myocarditis/pathology , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Heart Failure/etiology , Immunity , Enterovirus B, Human
16.
J Autoimmun ; 138: 103054, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320287

ABSTRACT

Severe allergic reactions following SARS-COV-2 vaccination are generally rare, but the reactions are increasingly reported. Some patients may develop prolonged urticarial reactions following SARS-COV-2 vaccination. Herein, we investigated the risk factors and immune mechanisms for patients with SARS-COV-2 vaccines-induced immediate allergy and chronic urticaria (CU). We prospectively recruited and analyzed 129 patients with SARS-COV-2 vaccine-induced immediate allergic and urticarial reactions as well as 115 SARS-COV-2 vaccines-tolerant individuals from multiple medical centers during 2021-2022. The clinical manifestations included acute urticaria, anaphylaxis, and delayed to chronic urticaria developed after SARS-COV-2 vaccinations. The serum levels of histamine, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17 A, TARC, and PARC were significantly elevated in allergic patients comparing to tolerant subjects (P-values = 4.5 × 10-5-0.039). Ex vivo basophil revealed that basophils from allergic patients could be significantly activated by SARS-COV-2 vaccine excipients (polyethylene glycol 2000 and polysorbate 80) or spike protein (P-values from 3.5 × 10-4 to 0.043). Further BAT study stimulated by patients' autoserum showed positive in 81.3% of patients with CU induced by SARS-COV-2 vaccination (P = 4.2 × 10-13), and the reactions could be attenuated by anti-IgE antibody. Autoantibodies screening also identified the significantly increased of IgE-anti-IL-24, IgG-anti-FcεRI, IgG-anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and IgG-anti-thyroid-related proteins in SARS-COV-2 vaccines-induced CU patients comparing to SARS-COV-2 vaccines-tolerant controls (P-values = 4.6 × 10-10-0.048). Some patients with SARS-COV-2 vaccines-induced recalcitrant CU patients could be successfully treated with anti-IgE therapy. In conclusion, our results revealed that multiple vaccine components, inflammatory cytokines, and autoreactive IgG/IgE antibodies contribute to SARS-COV-2 vaccine-induced immediate allergic and autoimmune urticarial reactions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chronic Urticaria , Urticaria , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Urticaria/diagnosis , Chronic Urticaria/metabolism , Immunoglobulin G , Vaccination , Immunity
19.
Microbiol Spectr ; 11(3): e0535322, 2023 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315994

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic presented the scientific community with an immediate need for accurate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) serology assays, resulting in an expansion of assay development, some without following a rigorous quality control and validation, and with a wide range of performance characteristics. Vast amounts of data have been gathered on SARS-CoV-2 antibody response; however, performance and ability to compare the results have been challenging. This study seeks to analyze the reliability, sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of a set of widely used commercial, in-house, and neutralization serology assays, as well as provide evidence for the feasibility of using the World Health Organization (WHO) International Standard (IS) as a harmonization tool. This study also seeks to demonstrate that binding immunoassays may serve as a practical alternative for the serological study of large sample sets in lieu of expensive, complex, and less reproducible neutralization assays. In this study, commercial assays demonstrated the highest specificity, while in-house assays excelled in antibody sensitivity. As expected, neutralization assays demonstrated high levels of variability but overall good correlations with binding immunoassays, suggesting that binding may be reasonably accurate as well as practical for the study of SARS-CoV-2 serology. All three assay types performed well after WHO IS standardization. The results of this study demonstrate there are high performing serology assays available to the scientific community to rigorously dissect antibody responses to infection and vaccination. IMPORTANCE Previous studies have shown significant variability in SARS-CoV-2 antibody serology assays, highlighting the need for evaluation and comparison of these assays using the same set of samples covering a wide range of antibody responses induced by infection or vaccination. This study demonstrated that there are high performing assays that can be used reliably to evaluate immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 in the context of infection and vaccination. This study also demonstrated the feasibility of harmonizing these assays against the International Standard and provided evidence that the binding immunoassays may have high enough correlation with the neutralization assays to serve as a practical proxy. These results represent an important step in standardizing and harmonizing the many different serological assays used to evaluate COVID-19 immune responses in the population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Reproducibility of Results , Antibodies, Viral , Immunity , Antibodies, Neutralizing
20.
Viral Immunol ; 36(5): 360-365, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314674

ABSTRACT

Few data are available on the impact of COVID-19 vaccination on CD4 counts and HIV-RNA in persons living with HIV (PLWH). We present the data of 235 PLWH who were vaccinated with BNT162b2 in March 2021-February 2022 at the "Cotugno" hospital in Naples. PLWH treated at the "Cotugno" hospital, who were vaccinated at the hospital vaccination center, without prior COVID-19 and for whom immunological/virological data were available in the last 12 months and in the 6 months after vaccination were included. Antispike Ab were available for 187 and 64 PLWH after the second and third doses: PLWH with antispikes >33 binding antibodies units (BAU)/mL increased from 91% to 98%. Antinucleocapsid Ab performed in 147 and 56 patients identified 19 (13%) asymptomatic/paucisymptomatic COVID-19 infections after the second dose and an additional 15 (27%) after the third dose. Immunological/virological data were collected before vaccination (T0), after the second dose (T1), and after the third dose (T2). The absolute number of CD4 increased after the third dose (median 663, 657, and 707 at T0, T1, and T2; p < 0.000 T0 vs. T2). The proportion of patients with HIV-RNA <50 copies/mL increases significantly after the second dose (73%; 85.7%; 87.7%; p < 0.000 T0 vs. T2). The presence of COVID-19 asymptomatic/paucisymptomatic infections (demonstrated by the presence of antinucleocapsid Ab) significantly increases SARS-CoV-2 antispike Ab after second dose, but not after third dose. Asymptomatic/paucisymptomatic COVID-19 infections do not have influence on CD4 cell number and HIV-RNA level. Similarly, the presence of not-controlled HIV-RNA (HIV-RNA >50 copies/mL) does not influence antispike Ab response. According to our data, the response to SARS-CoV2 vaccination is effective in people living with HIV. Vaccination against COVID-19 appears to positively affect immunological and virological levels in people living with HIV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 Vaccines , RNA, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Italy/epidemiology , Vaccination , Hospitals , Immunity , Antibodies, Viral
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL