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2.
Br J Haematol ; 198(4): 668-679, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874397

ABSTRACT

Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients remain at high risk of adverse outcomes from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and emerging variants. The optimal prophylactic vaccine strategy for this cohort is not defined. T cell-mediated immunity is a critical component of graft-versus-tumour effect and in determining vaccine immunogenicity. Using validated anti-spike (S) immunoglobulin G (IgG) and S-specific interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot (IFNγ-ELIspot) assays we analysed response to a two-dose vaccination schedule (either BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1) in 33 HSCT recipients at ≤2 years from transplant, alongside vaccine-matched healthy controls (HCs). After two vaccines, infection-naïve HSCT recipients had a significantly lower rate of seroconversion compared to infection-naïve HCs (25/32 HSCT vs. 39/39 HCs no responders) and had lower S-specific T-cell responses. The HSCT recipients who received BNT162b2 had a higher rate of seroconversion compared to ChAdOx1 (89% vs. 74%) and significantly higher anti-S IgG titres (p = 0.022). S-specific T-cell responses were seen after one vaccine in HCs and HSCT recipients. However, two vaccines enhanced S-specific T-cell responses in HCs but not in the majority of HSCT recipients. These data demonstrate limited immunogenicity of two-dose vaccination strategies in HSCT recipients, bolstering evidence of the need for additional boosters and/or alternative prophylactic measures in this group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Age Factors , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/therapeutic use , Bone Marrow Transplantation/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/immunology , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/therapeutic use , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/drug effects , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Seroconversion , Transplantation, Homologous/adverse effects , Vaccination/adverse effects
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 828053, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731780

ABSTRACT

Recent increases in SARS-CoV-2 infections have led to questions about duration and quality of vaccine-induced immune protection. While numerous studies have been published on immune responses triggered by vaccination, these often focus on studying the impact of one or two immunisation schemes within subpopulations such as immunocompromised individuals or healthcare workers. To provide information on the duration and quality of vaccine-induced immune responses against SARS-CoV-2, we analyzed antibody titres against various SARS-CoV-2 antigens and ACE2 binding inhibition against SARS-CoV-2 wild-type and variants of concern in samples from a large German population-based seroprevalence study (MuSPAD) who had received all currently available immunisation schemes. We found that homologous mRNA-based or heterologous prime-boost vaccination produced significantly higher antibody responses than vector-based homologous vaccination. Ad26.CoV2S.2 performance was particularly concerning with reduced titres and 91.7% of samples classified as non-responsive for ACE2 binding inhibition, suggesting that recipients require a booster mRNA vaccination. While mRNA vaccination induced a higher ratio of RBD- and S1-targeting antibodies, vector-based vaccines resulted in an increased proportion of S2-targeting antibodies. Given the role of RBD- and S1-specific antibodies in neutralizing SARS-CoV-2, their relative over-representation after mRNA vaccination may explain why these vaccines have increased efficacy compared to vector-based formulations. Previously infected individuals had a robust immune response once vaccinated, regardless of which vaccine they received, which could aid future dose allocation should shortages arise for certain manufacturers. Overall, both titres and ACE2 binding inhibition peaked approximately 28 days post-second vaccination and then decreased.


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Germany , Humans , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination/methods
4.
J Neuroimmunol ; 362: 577788, 2022 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1720452

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To report clinical outcome, development of humoral and T-cell mediated immunity in convalescent COVID-19 people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) treated with ofatumumab in the ALITHIOS study from a single center. METHODS: Testing for SARS-Cov2 IgG antibodies was performed on two occasions with at least three months apart between the two testing. During the second antibody testing, interferon-γ ELISpot was used to assess cellular immunity. RESULTS: All four subjects had mild COVID-19 infection without any sequelae. In all subjects except subject 2, COVID-19 was confirmed with PCR. Subjects 1, 2 and 4 had normal levels of IgM and IgG without measurable counts of CD19 cells prior to COVID-19. Subject 3 administered the last dose of ofatumumab 24 days prior to COVID-19 symptoms, but had a gap of 28 weeks of ofatumumab application beforehand due to low IgM levels. Subject 4 received COVID-19 vaccinations before second testing, so second testing and T-cell immunity testing were not performed. Subjects who were CD19 depleted did not had measurable levels of SARS-Cov2 IgG antibodies. Subject 3 had first and second SARS-COV2 titer of 118 U/ml and > 250 U/ml, respectively. All three pwMS showed T cell immunity against SARS-CoV-2. Quotient of basal spots divided by interferon-γ secreting spot forming units were 4, 8 and 14.7 SI in subjects 1, 2 and 3, respectively (>3 considered reactive). CONCLUSION: While no antibody response was observed in pwMS who were CD19+ lymphocyte depleted, T cell immunity against SARS-CoV-2 was observed in all three pwMS treated with ofatumumab.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/complications , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Male
6.
Front Immunol ; 13: 817905, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699973

ABSTRACT

The duration of humoral and cellular immune memory following SARS-CoV-2 infection in populations in least developed countries remains understudied but is key to overcome the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Sixty-four Cambodian individuals with laboratory-confirmed infection with asymptomatic or mild/moderate clinical presentation were evaluated for Spike (S)-binding and neutralizing antibodies and antibody effector functions during acute phase of infection and at 6-9 months follow-up. Antigen-specific B cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were characterized, and T cells were interrogated for functionality at late convalescence. Anti-S antibody titers decreased over time, but effector functions mediated by S-specific antibodies remained stable. S- and nucleocapsid (N)-specific B cells could be detected in late convalescence in the activated memory B cell compartment and are mostly IgG+. CD4+ and CD8+ T cell immune memory was maintained to S and membrane (M) protein. Asymptomatic infection resulted in decreased antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and frequency of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cells at late convalescence. Whereas anti-S antibodies correlated with S-specific B cells, there was no correlation between T cell response and humoral immune memory. Hence, all aspects of a protective immune response are maintained up to nine months after SARS-CoV-2 infection and in the absence of re-infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Immunologic Memory/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cambodia , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 834981, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686490

ABSTRACT

Humoral vaccine responses are known to be suboptimal in patients receiving B-cell targeted therapy, and little is known about vaccine induced T-cell immunity in these patients. In this study, we characterized humoral and cellular antigen-specific anti-SARS-CoV2 responses following COVID-19 vaccination in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) receiving anti-CD20 therapy, who were either B-cell depleted, or B-cell recovered at the time of vaccination and in normal control subjects. SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike (S) and anti-nucleocapsid (NC) antibodies were measured using electrochemiluminescence immunoassays, while SARS-CoV-2 specific T-cell responses to S glycoprotein subunits 1 (S1) and 2 (S2) and receptor binding domain peptide pools were measured using interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assays. In total, 26 recently vaccinated subjects were studied. Despite the lack of a measurable humoral immune response, B-cell depleted patients mounted a similar vaccine induced antigen-specific T-cell response compared to B-cell recovered patients and normal controls. Our data indicate that to assure a humoral response in patients receiving anti-CD20 therapy, SARS-CoV-2 vaccination should ideally be delayed until B-cell recovery (CD-20 positive B-cells > 10/µl). Nevertheless, SARS-CoV-2 vaccination elicits robust, potentially protective cellular immune responses in these subjects. Further research to characterize the durability and protective effect of vaccine-induced anti-SARS-CoV-2 specific T-cell immunity are needed.


Subject(s)
Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/drug therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunocompromised Host , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 864, 2022 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684028

ABSTRACT

Patients with hematological malignancies have impaired immune response after two doses of BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech) vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. Here, in this observational study (registration number HDH F20210324145532), we measure SARS-CoV-2 anti-Spike antibodies, neutralizing antibodies and T-cell responses after immune stimulation with a third dose (D3) of the same vaccine in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (n = 13), B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 14), and multiple myeloma (n = 16)). No unexpected novel side effects are reported. Among 25 patients with positive anti-S titers before D3, 23 (92%) patients increase their anti-S and neutralizing antibody titer after D3. All 18 (42%) initially seronegative patients remain negative. D3 increases the median IFN-γ secretion in the whole cohort and induces IFN-γ secretion in a fraction of seronegative patients. Our data thus support the use of a third vaccine dose amongst patients with lymphoid malignancies, even though some of them will still have vaccine failure.


Subject(s)
/immunology , Hematologic Neoplasms , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunization, Secondary/methods , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Myeloma , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
9.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 59: 103682, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670926

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine anti-SARS-Cov2 antibodies and T-cell immunity in convalescent people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) and/or pwMS vaccinated against Covid-19, depending on the disease modifying therapy, and in comparison to healthy controls (HC). METHODS: 75 participants were enrolled: Group 1-29 (38.7%) COVID-19 convalescent participants; Group 2-34 (45.3%) COVID-19 vaccinated; Group 3-12 (16.0%) COVID-19 convalescent participants who were later vaccinated against COVID-19. Cellular immunity was evaluated by determination of number of CD4+ and CD8+ cells secreting TNFα, IFNγ, and IL2 after stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 peptides. RESULTS: pwMS treated with ocrelizumab were less likely to develop humoral immunity after COVID-19 recovery or vaccination. No difference was observed in the cellular immunity in all studied parameters between pwMS treated with ocrelizumab compared to HC or pwMS who were treatment naïve or on first line therapies. These findings were consistent in convalescent, vaccinated, and convalescent+vaccinated participants. COVID-19 vaccinated convalescent pwMS on ocrelizumab compared to COVID-19 convalescent HC who were vaccinated did not show statistically difference in the rate of seroconversion nor titers of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. CONCLUSION: Presence of cellular immunity in pwMS on B-cell depleting therapies is reassuring, as at least partial protection from more severe COVID-19 outcomes can be expected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/physiology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
10.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 16(2): 102424, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664849

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is limited data available on longitudinal humoral antibody dynamics following two doses of ChAdOx1-nCOV (Covishield™) and BBV-152 (Covaxin™) vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 among Indians. METHODS: We conducted a 6-month longitudinal study in vaccinated healthcare workers by serially measuring quantitative anti-spike antibody at 3-weeks, 3-months and 6-months after the completion of second dose. Geometric mean titer (GMT) and linear mixed models were used to assess the dynamics of antibody levels at 6 months. RESULTS: Of the 481 participants, GMT of anti-spike antibody decreased by 56% at 6-months regardless of age, gender, blood group, body-mass index and comorbidities in 360 SARS-CoV-2 naive individuals but significantly more in hypertensives. Participants with past infection had significantly higher GMT at all time points compared to the naive individuals. Among SARS-CoV-2 naive cohorts, a significantly higher GMT was noted amongst the Covishield recipients at all time points, but there was a 44% decline in GMT at 6-month compared to the peak titer period. Decline in GMT was insignificant (8%) in Covaxin recipients at 6-month despite a lower GMT at all time points vs. Covishield. There was 5.6-fold decrease in seropositivity rate at 6-month with both vaccines. Participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus have a lower seropositivity rate at all the time points. Seropositivity rate was significantly higher with Covishield vs. Covaxin at all time points except at 6-month where Covaxin recipients had a higher seropositivity rate but no difference noted in propensity-matched analysis. CONCLUSIONS: There is waning humoral antibody response following two doses of either vaccine at six months. Covishield recipients had a higher anti-spike antibody GMT compared with Covaxin at all-time points, however a significant decline in antibody titers was seen with Covishield but not with Covaxin at 6-months.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Time Factors
11.
Cell Rep ; 38(6): 110345, 2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654153

ABSTRACT

Understanding the long-term maintenance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunity is critical for predicting protection against reinfection. In an age- and gender-matched cohort of 24 participants, the association of disease severity and early immune responses on the maintenance of humoral immunity 12 months post-infection is examined. All severely affected participants maintain a stable subset of SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific memory B cells (MBCs) and good neutralizing antibody breadth against the majority of the variants of concern, including the Delta variant. Modeling these immune responses against vaccine efficacy data indicate a 45%-76% protection against symptomatic infection (variant dependent). Overall, these findings indicate durable humoral responses in most participants after infection, reasonable protection against reinfection, and implicate baseline antigen-specific CD4+ T cell responses as a predictor of maintenance of antibody neutralization breadth and RBD-specific MBC levels at 12 months post-infection.


Subject(s)
Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Australia , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunity/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Male , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
13.
Ann Neurol ; 91(3): 342-352, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648414

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The study was undertaken to assess the impact of B cell depletion on humoral and cellular immune responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination in patients with various neuroimmunologic disorders on anti-CD20 therapy. This included an analysis of the T cell vaccine response to the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant. METHODS: We investigated prospectively humoral and cellular responses to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination in 82 patients with neuroimmunologic disorders on anti-CD20 therapy and 82 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. For quantification of antibodies, the Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2 viral spike (S) immunoassay against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) was used. IFN-gamma enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assays were performed to assess T cell responses against the SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan strain and the Delta variant. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies were found less frequently in patients (70% [57/82]) compared with controls (82/82 [100%], p < 0.001). In patients without detectable B cells (<1 B cell/mcl), seroconversion rates and antibody levels were lower compared to nondepleted (≥1 B cell/mcl) patients (p < 0.001). B cell levels ≥1 cell/mcl were sufficient to induce seroconversion in our cohort of anti-CD20 treated patients. In contrast to the antibody response, the T-cell response against the Wuhan strain and the Delta variant was more pronounced in frequency (p < 0.05) and magnitude (p < 0.01) in B-cell depleted compared to nondepleted patients. INTERPRETATION: Antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccinnation can be attained in patients on anti-CD20 therapy by the onset of B cell repopulation. In the absence of B cells, a strong T cell response is generated which may help to protect against severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in this high-risk population. ANN NEUROL 2022;91:342-352.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System/blood , Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System/epidemiology , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neuroimmunomodulation/immunology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
14.
Rheumatol Int ; 42(3): 449-456, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1640824

ABSTRACT

The pathogenesis of COVID-19 involves both humoral and cellular immunological responses, with cell-mediated immunity being discussed as the primary and most effective immune response to viral infection. It is supposed that COVID-19 vaccines also elicited effective cell immune response, and specifically IFNγ secreted by SARS-CoV-2-specific T-helper 1 and Tcytotoxic cells. Using an interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) test, we aimed to monitor cellular post-vaccination immunity in healthy subjects vaccinated with BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (Comirnaty). We tested 37 healthcare workers (mean age 54.3 years, range 28-72, 22 females, 15 males) following COVID-19 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine and 15 healthy unvaccinated native persons as control subjects using QuantiFERON SARS-CoV-2 RUO test, performed approximately 1 month after vaccination. We also measured virus-neutralizing antibodies. Thirty-one out of 37 tested subjects had significantly raised levels of SARS-CoV-2 specific IFNγ against SARS-CoV-2 Ag1 and Ag2 1 month following COVID-19 vaccination. In addition, we found a significant difference between the IFNγ levels in fully vaccinated subjects and the control group (p < 0.01).We also found a substantial correlation (r = 0.9; p < 0.01) between virus-neutralizing antibodies titers and IFNγ concentrations released by T cells. We believe that IGRA tests are an excellent tool to assess the development of a post-vaccination immune response when immunized against SARS-CoV-2. However, IGRA-based tests should be performed within a few weeks following vaccination. Therefore, we can speculate that the application of these tests to assess long-term immune response is debatable.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Interferon-gamma Release Tests , Male , Middle Aged
15.
Cell Rep ; 38(2): 110235, 2022 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634873

ABSTRACT

We have analyzed BNT162b2 vaccine-induced immune responses in naive subjects and individuals recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), both soon after (14 days) and later after (almost 8 months) vaccination. Plasma spike (S)-specific immunoglobulins peak after one vaccine shot in individuals recovered from COVID-19, while a second dose is needed in naive subjects, although the latter group shows reduced levels all along the analyzed period. Despite how the neutralization capacity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) mirrors this behavior early after vaccination, both groups show comparable neutralizing antibodies and S-specific B cell levels late post-vaccination. When studying cellular responses, naive individuals exhibit higher SARS-CoV-2-specific cytokine production, CD4+ T cell activation, and proliferation than do individuals recovered from COVID-19, with patent inverse correlations between humoral and cellular variables early post-vaccination. However, almost 8 months post-vaccination, SARS-CoV-2-specific responses are comparable between both groups. Our data indicate that a previous history of COVID-19 differentially determines the functional T and B cell-mediated responses to BNT162b2 vaccination over time.


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , /immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/virology , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Vero Cells
16.
Sci Adv ; 8(3): eabj9815, 2022 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634773

ABSTRACT

Safe and effective vaccines are needed to end the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we report the preclinical development of a lipid nanoparticle­formulated SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine, PTX-COVID19-B. PTX-COVID19-B was chosen among three candidates after the initial mouse vaccination results showed that it elicited the strongest neutralizing antibody response against SARS-CoV-2. Further tests in mice and hamsters indicated that PTX-COVID19-B induced robust humoral and cellular immune responses and completely protected the vaccinated animals from SARS-CoV-2 infection in the lung. Studies in hamsters also showed that PTX-COVID19-B protected the upper respiratory tract from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Mouse immune sera elicited by PTX-COVID19-B vaccination were able to neutralize SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, including the Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta lineages. No adverse effects were induced by PTX-COVID19-B in either mice or hamsters. Based on these results, PTX-COVID19-B was authorized by Health Canada to enter clinical trials in December 2020 with a phase 2 clinical trial ongoing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , /immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Canada , Cell Line , Cricetinae , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Liposomes/pharmacology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Nanoparticles , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Th1 Cells/immunology
17.
Cell Host Microbe ; 30(1): 83-96.e4, 2022 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634725

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection causes diverse outcomes ranging from asymptomatic infection to respiratory distress and death. A major unresolved question is whether prior immunity to endemic, human common cold coronaviruses (hCCCoVs) impacts susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection or immunity following infection and vaccination. Therefore, we analyzed samples from the same individuals before and after SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination. We found hCCCoV antibody levels increase after SARS-CoV-2 exposure, demonstrating cross-reactivity. However, a case-control study indicates that baseline hCCCoV antibody levels are not associated with protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Rather, higher magnitudes of pre-existing betacoronavirus antibodies correlate with more SARS-CoV-2 antibodies following infection, an indicator of greater disease severity. Additionally, immunization with hCCCoV spike proteins before SARS-CoV-2 immunization impedes the generation of SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies in mice. Together, these data suggest that pre-existing hCCCoV antibodies hinder SARS-CoV-2 antibody-based immunity following infection and provide insight on how pre-existing coronavirus immunity impacts SARS-CoV-2 infection, which is critical considering emerging variants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Common Cold/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Cell Line , Common Cold/virology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 692, 2022 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621265

ABSTRACT

The receptor binding domain (RBD) of the Spike protein from SARS-CoV-2 is a promising candidate to develop effective COVID-19 vaccines since it can induce potent neutralizing antibodies. We have previously reported the highly efficient production of RBD in Pichia pastoris, which is structurally similar to the same protein produced in mammalian HEK-293T cells. In this work we designed an RBD multimer with the purpose of increasing its immunogenicity. We produced multimeric particles by a transpeptidation reaction between RBD expressed in P. pastoris and Lumazine Synthase from Brucella abortus (BLS), which is a highly immunogenic and very stable decameric 170 kDa protein. Such particles were used to vaccinate mice with two doses 30 days apart. When the particles ratio of RBD to BLS units was high (6-7 RBD molecules per BLS decamer in average), the humoral immune response was significantly higher than that elicited by RBD alone or by RBD-BLS particles with a lower RBD to BLS ratio (1-2 RBD molecules per BLS decamer). Remarkably, multimeric particles with a high number of RBD copies elicited a high titer of neutralizing IgGs. These results indicate that multimeric particles composed of RBD covalent coupled to BLS possess an advantageous architecture for antigen presentation to the immune system, and therefore enhancing RBD immunogenicity. Thus, multimeric RBD-BLS particles are promising candidates for a protein-based vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Protein Binding/immunology , Protein Domains/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cell Line , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C
19.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 128, 2022 01 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616978

ABSTRACT

The quality and persistence of children's humoral immune response following SARS-CoV-2 infection remains largely unknown but will be crucial to guide pediatric SARS-CoV-2 vaccination programs. Here, we examine 548 children and 717 adults within 328 households with at least one member with a previous laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. We assess serological response at 3-4 months and 11-12 months after infection using a bead-based multiplex immunoassay for 23 human coronavirus antigens including SARS-CoV-2 and its Variants of Concern (VOC) and endemic human coronaviruses (HCoVs), and additionally by three commercial SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays. Neutralization against wild type SARS-CoV-2 and the Delta VOC are analysed in a pseudotyped virus assay. Children, compared to adults, are five times more likely to be asymptomatic, and have higher specific antibody levels which persist longer (96.2% versus 82.9% still seropositive 11-12 months post infection). Of note, symptomatic and asymptomatic infections induce similar humoral responses in all age groups. SARS-CoV-2 infection occurs independent of HCoV serostatus. Neutralization responses of children and adults are similar, although neutralization is reduced for both against the Delta VOC. Overall, the long-term humoral immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection in children is of longer duration than in adults even after asymptomatic infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross Reactions/immunology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination/methods
20.
Cell Rep ; 37(13): 110169, 2021 12 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616407

ABSTRACT

The importance of pre-existing immune responses to seasonal endemic coronaviruses (HCoVs) for the susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and the course of COVID-19 is the subject of an ongoing scientific debate. Recent studies postulate that immune responses to previous HCoV infections can either have a slightly protective or no effect on SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and, consequently, be neglected for COVID-19 risk stratification. Challenging this notion, we provide evidence that pre-existing, anti-nucleocapsid antibodies against endemic α-coronaviruses and S2 domain-specific anti-spike antibodies against ß-coronavirus HCoV-OC43 are elevated in patients with COVID-19 compared to pre-pandemic donors. This finding is particularly pronounced in males and in critically ill patients. Longitudinal evaluation reveals that antibody cross-reactivity or polyclonal stimulation by SARS-CoV-2 infection are unlikely to be confounders. Thus, specific pre-existing immunity to seasonal coronaviruses may increase susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 and predispose individuals to an adverse COVID-19 outcome, guiding risk management and supporting the development of universal coronavirus vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/pathogenicity , Cross Reactions/immunology , Female , Germany , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Seasons , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
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