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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1032411, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109771

ABSTRACT

Coronavac is a widely used SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine, but its long-term immune response assessment is still lacking. We evaluated SARS-CoV-2-specific immune responses, including T cell activation markers, antigen-specific cytokine production and antibody response following vaccination in 53 adult and elderly individuals participating in a phase 3 clinical trial. Activated follicular helper T (Tfh), non-Tfh and memory CD4+ T cells were detected in almost all subjects early after the first vaccine dose. Activated memory CD4+ T cells were predominantly of central and effector memory T cell phenotypes and were sustained for at least 6 months. We also detected a balanced Th1-, Th2- and Th17/Th22-type cytokine production that was associated with response over time, together with particular cytokine profile linked to poor responses in older vaccinees. SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG levels peaked 14 days after the second dose and were mostly stable over one year. CoronaVac was able to induce a potent and durable antiviral antigen-specific cellular response and the cytokine profiles related to the response over time and impacted by the senescence were defined.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Antibodies, Viral , Cytokines , Immunity, Cellular , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18604, 2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106462

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D as an immunomodulator has not been studied in patients with severe COVID-19. This study aimed to estimate the efficacy of vitamin D3 supplementation on cellular immunity and inflammatory markers in patients with COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). A single-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial was conducted (N = 110). Patients were randomly assigned to receive a weekly oral dose of 60,000 IU of vitamin D3 followed by daily maintenance doses of 5000 IU (n = 55) or placebo (n = 55). Primary outcomes were lymphocyte counts, natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cell counts, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and serum levels of inflammatory markers on 7th day of treatment. On day 7, patients in the vitamin D3 group displayed significantly higher NK and NKT cell counts and NLR than those in the placebo group did. The mortality rate (37% vs 50%, P = 0.16), need for mechanical ventilation (63% vs 69%, P = 0.58), incidence of nosocomial infection (60% vs 41%, P = 0.05) did not significantly differ between groups. Vitamin D3 supplementation, compared with placebo, significantly increased lymphocyte counts, but did not translate into reduced mortality in ICU.Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT05092698.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cholecalciferol , Humans , Cholecalciferol/therapeutic use , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Double-Blind Method , Dietary Supplements , Immunity, Cellular
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 980698, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099148

ABSTRACT

Immunocompromised patients are at increased risk for a severe course of COVID-19. Treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection with anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has become widely accepted. However, the effects of mAb treatment on the long-term primary cellular response to SARS-CoV-2 are unknown. In the following study, we investigated the long-term cellular immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1, Membrane (M) and Nucleocapsid (N) antigens using the ELISpot assay in unvaccinated, mAb-treated immunocompromised high-risk patients. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 mAb untreated though vaccinated COVID-19 immunocompromised patients, vaccinated SARS-CoV-2 immunocompromised patients without COVID-19 and vaccinated healthy control subjects served as control groups. The cellular immune response was determined at a median of 5 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our data suggest that immunocompromised patients develop an endogenous long-term cellular immune response after COVID-19, although at low levels. A better understanding of the cellular immune response will help guide clinical decision making for these vulnerable patient cohorts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Nucleocapsid Proteins , Antibodies, Viral , Immunocompromised Host , Immunity, Cellular
4.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276929, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098767

ABSTRACT

Mortality due to COVID-19 is not increased in immunosuppressed individuals after liver transplantation (OLT) compared to individuals without immunosuppression. Data on long-term protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 in immunosuppressed convalescents, is limited. We prospectively measured immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 by quantifying antibodies against 4 different antigens (spike protein 1 and 2, receptor binding domain, nucleocapsid) and T cell responses by IFN-γ ELISPOT against 4 antigens (membrane, nucleocapsid, spike protein 1 and 2) in 24 OLT convalescents with immunosuppressive therapy longitudinally in the first year after COVID-19 including a booster vaccination in comparison to a matched cohort of non-immunosuppressed convalescents (non-IS-Con). Pre-pandemic OLT samples were retrieved from our prospective OLT biorepository (n = 16). No relevant T cell reactivity or immunoglobulin G (IgG) against SARS-CoV-2 were detectable in pre-pandemic samples of OLT recipients despite reactivity against endemic corona-viruses. OLT convalescents had a lower prevalence of IgG against nucleocapsid (54% vs. 90%) but not against spike protein domains (98-100% vs. 100%) after vaccination in the second half-year after COVID-19 compared to non-IS-Con. Also, concentrations of anti-nucleocapsid IgG were lower in OLT convalescents than in non-IS-Con. Concentration of IgG against spike protein domains was significantly increased by a booster vaccination in OLT convalescents. But concentration of IgG against two of three spike protein domains remains slightly lower compared to non-IS-Con finally. However, none of these differences was mirrored by the cellular immunity against SARS-CoV-2 that remained stable during the first year after COVID-19 and was not further stimulated by a corona vaccination in OLT convalescents. In conclusion, despite lower concentrations of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG in OLT convalescents anti-SARS-CoV-2 cellular immunity was as robust as in non-IS-Con.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Transplantation , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Prospective Studies , Antibodies, Viral , Immunoglobulin G , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Vaccination , Transplant Recipients
6.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1018393, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089845

ABSTRACT

Acquiring protective immunity through vaccination is essential, especially for patients with type 2 diabetes who are vulnerable for adverse clinical outcomes during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with immune dysfunction. Here, we evaluated the impact of T2D on the immunological responses induced by mRNA (BNT162b2) and inactivated (CoronaVac) vaccines, the two most commonly used COVID-19 vaccines. The study consisted of two parts. In Part 1, the sera titres of IgG antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) alpha receptor binding domain (RBD), their neutralizing capacity, and antigen-specific CD4+T and CD8+T cell responses at 3-6 months after vaccination were compared between BNT162b2 (n=60) and CoronaVac (n=50) vaccinees with or without T2D. Part 2 was a time-course study investigating the initial B and T cell responses induced by BNT162b2 among vaccinees (n=16) with or without T2D. Our data showed that T2D impaired both cellular and humoral immune responses induced by CoronaVac. For BNT162b2, T2D patients displayed a reduction in CD4+T-helper 1 (Th1) differentiation following their first dose. However, this initial defect was rectified by the second dose of BNT162b2, resulting in comparable levels of memory CD4+ and CD8+T cells, anti-RBD IgG, and neutralizing antibodies with healthy individuals at 3-6 months after vaccination. Hence, T2D influences the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines depending on their platform. Our findings provide a potential mechanism for the susceptibility of developing adverse outcomes observed in COVID-19 patients with T2D and received either CoronaVac or just one dose of BNT162b2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Viral Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , RNA, Messenger , COVID-19/prevention & control , BNT162 Vaccine , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunity, Cellular , Immunoglobulin G
7.
RMD Open ; 8(1)2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079028

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The majority of patients with B-cell-depleting therapies show compromised vaccination-induced immune responses. Herein, we report on the trajectories of anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune responses in patients of the RituxiVac study compared with healthy volunteers and investigate the immunogenicity of a third vaccination in previously humoral non-responding patients. METHODS: We investigated the humoral and cell-mediated immune response after SARS-CoV-2 messanger RNA vaccination in patients with a history with anti-CD20 therapies. Coprimary outcomes were antispike and SARS-CoV-2-stimulated interferon-γ concentrations in vaccine responders 4.3 months (median; IQR: 3.6-4.8 months) after first evaluation, and humoral and cell-mediated immunity (CMI) after a third vaccine dose in previous humoral non-responders. Immunity decay rates were compared using analysis of covariance in linear regression. RESULTS: 5.6 months (IQR: 5.1-6.7) after the second vaccination, we detected antispike IgG in 88% (29/33) and CMI in 44% (14/32) of patients with a humoral response after two-dose vaccination compared with 92% (24/26) healthy volunteers with antispike IgG and 69% (11/16) with CMI 6.8 months after the second vaccination (IQR: 6.0-7.1). Decay rates of antibody concentrations were comparable between patients and controls (p=0.70). In two-dose non-responders, a third SARS-CoV-2 vaccine elicited humoral responses in 19% (6/32) and CMI in 32% (10/31) participants. CONCLUSION: This study reveals comparable immunity decay rates between patients with anti-CD20 treatments and healthy volunteers, but inefficient humoral or CMI after a third SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in most two-dose humoral non-responders calling for individually tailored vaccination strategies in this population.Trial registration numberNCT04877496; ClinicalTrials.gov number.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15606, 2022 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062249

ABSTRACT

Scarce data have been reported about cellular immunity and longevity for different COVID-19 vaccination schedules. We carried out a prospective study enrolling 709 healthcare workers receiving two doses of mRNA-1273, BNT162b2, ChAdOx1, ChAdOx1/BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1 single dose to compare humoral and cellular immunogenicity across 9 months. Higher SARS-CoV-2 spike antibody levels were observed among individuals with hybrid immunity with one dose of any vaccine in comparison to uninfected individuals receiving two doses (mRNA-1273: 20,145 vs 4295 U/mL; BNT162b2: 15,659 vs 1959 U/mL; ChAdOx1: 5344 vs 2230 U/mL), except for ChAdOx1/BNT162b2 heterologous schedule (12,380 U/mL). Naturally infected individuals did not increase substantially the titers after the second dose and showed higher levels throughout the 9 months follow-up. The mean elimination half-life of antibodies among COVID-19 naïve participants was 98, 111, 60 and 36 days, for mRNA-1273, BNT162b2, ChAdOx1/ChAdOx1 and ChAdOx1/BNT162b2, respectively. Cellular immunity was preserved in 96%, 98%, 88% and 92% of uninfected individuals who received mRNA-1273, BNT162b2, ChAdOx1/ChAdOx1 and ChAdOx1/BNT162b2 after 6/9 months. Individuals with specific T cells showed robust long lasting protection, especially when m-RNA based vaccines are inoculated. These data may influence the validity of the vaccination passport and the need for booster vaccinations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitals, University , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Prospective Studies , RNA , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain , Vaccination
9.
J Clin Immunol ; 42(6): 1137-1150, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2059958

ABSTRACT

Immune responses to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mRNA vaccines in primary antibody deficiencies (PADs) are largely unknown. We investigated antibody and CD4+ T-cell responses specific for SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S) before and after vaccination and associations between vaccine response and patients' clinical and immunological characteristics in PADs. The PAD cohort consisted of common variable immune deficiency (CVID) and other PADs, not meeting the criteria for CVID diagnosis (oPADs). Anti-S IgG, IgA, and IgG subclasses 1 and 3 increased after vaccination and correlated with neutralization activity in HCs and patients with oPADs. However, 42% of CVID patients developed such responses after the 2nd dose. A similar pattern was also observed with S-specific CD4+ T-cells as determined by OX40 and 4-1BB expression. Patients with poor anti-S IgG response had significantly lower levels of baseline IgG, IgA, CD19+ B-cells, switched memory B-cells, naïve CD8+ T-cells, and a higher frequency of EM CD8+ T-cells and autoimmunity compared to patients with adequate anti-S IgG responses. Patients with oPADs can develop humoral and cellular immune responses to vaccines similar to HCs. However, a subset of CVID patients exhibit impairment in developing such responses, which can be predicted by the baseline immune profile and history of autoimmunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Common Variable Immunodeficiency , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases , Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/diagnosis , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
10.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(10): e1010885, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054397

ABSTRACT

The optimal vaccination strategy to boost responses in the context of pre-existing immune memory to the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein is an important question for global public health. To address this, we explored the SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral and cellular immune responses to a novel self-amplifying RNA (saRNA) vaccine followed by a UK authorised mRNA vaccine (BNT162b2) in individuals with and without previous COVID-19, and compared these responses with those who received an authorised vaccine alone. 35 subjects receiving saRNA (saRNA group) as part of the COVAC1 clinical trial and an additional 40 participants receiving an authorised SARS-CoV-2 vaccine only (non-saRNA group) were recruited. Antibody responses were measured by ELISA and a pseudoneutralisation assay for wildtype, Delta and Omicron variants. Cellular responses were measured by IFN-Æ´ ELISpot and an activation induced marker (AIM) assay. Approximately 50% in each group had previous COVID-19 prior to vaccination, confirmed by PCR or antibody positivity on ELISA. All of those who received saRNA subsequently received a full course of an authorised vaccine. The majority (83%) of those receiving saRNA who were COVID-19 naïve at baseline seroconverted following the second dose, and those with previous COVID-19 had an increase in antibody titres two weeks following saRNA vaccination (median 27-fold), however titres were lower when compared to mRNA vaccination. Two weeks following the 2nd authorised mRNA vaccine dose, binding and neutralising antibody titres were significantly higher in the saRNA participants with previous COVID-19, compared to non-saRNA, or COVID-19 naive saRNA participants. Cellular responses were again highest in this group, with a higher proportion of spike specific CD8+ than CD4+ T cells when compared to those receiving the mRNA vaccine only. These findings suggest an immunological benefit of increased antigen exposure, both from natural infection and vaccination, particularly evident in those receiving heterologous vaccination with saRNA and mRNA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , RNA , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
12.
Ann Transplant ; 27: e936949, 2022 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2040418

ABSTRACT

The introduction of vaccines preventing a severe course of COVID-19 disease is particularly important in immunocompromised patients, among whom organ recipients and patients awaiting transplantation constitute a large group. The article is a critical review of 68 recent publications on the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on transplantology worldwide. The study discusses research results concerning various aspects of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in transplant patients; it also lists important factors influencing vaccination effectiveness. A suboptimal immune response to 2 doses of vaccine in this group of patients is a major challenge prompting further research. Therefore, this review aims to provide an update on the humoral and cellular immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination following solid organ transplantation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Viral Vaccines
13.
ESMO Open ; 7(5): 100574, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036006

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The role and the durability of the immunogenicity of the third dose of vaccine against COVID-19 variants of concern in cancer patients have to be elucidated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We have prospectively evaluated the immunogenicity of the third dose of the SARS-CoV-2 BNT162b2 messenger RNA vaccine in triggering both humoral and cell-mediated immune response in patients with solid tumors undergoing active treatment 6 months after the booster. Neutralizing antibody (NT Ab) titers and total anti-spike immunoglobulin G concentrations were measured in serum. Heparinized whole blood samples were used for the SARS-CoV-2 interferon-γ release assay (IGRA). RESULTS: Six months after the third dose only two patients (2.4%) showed negative spike-specific immunoglobulin G antibody levels (<33.8 BAU/ml). The median level of SARS-CoV-2 NT Abs decreased and only 39/83 (47%) subjects showed maximum levels of NT Abs. T-cellular positive response was observed in 38/61 (62.3%) patients; the highest median level of response was observed 21 days after the third dose (354 mIU/ml, interquartile range 83.3-846.3 mIU/ml). The lowest median level of NT Ab response was observed against the Omicron variant (1 : 10, interquartile range 1 : 10-1 : 40) with a significant reduced rate of responder subjects with respect to the wild-type strain (77.5% versus 95%; P = 0.0022) and Delta variant (77.5% versus 93.7%; P = 0.0053). During the follow-up period, seven patients (8%) had a confirmed post-vaccination infection, but none of them required hospitalization or oxygen therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Our work highlights a significant humoral and cellular immune response among patients with solid tumors 6 months after the third BNT162b2 vaccine dose, although a reduction in neutralizing activity against Omicron was observed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Viral Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , BNT162 Vaccine , Longitudinal Studies , Antibodies, Viral , Viral Vaccines/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Immunoglobulin G , Immunity, Cellular , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Oxygen
15.
Front Immunol ; 13: 959379, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022745

ABSTRACT

Influenza vaccines remain the most effective tools to prevent flu and its complications. Trivalent or quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccines primarily elicit antibodies towards haemagglutinin and neuraminidase. These vaccines fail to induce high protective efficacy, in particular in older adults and immunocompromised individuals and require annual updates to keep up with evolving influenza strains (antigenic drift). Vaccine efficacy declines when there is a mismatch between its content and circulating strains. Current correlates of protection are merely based on serological parameters determined by haemagglutination inhibition or single radial haemolysis assays. However, there is ample evidence showing that these serological correlates of protection can both over- or underestimate the protective efficacy of influenza vaccines. Next-generation universal influenza vaccines that induce cross-reactive cellular immune responses (CD4+ and/or CD8+ T-cell responses) against conserved epitopes may overcome some of the shortcomings of the current inactivated vaccines by eliciting broader protection that lasts for several influenza seasons and potentially enhances pandemic preparedness. Assessment of cellular immune responses in clinical trials that evaluate the immunogenicity of these new generation vaccines is thus of utmost importance. Moreover, studies are needed to examine whether these cross-reactive cellular immune responses can be considered as new or complementary correlates of protection in the evaluation of traditional and next-generation influenza vaccines. An overview of the assays that can be applied to measure cell-mediated immune responses to influenza with their strengths and weaknesses is provided here.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Aged , Hemagglutinins , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Vaccines, Inactivated
16.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(5): e0060922, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019759

ABSTRACT

Confronted with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants, such as Delta and Omicron, with high infectivity and immune evasion capacity, vaccination remains the most effective tool to prevent infection and severe illness. However, heterologous vaccination of mRNA vaccines primed with protein subunit vaccines had not been evaluated before the current study. Since subunit vaccine MVC-COV1901 (MVC) has been granted emergency use authorization in Taiwan, in this study, we explored the humoral and cellular immune responses to additional third (2× MVC/Mod) and fourth (2× MVC/2× Mod) doses of mRNA-1273 (Mod) after priming with two doses of subunit vaccine MVC against the emerging variants. We found a 12.3- to 16.1-fold increase in antibodies targeting the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the Delta variant with 2× MVC/Mod compared to two doses of MVC (2× MVC) or AZD1222 (2× AZ) regimens and a 26- to 32.2-fold improvement in neutralizing potency against the Omicron variant (BA.1). Besides, the numbers of gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-secreting T cells induced by 2× MVC/Mod were also elevated 3.5-fold and 3.7- to 4.3-fold for the wild type and Delta variant. However, boosting with a fourth dose of Mod (2× MVC/2× Mod) after the 2× MVC/Mod regimen failed to significantly improve the immune responses. Moreover, all vaccination schedules showed reduced neutralizing activity against the Omicron variant. Collectively, our results suggested that the third or fourth dose booster vaccination with mRNA vaccine after priming with two doses of protein subunit vaccine could elicit stronger humoral and cellular immune responses. These findings could provide a future global heterologous boosting strategy against COVID-19. IMPORTANCE Vaccination is the most important strategy to combat the COVID-19 outbreak; however, it remains to be determined whether heterologous prime-boost regimens could induce equal or even stronger immune responses against SARS-CoV-2. Here, we showed that boosting the additional doses of mRNA-1273 (Mod) priming with two doses of MVC-COV1901 (MVC) (2× MVC/Mod) improved humoral and cellular immunity compared to two doses of AZD1222 (2× AZ) or MVC (2× MVC) against SARS-CoV-2 variants. However, the Omicron variant showed strong immune evasion ability for all vaccination schedules. Our findings provided evidence supporting that heterologous vaccination by boosting with mRNA vaccine after priming with two doses of protein subunit vaccine could strongly promote humoral and cellular immune responses against the emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Protein Subunits , Interferon-gamma , COVID-19/prevention & control , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Immunity, Cellular , Vaccination , Vaccines, Subunit/genetics , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing
17.
Pathog Dis ; 80(1)2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017915

ABSTRACT

Effective vaccination is a key element in the exit strategy from the current severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, and may also offer protection against severe disease from future variants of concern. Here, we prospectively monitored T-cell responses over time, using ELISpot interferon-γ (INF-y) release assays, and B-cell responses, using serological tests, after vaccination and booster with BioNTech/Pfizer mRNA (Pfizer) and Janssen vector (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson) vaccines in hospital health care workers. Vaccine recipients were divided into seropositive and seronegative individuals at baseline, in order to determine the effect of natural immunity on vaccine-induced immune kinetics. We found that convalescent individuals mounted higher spike-specific INF-y-secreting T-cell responses and B-cell-mediated IgG responses, after receiving the Janssen vaccine or the first dose of the Pfizer vaccine. IgG levels corresponded to the virus neutralization capacity as measured by VNT assay. At 8 months postvaccination, spike-specific cellular immunity waned to low levels in individuals with or without prior natural immunity, whereas waning of humoral immunity occurred predominantly in naive individuals. The booster shot effectively reinduced both cellular and humoral immune responses. To conclude, our data supports the implemented single-dose mRNA booster strategy employed in the Netherlands. Furthermore, the level of pre-existing natural immunity may be factored into determining the optimal time window between future booster vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G , Interferon-gamma , Kinetics , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
18.
Inflammopharmacology ; 30(5): 1517-1531, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2014259

ABSTRACT

The immune response plays a crucial role in preventing diseases, such as infections. There are two types of immune responses, specific and innate immunity, each of which consists of two components: cellular immunity and humoral immunity. Dysfunction in any immune system component increases the risk of developing certain diseases. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune disease in the human body, develops an immune response against its own components. In these patients, due to underlying immune system disorders and receipt of immunosuppressive drugs, the susceptibility to infections is higher than in the general population and is the single largest cause of mortality in this group. COVID-19 infection, which first appeared in late 2019, has caused several concerns in patients with SLE. However, there is no strong proof of additional risk of developing COVID-19 in patients with SLE, and in some cases, studies have shown less severity of the disease in these individuals. This review paper discusses the immune disorders in SLE and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Innate , Immunosuppressive Agents
20.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 28(11): 784.e1-784.e9, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007886

ABSTRACT

Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) and its management with immunosuppressive therapies increase the susceptibility to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, as well as progression to severe Coronavirus 19 disease (COVID-19). Vaccination against COVID-19 is strongly recommended, but efficacy data are limited in this patient population. In this study, responses to COVID-19 vaccination were measured at 3 time points-after the initial vaccine series, before the third dose, and after the third dose-in adults with cGVHD receiving immunosuppressive therapy. Humoral response was measured by quantitative anti-spike antibody and neutralizing antibody levels. Anti-nucleocapsid antibody levels were measured to detect natural infection. T cell response was evaluated by a novel immunosequencing technique combined with immune repertoire profiling from cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples. Present or absent T cell responses were determined by the relative proportion of unique SARS-CoV-2-associated T cell receptor sequences ("breadth") plus clonal expansion of the response ("depth") compared with those in a reference population. Based on both neutralizing antibody and T cell responses, patients were categorized as vaccine responders (both detected), nonresponders (neither detected), or mixed (one but not both detected). Thirty-two patients were enrolled for the initial series, including 17 (53%) positive responders, 7 (22%) mixed responders, and 8 (25%) nonresponders. All but one patient categorized as mixed responders had humoral responses while lacking T cell responses. No statistical differences were observed in patient characteristics among the 3 groups of patients categorized by immune response, although sample sizes were limited. Significant positive correlations were observed between the robustness of cellular and humoral responses after the initial series. Among the 20 patients with paired samples (pre- and post-third dose), a third vaccination resulted in increased neutralizing antibody titers. cGVHD worsened in 10 patients (26%; 6 after the initial series and 4 after the third dose), necessitating escalation of immunosuppressive doses in 5 patients, although 4 had been tapering immunosuppression and 5 had already worsening cGVHD at the time of vaccination, and a clear association between COVID-19 vaccination and cGVHD could not be drawn. Among the patients with cGVHD on immunosuppressive therapy, 72% demonstrated a neutralizing antibody response after a 2-dose primary COVID-19 vaccination, two-thirds of whom also developed a T cell response; 25% had neither a humoral nor a T cell response. A third dose further amplified the antibody response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Graft vs Host Disease , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes , Adult , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Vaccination/methods , Immunity, Cellular , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Immunosuppression Therapy
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