Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 9 de 9
Filter
1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 882, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692614

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 triggers a complex systemic immune response in circulating blood mononuclear cells. The relationship between immune cell activation of the peripheral compartment and survival in critical COVID-19 remains to be established. Here we use single-cell RNA sequencing and Cellular Indexing of Transcriptomes and Epitomes by sequence mapping to elucidate cell type specific transcriptional signatures that associate with and predict survival in critical COVID-19. Patients who survive infection display activation of antibody processing, early activation response, and cell cycle regulation pathways most prominent within B-, T-, and NK-cell subsets. We further leverage cell specific differential gene expression and machine learning to predict mortality using single cell transcriptomes. We identify interferon signaling and antigen presentation pathways within cDC2 cells, CD14 monocytes, and CD16 monocytes as predictors of mortality with 90% accuracy. Finally, we validate our findings in an independent transcriptomics dataset and provide a framework to elucidate mechanisms that promote survival in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Identifying prognostic indicators among critical COVID-19 patients holds tremendous value in risk stratification and clinical management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness , Female , Gene Expression , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/genetics , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Single-Cell Analysis , Transcriptome/immunology
2.
Life Sci Alliance ; 5(4)2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637974

ABSTRACT

Advanced age is a key predictor of severe COVID-19. To gain insight into this relationship, we used the rhesus macaque model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Eight older and eight younger macaques were inoculated with SARS-CoV-2. Animals were evaluated using viral RNA quantification, clinical observations, thoracic radiographs, single-cell transcriptomics, multiparameter flow cytometry, multiplex immunohistochemistry, cytokine detection, and lipidomics analysis at predefined time points in various tissues. Differences in clinical signs, pulmonary infiltrates, and virus replication were limited. Transcriptional signatures of inflammation-associated genes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at 3 dpi revealed efficient mounting of innate immune defenses in both cohorts. However, age-specific divergence of immune responses emerged during the post-acute phase. Older animals exhibited sustained local inflammatory innate responses, whereas local effector T-cell responses were induced earlier in the younger animals. Circulating lipid mediator and cytokine levels highlighted increased repair-associated signals in the younger animals, and persistent pro-inflammatory responses in the older animals. In summary, despite similar disease outcomes, multi-omics profiling suggests that age may delay or impair antiviral cellular immune responses and delay efficient return to immune homeostasis.


Subject(s)
Aging/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Acute Disease , Animals , Antibody Formation/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Cytokines/blood , Gene Expression Regulation , Gene Regulatory Networks , Genomics , Immunity, Cellular/genetics , Immunomodulation , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/pathology , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Lymphoid Tissue/pathology , Macaca mulatta/immunology , Macaca mulatta/virology , Models, Biological , Single-Cell Analysis , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Transcription, Genetic
3.
JCI Insight ; 6(24)2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598468

ABSTRACT

mRNA vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 have shown exceptional clinical efficacy, providing robust protection against severe disease. However, our understanding of transcriptional and repertoire changes following full vaccination remains incomplete. We used scRNA-Seq and functional assays to compare humoral and cellular responses to 2 doses of mRNA vaccine with responses observed in convalescent individuals with asymptomatic disease. Our analyses revealed enrichment of spike-specific B cells, activated CD4+ T cells, and robust antigen-specific polyfunctional CD4+ T cell responses following vaccination. On the other hand, although clonally expanded CD8+ T cells were observed following both vaccination and natural infection, CD8+ T cell responses were relatively weak and variable. In addition, TCR gene usage was variable, reflecting the diversity of repertoires and MHC polymorphism in the human population. Natural infection induced expansion of CD8+ T cell clones that occupy distinct clusters compared to those induced by vaccination and likely recognize a broader set of viral antigens of viral epitopes presented by the virus not seen in the mRNA vaccine. Our study highlights a coordinated adaptive immune response in which early CD4+ T cell responses facilitate the development of the B cell response and substantial expansion of effector CD8+ T cells, together capable of contributing to future recall responses.


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , /therapeutic use , Adaptive Immunity/genetics , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antigens, Viral , B-Lymphocytes , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Carrier State , Convalescence , Epitopes , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/genetics , Immunity, Humoral/genetics , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunologic Memory , Male , Middle Aged , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Cell Analysis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Th1 Cells , Th17 Cells , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use , Young Adult , /therapeutic use
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 625881, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133910

ABSTRACT

T cells play a critical role in coronavirus diseases. How they do so in COVID-19 may be revealed by analyzing the epigenetic chromatin accessibility of cis- and trans-regulatory elements and creating transcriptomic immune profiles. We performed single-cell assay for transposase-accessible chromatin (scATAC) and single-cell RNA (scRNA) sequencing (seq) on the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of severely ill/critical patients (SCPs) infected with COVID-19, moderate patients (MPs), and healthy volunteer controls (HCs). About 76,570 and 107,862 single cells were used, respectively, for analyzing the characteristics of chromatin accessibility and transcriptomic immune profiles by the application of scATAC-seq (nine cases) and scRNA-seq (15 cases). The scATAC-seq detected 28,535 different peaks in the three groups; among these peaks, 41.6 and 10.7% were located in the promoter and enhancer regions, respectively. Compared to HCs, among the peak-located genes in the total T cells and its subsets, CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells, from SCPs and MPs were enriched with inflammatory pathways, such as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling pathway. The motifs of TBX21 were less accessible in the CD4+ T cells of SCPs compared with those in MPs. Furthermore, the scRNA-seq showed that the proportion of T cells, especially the CD4+ T cells, was decreased in SCPs and MPs compared with those in HCs. Transcriptomic results revealed that histone-related genes, and inflammatory genes, such as NFKBIA, S100A9, and PIK3R1, were highly expressed in the total T cells, CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells, both in the cases of SCPs and MPs. In the CD4+ T cells, decreased T helper-1 (Th1) cells were observed in SCPs and MPs. In the CD8+T cells, activation markers, such as CD69 and HLA class II genes (HLA-DRA, HLA-DRB1, and HLA-DRB5), were significantly upregulated in SCPs. An integrated analysis of the data from scATAC-seq and scRNA-seq showed some consistency between the approaches. Cumulatively, we have generated a landscape of chromatin epigenetic status and transcriptomic immune profiles of T cells in patients with COVID-19. This has provided a deeper dissection of the characteristics of the T cells involved at a higher resolution than from previously obtained data merely by the scRNA-seq analysis. Our data led us to suggest that the T-cell inflammatory states accompanied with defective functions in the CD4+ T cells of SCPs may be the key factors for determining the pathogenesis of and recovery from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/physiology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/physiology , COVID-19/immunology , Chromatin/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , COVID-19/genetics , Calgranulin B/genetics , Chromatin/genetics , Class Ia Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/genetics , Epigenome/immunology , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/genetics , Inflammation/genetics , Lymphocyte Activation , NF-KappaB Inhibitor alpha/genetics , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Single-Cell Analysis , Transposases/metabolism , Up-Regulation
5.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(1): 527-540, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052580

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains clear, and no effective treatment exists. SARS-CoV-2 is the virus that causes COVID-19 and uses ACE2 as a cell receptor to invade human cells. Therefore, ACE2 is a key factor to analyze the SARS-CoV-2 infection mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 9,783 sequencing results of different organs, analyzed the effects of different ACE2 expression patterns in organs and immune regulation. RESULTS: We found that ACE2 expression was significantly increased in the lungs and digestive tract. The cellular immunity of individuals with elevated ACE2 expression is activated, whereas humoral immunity is dampened, leading to the release of many inflammatory factors dominated by IL6. Furthermore, by studying the sequencing results of SARS-CoV-2-infected and uninfected cells, IL6 was found to be an indicator of a significant increase in the number of infected cells. However, although patients with high expression of ACE2 will release many inflammatory factors dominated by IL6, cellular immunity in the colorectum is significantly activated. This effect may explain why individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection have severe lung symptoms and digestion issues, which are important causes of milder symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: This finding indicates that ACE2 and IL6 inhibitors have important value in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , Interleukin-6/immunology , Lung/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Gastrointestinal Tract/immunology , Gastrointestinal Tract/metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Ontology , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/genetics , Immunity, Humoral/genetics , Lung/immunology , Organ Specificity , Transcriptome
6.
Chem Biol Interact ; 335: 109370, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014379

ABSTRACT

The aberrant expression level of SARS-CoV-2 cell receptor gene ACE2 was reported in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) comorbidity of COVID-19. However, the association of ACE2 expression levels with immunosuppression and metabolic reprogramming in LUAD remains lacking. We investigated the expression level of ACE2, an association of ACE2 expression level with various types of immune signatures, immune ratios, and pathways. We employed a weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) R package to identify the gene modules and investigated prognostic roles of hub genes in LUAD. Overexpression of ACE2 level was found in LUAD and ACE2 expression was negatively associated with various types of immune signatures including CD8+ T cells, CD4+ regulatory T cells, NK cells, and T cell activation. Besides, ACE2 upregulation was not only associated with CD8+ T cell/CD4+ regulatory T cell ratios but also linked with downregulation of immune-markers including CD8A, KLRC1, GZMA, GZMB, NKG7, CCL4, and IFNG. Moreover, the ACE2 expression level was found to be associated with the enrichment level of various metabolic pathways and it was also found that the metabolic pathways are directly positively correlated with the increased expression levels of ACE2, indicating that the overexpression of ACE2 is associated with metabolic reprogramming in LUAD. Furthermore, WGCNA based analysis revealed the gene modules in the high-ACE2-expression-level group of LUAD and identified GCLC and SLC7A11 hub genes which are not only highly expressed in lung adenocarcinoma but also correlated with the poor survival prognosis. Our analysis of ACE2 in LUAD tissues suggests that ACE2 is not only a receptor but is also associated with immunosuppression and metabolic reprogramming. This study underlines the clue for understanding the clinical significance of ACE2 in COVID-19 patients with LUAD comorbidity.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma of Lung/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Immunity, Cellular/genetics , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/metabolism , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/epidemiology , Amino Acid Transport System y+/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Computational Biology , Databases, Genetic/statistics & numerical data , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase/genetics , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , Lymphocyte Activation/genetics , Male , Non-Smokers , Protein Interaction Maps/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Smokers , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Transcriptome , Up-Regulation
7.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e929789, 2020 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-948228

