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2.
Int J Biol Sci ; 18(1): 386-408, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607858

ABSTRACT

Responding to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been an unexpected and unprecedented global challenge for humanity in this century. During this crisis, specialists from the laboratories and frontline clinical personnel have made great efforts to prevent and treat COVID-19 by revealing the molecular biological characteristics and epidemic characteristics of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Currently, SARS-CoV-2 has severe consequences for public health, including human respiratory system, immune system, blood circulation system, nervous system, motor system, urinary system, reproductive system and digestive system. In the review, we summarize the physiological and pathological damage of SARS-CoV-2 to these systems and its molecular mechanisms followed by clinical manifestation. Concurrently, the prevention and treatment strategies of COVID-19 will be discussed in preclinical and clinical studies. With constantly unfolding and expanding scientific understanding about COVID-19, the updated information can help applied researchers understand the disease to build potential antiviral drugs or vaccines, and formulate creative therapeutic ideas for combating COVID-19 at speed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Immunotherapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Humans , Immune System , Immunity, Innate , Immunologic Memory , Male , Mice
3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 754708, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598891

ABSTRACT

Introduction: During severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, the virus hijacks the mitochondria causing damage of its membrane and release of mt-DNA into the circulation which can trigger innate immunity and generate an inflammatory state. In this study, we explored the importance of peripheral blood mt-DNA as an early predictor of evolution in patients with COVID-19 and to evaluate the association between the concentration of mt-DNA and the severity of the disease and the patient's outcome. Methods: A total 102 patients (51 COVID-19 cases and 51 controls) were included in the study. mt-DNA obtained from peripheral blood was quantified by qRT-PCR using the NADH mitochondrial gene. Results: There were differences in peripheral blood mt-DNA between patients with COVID-19 (4.25 ng/µl ± 0.30) and controls (3.3 ng/µl ± 0.16) (p = 0.007). Lower mt-DNA concentrations were observed in patients with severe COVID-19 when compared with mild (p= 0.005) and moderate (p= 0.011) cases of COVID-19. In comparison with patients with severe COVID-19 who survived (3.74 ± 0.26 ng/µl) decreased levels of mt-DNA in patients with severe COVID-19 who died (2.4 ± 0.65 ng/µl) were also observed (p = 0.037). Conclusion: High levels of mt-DNA were associated with COVID-19 and its decrease could be used as a potential biomarker to establish a prognosis of severity and mortality of patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Mitochondria/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(50): e344, 2021 Dec 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596795

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is being overcome by widespread inoculation with various COVID-19 vaccines, but concerns about the safety of the vaccines are a major hurdle to widespread vaccination. We report the first case of adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) developing in a 36-year-old, previously healthy woman after the first dose of BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (Pfizer). She visited our hospital due to high spiking fever and sore throat that developed 10 days after vaccination. Based on thorough investigations and changes in symptoms and signs after admission, she was diagnosed with AOSD and treated with high dose steroids and tocilizumab. This report suggests the possibility that AOSD could be triggered by COVID-19 vaccines through activation of the innate immune system.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , Still's Disease, Adult-Onset/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Adult , Female , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Still's Disease, Adult-Onset/drug therapy
5.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575478

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a newly emerging virus that currently lacks curative treatments. Lactoferrin (LF) is a naturally occurring non-toxic glycoprotein with broad-spectrum antiviral, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we assessed the potential of LF in the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. Antiviral immune response gene expression was analyzed by qRT-PCR in uninfected Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells treated with LF. An infection assay for SARS-CoV-2 was performed in Caco-2 cells treated or not with LF. SARS-CoV-2 titer was determined by qRT-PCR, plaque assay and immunostaining. Inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine production was determined by qRT-PCR. LF significantly induced the expression of IFNA1, IFNB1, TLR3, TLR7, IRF3, IRF7 and MAVS genes. Furthermore, LF partially inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection and replication in Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells. Our in vitro data support LF as an immune modulator of the antiviral immune response with moderate effects against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Gene Expression Regulation , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Lactoferrin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Caco-2 Cells , Chlorocebus aethiops , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Gene Expression Regulation/immunology , Humans , Vero Cells
6.
Int Immunol ; 33(10): 507-513, 2021 09 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575069

ABSTRACT

Understanding the precise nature and durability of protective immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is essential in order to gain insight into the pathophysiology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to develop novel treatment strategies to this disease. Here, I succinctly summarize what is currently known and unknown about the immune response during COVID-19 and discuss whether natural infections can lead to herd immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Herd/immunology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
7.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(6): e2234, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574124

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (Covid-19) pandemic is the most serious event of the year 2020, causing considerable global morbidity and mortality. The goal of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of reported associations between inter-individual immunogenic variants and disease susceptibility or symptoms caused by the coronavirus strains severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus-2, and two of the main respiratory viruses, respiratory syncytial virus and influenza virus. The results suggest that the genetic background of the host could affect the levels of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and might modulate the progression of Covid-19 in affected patients. Notably, genetic variations in innate immune components such as toll-like receptors and mannose-binding lectin 2 play critical roles in the ability of the immune system to recognize coronavirus and initiate an early immune response to clear the virus and prevent the development of severe symptoms. This review provides promising clues related to the potential benefits of using immunotherapy and immune modulation for respiratory infectious disease treatment in a personalized manner.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Influenza, Human/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Variation, Individual , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Gene Expression , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/genetics , Influenza, Human/virology , Mannose-Binding Lectin/genetics , Mannose-Binding Lectin/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae/drug effects , Orthomyxoviridae/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/drug effects , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/immunology , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/genetics , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Toll-Like Receptors/genetics , Toll-Like Receptors/immunology
8.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 11 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574265

ABSTRACT

Modulation of the antiviral innate immune response has been proposed as a putative cellular target for the development of novel pan-viral therapeutic strategies. The Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway is especially relevant due to its essential role in the regulation of local and systemic inflammation in response to viral infections, being, therefore, a putative therapeutic target. Here, we review the extraordinary diversity of strategies that viruses have evolved to interfere with JAK-STAT signaling, stressing the relevance of this pathway as a putative antiviral target. Moreover, due to the recent remarkable progress on the development of novel JAK inhibitors (JAKi), the current knowledge on its efficacy against distinct viral infections is also discussed. JAKi have a proven efficacy against a broad spectrum of disorders and exhibit safety profiles comparable to biologics, therefore representing good candidates for drug repurposing strategies, including viral infections.


Subject(s)
Janus Kinases/metabolism , STAT Transcription Factors/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Viruses/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Janus Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/immunology , Viruses/classification , Viruses/drug effects
10.
PLoS Med ; 18(12): e1003879, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573611

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 (or Alpha) variant is insufficiently understood. This study's objective was to describe the introduction and expansion of this variant in Qatar and to estimate the efficacy of natural infection against reinfection with this variant. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Reinfections with the B.1.1.7 variant and variants of unknown status were investigated in a national cohort of 158,608 individuals with prior PCR-confirmed infections and a national cohort of 42,848 antibody-positive individuals. Infections with B.1.1.7 and variants of unknown status were also investigated in a national comparator cohort of 132,701 antibody-negative individuals. B.1.1.7 was first identified in Qatar on 25 December 2020. Sudden, large B.1.1.7 epidemic expansion was observed starting on 18 January 2021, triggering the onset of epidemic's second wave, 7 months after the first wave. B.1.1.7 was about 60% more infectious than the original (wild-type) circulating variants. Among persons with a prior PCR-confirmed infection, the efficacy of natural infection against reinfection was estimated to be 97.5% (95% CI: 95.7% to 98.6%) for B.1.1.7 and 92.2% (95% CI: 90.6% to 93.5%) for variants of unknown status. Among antibody-positive persons, the efficacy of natural infection against reinfection was estimated to be 97.0% (95% CI: 92.5% to 98.7%) for B.1.1.7 and 94.2% (95% CI: 91.8% to 96.0%) for variants of unknown status. A main limitation of this study is assessment of reinfections based on documented PCR-confirmed reinfections, but other reinfections could have occurred and gone undocumented. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed that introduction of B.1.1.7 into a naïve population can create a major epidemic wave, but natural immunity in those previously infected was strongly associated with limited incidence of reinfection by B.1.1.7 or other variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Reinfection/epidemiology , Reinfection/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Basic Reproduction Number , Child , Female , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Theoretical , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Qatar/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Young Adult
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572496

ABSTRACT

In humans, over-activation of innate immunity in response to viral or bacterial infections often causes severe illness and death. Furthermore, similar mechanisms related to innate immunity can cause pathogenesis and death in sepsis, massive trauma (including surgery and burns), ischemia/reperfusion, some toxic lesions, and viral infections including COVID-19. Based on the reviewed observations, we suggest that such severe outcomes may be manifestations of a controlled suicidal strategy protecting the entire population from the spread of pathogens and from dangerous pathologies rather than an aberrant hyperstimulation of defense responses. We argue that innate immunity may be involved in the implementation of an altruistic programmed death of an organism aimed at increasing the well-being of the whole community. We discuss possible ways to suppress this atavistic program by interfering with innate immunity and suggest that combating this program should be a major goal of future medicine.


Subject(s)
Altruism , Apoptosis/immunology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Death/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Humans , Inflammasomes/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction/immunology
12.
Chem Biol Interact ; 352: 109776, 2022 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568541

ABSTRACT

Boosting or suppressing our immune system represents an attractive adjunct in the treatment of infections including SARS-CoV-2, cancer, AIDS, malnutrition, age related problems and some inflammatory disorders. Thus, there has been a growing interest in exploring and developing novel drugs, natural or synthetic, that can manipulate our defence mechanism. Many of such studies, reported till date, have been designed to explore effect of the therapeutic on function of macrophages, being a key component in innate immune system. Indeed, RAW264.7, J774A.1, THP-1 and U937 cell lines act as ideal model systems for preliminary investigation and selection of dose for in vivo studies. Several bioassays have been standardized so far where many techniques require high throughput instruments, cost effective reagents and technical assistance that may hinder many scholars to perform a method demanding compilation of available protocols. In this review, we have taken an attempt for the first time to congregate commonly used in vitro immune-modulating techniques explaining their principles. The study detected that among about 40 different assays and more than 150 sets of primers, the methods of cell proliferation by MTT, phagocytosis by neutral red, NO detection by Griess reaction and estimation of expression of TLRs, COX-2, iNOS, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1ß by PCR have been the most widely used to screen the therapeutics under investigation.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Innate/immunology , Immunomodulation/immunology , Animals , Cell Line , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/physiology , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Phagocytosis/immunology
13.
Chem Biol Interact ; 352: 109777, 2022 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559106

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the differences in the immune response against SARS-CoV-2 infection of patients based on sex and disease severity. METHODS: We used an analytical framework of 382 transcriptional modules and multi-omics analyses to discriminate COVID-19 patients based on sex and disease severity. RESULTS: Male and female patients overexpressed modules related to the innate immune response. The expression of modules related to the adaptive immune response showed lower enrichment levels in males than females. Inflammation modules showed ascending overexpression in male and female patients, while a higher level was observed in severe female patients. Moderate female patients demonstrated significant overexpression to interferon, cytolytic lymphocyte, T & B cells, and erythrocytes modules. Moderate female patients showed a higher adaptive immune response than males matched group. Pathways involved in metabolism dysregulation and Hippo signaling were upregulated in females than in male patients. Females and moderate cases showed higher levels of metabolic dysregulation. CONCLUSIONS: The immune landscape in COVID-19 patients was noticeably different between the sexes, and these differences may highlight disease vulnerability in males. This study suggested that certain treatments that increase or decrease the immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 might be necessary for male and female patients at certain disease stages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/pathology , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocytes/metabolism , Lymphocytes/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Characteristics
14.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 20(9): 518-519, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550304
15.
Life Sci Alliance ; 5(3)2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1552086

ABSTRACT

Murine neural stem cells (NSCs) were recently shown to release piRNA-containing exosomes/microvesicles (Ex/Mv) for exerting antiviral immunity, but it remains unknown if these Ex/Mv could target SARS-CoV-2 and whether the PIWI-piRNA system is important for these antiviral actions. Here, using in vitro infection models, we show that hypothalamic NSCs (htNSCs) Ex/Mv provided an innate immunity protection against SARS-CoV-2. Importantly, enhanced antiviral actions were achieved by using induced Ex/Mv that were derived from induced htNSCs through twice being exposed to several RNA fragments of SARS-CoV-2 genome, a process that was designed not to involve protein translation of these RNA fragments. The increased antiviral effects of these induced Ex/Mv were associated with increased expression of piRNA species some of which could predictably target SARS-CoV-2 genome. Knockout of piRNA-interacting protein PIWIL2 in htNSCs led to reductions in both innate and induced antiviral effects of Ex/Mv in targeting SARS-CoV-2. Taken together, this study demonstrates a case suggesting Ex/Mv from certain cell types have innate and adaptive immunity against SARS-CoV-2, and the PIWI-piRNA system is important for these antiviral actions.


Subject(s)
Argonaute Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Cell-Derived Microparticles/metabolism , Exosomes , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , RNA/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , A549 Cells , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Genome, Viral , Humans , Hypothalamus/metabolism , Immune System , Immunity, Innate , In Vitro Techniques , Mice
16.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 63-81, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544343

ABSTRACT

Although significant research has been done to find effective drugs against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), no definite effective drug exists. Thus, research has now shifted towards immunomodulatory agents other than antivirals. In this review, we aim to describe the latest findings on the role of type I interferon (IFN)-mediated innate antiviral response against SARS-CoV-2 and discuss the use of IFNs as a medication for COVID-19. A growing body of evidence has indicated a promoting active but delayed IFNs response to SARS-CoV-2 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in infected bronchial epithelial cells. Studies have demonstrated that IFNs' administration before the viral peak and the inflammatory phase of disease could offer a highly protective effect. However, IFNs' treatment during the inflammatory and severe stages of the disease causes immunopathology and long-lasting harm for patients. Therefore, it is critical to note the best time window for IFNs' administration. Further investigation of the clinical effectiveness of interferon for patients with mild to severe COVID-19 and its optimal timing and route of administration can be beneficial in finding a safe and effective antiviral therapy for the COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Interferon Type I/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Immunomodulation/drug effects
17.
JCI Insight ; 6(22)2021 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDInfluenza A virus (IAV) and SARS-CoV-2 are pandemic viruses causing millions of deaths, yet their clinical manifestations are distinctly different.METHODSWith the hypothesis that upper airway immune and epithelial cell responses are also distinct, we performed single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-Seq) on nasal wash cells freshly collected from adults with either acute COVID-19 or influenza or from healthy controls. We focused on major cell types and subtypes in a subset of donor samples.ResultsNasal wash cells were enriched for macrophages and neutrophils for both individuals with influenza and those with COVID-19 compared with healthy controls. Hillock-like epithelial cells, M2-like macrophages, and age-dependent B cells were enriched in COVID-19 samples. A global decrease in IFN-associated transcripts in neutrophils, macrophages, and epithelial cells was apparent in COVID-19 samples compared with influenza samples. The innate immune response to SARS-CoV-2 appears to be maintained in macrophages, despite evidence for limited epithelial cell immune sensing. Cell-to-cell interaction analyses revealed a decrease in epithelial cell interactions in COVID-19 and highlighted differences in macrophage-macrophage interactions for COVID-19 and influenza.ConclusionsOur study demonstrates that scRNA-Seq can define host and viral transcriptional activity at the site of infection and reveal distinct local epithelial and immune cell responses for COVID-19 and influenza that may contribute to their divergent disease courses.FundingMassachusetts Consortium on Pathogen Readiness, the Mathers Foundation, and the Department of Defense (W81XWH2110029) "COVID-19 Expansion for AIRe Program."


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunity, Innate , Influenza A virus , Influenza, Human , Macrophages , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza, Human/genetics , Influenza, Human/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/virology , Male , Nasal Lavage , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
18.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(10): 1384-1387, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518650

ABSTRACT

Occurrence and recurrence of COVID-19 cases have been observed globally. The complex relationship of host-pathogen and the environment plays a vital role in understanding the widespread recurrence of the SARS-CoV-2 among humans. Though the pathobiology of the disease is not completely understood, it is well established that COVID-19 poses a greater threat to individuals with co-morbidities and a weakened immune system. The article deals with the notion of innate immunity, natural selection, and the survival of the fittest during the COVID-19 outbreak. The article also attempts to introduce the concept of "lifestyle and cultural immunity" that needs to be addressed and incorporated at an early stage of childhood to boost up the human immune system. The communication further discusses the role of vaccination and micro-organisms pre-existing in the environment which are required to enhance the immunity of an individual.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Immunity, Innate , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Selection, Genetic/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks , Disease Susceptibility/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Selection, Genetic/immunology , Vaccination
19.
Front Immunol ; 12: 756288, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518488

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused many deaths worldwide. To date, the mechanism of viral immune escape remains unclear, which is a great obstacle to developing effective clinical treatment. RNA processing mechanisms, including alternative polyadenylation (APA) and alternative splicing (AS), are crucial in the regulation of most human genes in many types of infectious diseases. Because the role of APA and AS in response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection remains unknown, we performed de novo identification of dynamic APA sites using a public dataset of human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) RNA-Seq data in COVID-19 patients. We found that genes with APA were enriched in innate immunity -related gene ontology categories such as neutrophil activation, regulation of the MAPK cascade and cytokine production, response to interferon-gamma and the innate immune response. We also reported genome-wide AS events and enriched viral transcription-related categories upon SARS-CoV-2 infection. Interestingly, we found that APA events may give better predictions than AS in COVID-19 patients, suggesting that APA could act as a potential therapeutic target and novel biomarker in those patients. Our study is the first to annotate genes with APA and AS in COVID-19 patients and highlights the roles of APA variation in SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Polyadenylation , SARS-CoV-2 , Alternative Splicing , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Genome, Human , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Male , RNA, Messenger , Transcriptome
20.
Front Immunol ; 12: 697622, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518482

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The longitudinal and systematic evaluation of immunity in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients is rarely reported. Methods: Parameters involved in innate, adaptive, and humoral immunity were continuously monitored in COVID-19 patients from onset of illness until 45 days after symptom onset. Results: This study enrolled 27 mild, 47 severe, and 46 deceased COVID-19 patients. Generally, deceased patients demonstrated a gradual increase of neutrophils and IL-6 but a decrease of lymphocytes and platelets after the onset of illness. Specifically, sustained low numbers of CD8+ T cells, NK cells, and dendritic cells were noted in deceased patients, while these cells gradually restored in mild and severe patients. Furthermore, deceased patients displayed a rapid increase of HLA-DR expression on CD4+ T cells in the early phase, but with a low level of overall CD45RO and HLA-DR expressions on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, respectively. Notably, in the early phase, deceased patients showed a lower level of plasma cells and antigen-specific IgG, but higher expansion of CD16+CD14+ proinflammatory monocytes and HLA-DR-CD14+ monocytic-myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSCs) than mild or severe patients. Among these immunological parameters, M-MDSCs showed the best performance in predicting COVID-19 mortality, when using a cutoff value of ≥10%. Cluster analysis found a typical immunological pattern in deceased patients on day 9 after onset, which was characterized as the increase of inflammatory markers (M-MDSCs, neutrophils, CD16+CD14+ monocytes, and IL-6) but a decrease of host immunity markers. Conclusions: This study systemically characterizes the kinetics of immunity of COVID-19, highlighting the importance of immunity in patient prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adaptive Immunity , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/classification , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cytokines/blood , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
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