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have shown a significant level of T cell immunity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in convalescent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and unexposed healthy individuals. Also, SARS-CoV-2-reactive T memory cells occur in unexposed healthy individuals from endemic coronaviruses that cause the 'common cold.' The finding of the expression of adaptive SARS-CoV-2-reactive T memory cells in unexposed healthy individuals may be due to multiple cross-reactive viral protein targets following previous exposure to endemic human coronavirus infections. The opinion of the authors is that determination of protein sequence homologies across seemingly disparate viral protein libraries may provide epitope-matching data that link SARS-CoV-2-reactive T memory cell signatures to prior administration of cross-reacting vaccines to common viral pathogens. Exposure to SARS-CoV-2 initiates diverse cellular immune responses, including the associated 'cytokine storm'. Therefore, it is possible that the intact virus possesses a required degree of conformational matching, or stereoselectivity, to effectively target its receptor on multiple cell types. Therefore, conformational matching may be viewed as an evolving mechanism of viral infection and viral replication by an evolutionary modification of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor required for SARS-CoV-2 binding and host cell entry. The authors propose that convalescent memory T cell immunity in individuals with mild or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection may result from an evolutionarily adapted immune response to coronavirus and the 'common cold'.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/immunology , Common Cold/immunology , Immunologic Memory/genetics , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Common Cold/prevention & control , Common Cold/virology , Cross Reactions/genetics , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Evolution, Molecular , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/genetics , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Rhinovirus/genetics , Rhinovirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sequence Homology , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/immunology , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Virus Internalization , Virus Replication/genetics , Virus Replication/immunology
8.
J Immunol Res ; 2020: 8624963, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721226

ABSTRACT

Single-cell RNA sequencing allows highly detailed profiling of cellular immune responses from limited-volume samples, advancing prospects of a new era of systems immunology. The power of single-cell RNA sequencing offers various opportunities to decipher the immune response to infectious diseases and vaccines. Here, we describe the potential uses of single-cell RNA sequencing methods in prophylactic vaccine development, concentrating on infectious diseases including COVID-19. Using examples from several diseases, we review how single-cell RNA sequencing has been used to evaluate the immunological response to different vaccine platforms and regimens. By highlighting published and unpublished single-cell RNA sequencing studies relevant to vaccinology, we discuss some general considerations how the field could be enriched with the widespread adoption of this technology.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , RNA-Seq/methods , Single-Cell Analysis , Vaccinology/methods , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Animals , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/genetics , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Vaccines/immunology
9.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 77(24): 5059-5077, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-381758

ABSTRACT

Heparanase (HPSE) is a multifunctional protein endowed with many non-enzymatic functions and a unique enzymatic activity as an endo-ß-D-glucuronidase. The latter allows it to serve as a key modulator of extracellular matrix (ECM) via a well-regulated cleavage of heparan sulfate side chains of proteoglycans at cell surfaces. The cleavage and associated changes at the ECM cause release of multiple signaling molecules with important cellular and pathological functions. New and emerging data suggest that both enzymatic as well as non-enzymatic functions of HPSE are important for health and illnesses including viral infections and virally induced cancers. This review summarizes recent findings on the roles of HPSE in activation, inhibition, or bioavailability of key signaling molecules such as AKT, VEGF, MAPK-ERK, and EGFR, which are known regulators of common viral infections in immune and non-immune cell types. Altogether, our review provides a unique overview of HPSE in cell-survival signaling pathways and how they relate to viral infections.


Subject(s)
Glucuronidase/genetics , Neoplasms/genetics , Virus Diseases/genetics , Extracellular Matrix/genetics , Glucuronidase/metabolism , Heparitin Sulfate/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/genetics , Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms/virology , Signal Transduction/genetics , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/virology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL