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1.
Nat Genet ; 55(5): 742-743, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312586
2.
Mutat Res Rev Mutat Res ; 790: 108440, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2308772

ABSTRACT

In higher eukaryotes, sophisticate regulation of genome function requires all chromosomes to be packed into a single nucleus. Micronucleus (MN), the dissociative nucleus-like structure frequently observed in aging and multiple disease settings, has critical, yet under-recognized, pathophysiological functions. Micronuclei (MNi) have recently emerged as major sources of cytosolic DNA that can activate the cGAS-STING axis in a cell-intrinsic manner. However, MNi induced from different genotoxic stressors display great heterogeneity in binding or activating cGAS and the signaling responses downstream of the MN-induced cGAS-STING axis have divergent outcomes including autoimmunity, autoinflammation, metastasis, or cell death. Thus, full characterization of molecular network underpinning the interplay of cGAS and MN is important to elucidate the pathophysiological roles of immunogenic MN and design improved drugs that selectively target cancer via boosting the MN-derived cGAS-STING axis. Here, we summarize our current understanding of the mechanisms for self-DNA discrimination by cGAS. We focus on discussing how MN immunogencity is dictated by multiple mechanisms including integrity of micronuclear envelope, state of nucleosome and DNA, competitive factors, damaged mitochondrial DNA and micronucleophagy. We also describe emerging links between immunogenic MN and human diseases including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and COVID-19. Particularly, we explore the exciting concept of inducing immunogenic MN as a therapeutic approach in treating cancer. We propose a new theoretical framework to describe immunogenic MN as a biological sensor to modulate cellular processes in response to genotoxic stress and provide perspectives on developing novel experimental approaches to unravel the complexity of MN immunogenicity regulation and immunogenic MN pathophysiology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Humans , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Nucleotidyltransferases/genetics , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism , DNA/metabolism , Neoplasms/genetics , Immunity, Innate/genetics
3.
Nat Genet ; 55(5): 753-767, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294568

ABSTRACT

Mechanisms underpinning the dysfunctional immune response in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection are elusive. We analyzed single-cell transcriptomes and T and B cell receptors (BCR) of >895,000 peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 73 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and 75 healthy controls of Japanese ancestry with host genetic data. COVID-19 patients showed a low fraction of nonclassical monocytes (ncMono). We report downregulated cell transitions from classical monocytes to ncMono in COVID-19 with reduced CXCL10 expression in ncMono in severe disease. Cell-cell communication analysis inferred decreased cellular interactions involving ncMono in severe COVID-19. Clonal expansions of BCR were evident in the plasmablasts of patients. Putative disease genes identified by COVID-19 genome-wide association study showed cell type-specific expressions in monocytes and dendritic cells. A COVID-19-associated risk variant at the IFNAR2 locus (rs13050728) had context-specific and monocyte-specific expression quantitative trait loci effects. Our study highlights biological and host genetic involvement of innate immune cells in COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Humans , Genome-Wide Association Study , COVID-19/genetics , Single-Cell Analysis , Immunity, Innate/genetics
5.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1035111, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2215274

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The emergence of multiple variants of concerns (VOCs) with higher number of Spike mutations have led to enhanced immune escape by the SARS-CoV-2. With the increasing number of vaccination breakthrough (VBT) infections, it is important to understand the possible reason/s of the breakthrough infections. Methods: We performed transcriptome sequencing of 57 VBT and unvaccinated COVID-19 patients, followed by differential expression and co-expression analysis of the lncRNAs and the mRNAs. The regulatory mechanism was highlighted by analysis towards repeat element distribution within the co-expressed lncRNAs, followed by repeats driven homologous interaction between the lncRNAs and the promoter regions of genes from the same topologically associated domains (TAD). Results: We identified 727 differentially expressed lncRNAs (153 upregulated and 574 downregulated) and 338 mRNAs (34 up- and 334 downregulated) in the VBT patients. This includes LUCAT1, MALAT1, ROR1-AS1, UGDH-AS1 and LINC00273 mediated modulation of immune response, whereas MALAT1, NEAT1 and GAS5 regulated inflammatory response in the VBT. LncRNA-mRNA co-expression analysis highlighted 34 lncRNAs interacting with 267 mRNAs. We also observed a higher abundance of Alu, LINE1 and LTRs within the interacting lncRNAs of the VBT patients. These interacting lncRNAs have higher interaction with the promoter region of the genes from the same TAD, compared to the non-interacting lncRNAs with the enrichment of Alu and LINE1 in the gene promoter. Discussion: Significant downregulation and GSEA of the TAD gene suggest Alu and LINE1 driven homologous interaction between the lncRNAs and the TAD genes as a possible mechanism of lncRNA-mediated suppression of innate immune/inflammatory responses and activation of adaptive immune response. The lncRNA-mediated suppression of innate immune/inflammatory responses and activation of adaptive immune response might explain the SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections with milder symptoms in the VBT. Besides, the study also highlights repeat element mediated regulation of genes in 3D as another possible way of lncRNA-mediated immune-regulation modulating vaccination breakthroughs milder disease phenotype and shorter hospital stay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA, Long Noncoding , Humans , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Transcriptome , Down-Regulation , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Vaccination , RNA, Messenger , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Inflammation/genetics
6.
Nature ; 614(7949): 752-761, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185939

ABSTRACT

Acute viral infections can have durable functional impacts on the immune system long after recovery, but how they affect homeostatic immune states and responses to future perturbations remain poorly understood1-4. Here we use systems immunology approaches, including longitudinal multimodal single-cell analysis (surface proteins, transcriptome and V(D)J sequences) to comparatively assess baseline immune statuses and responses to influenza vaccination in 33 healthy individuals after recovery from mild, non-hospitalized COVID-19 (mean, 151 days after diagnosis) and 40 age- and sex-matched control individuals who had never had COVID-19. At the baseline and independent of time after COVID-19, recoverees had elevated T cell activation signatures and lower expression of innate immune genes including Toll-like receptors in monocytes. Male individuals who had recovered from COVID-19 had coordinately higher innate, influenza-specific plasmablast, and antibody responses after vaccination compared with healthy male individuals and female individuals who had recovered from COVID-19, in part because male recoverees had monocytes with higher IL-15 responses early after vaccination coupled with elevated prevaccination frequencies of 'virtual memory'-like CD8+ T cells poised to produce more IFNγ after IL-15 stimulation. Moreover, the expression of the repressed innate immune genes in monocytes increased by day 1 to day 28 after vaccination in recoverees, therefore moving towards the prevaccination baseline of the healthy control individuals. By contrast, these genes decreased on day 1 and returned to the baseline by day 28 in the control individuals. Our study reveals sex-dimorphic effects of previous mild COVID-19 and suggests that viral infections in humans can establish new immunological set-points that affect future immune responses in an antigen-agnostic manner.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunity, Innate , Immunologic Memory , Influenza Vaccines , Sex Characteristics , T-Lymphocytes , Vaccination , Female , Humans , Male , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Interleukin-15/immunology , Toll-Like Receptors/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/cytology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Monocytes , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Single-Cell Analysis , Healthy Volunteers
7.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280392, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197158

ABSTRACT

For coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a pandemic disease characterized by strong immune dysregulation in severe patients, convenient and efficient monitoring of the host immune response is critical. Human hosts respond to viral and bacterial infections in different ways, the former is characterized by the activation of interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) such as IFI27, while the latter is characterized by the activation of anti-bacterial associated genes (ABGs) such as S100A12. This two-tiered innate immune response has not been examined in COVID-19. In this study, the activation patterns of this two-tiered innate immune response represented by IFI27 and S100A12 were explored based on 1421 samples from 17 transcriptome datasets derived from the blood of COVID-19 patients and relevant controls. It was found that IFI27 activation occurred in most of the symptomatic patients and displayed no correlation with disease severity, while S100A12 activation was more restricted to patients under severe and critical conditions with a stepwise activation pattern. In addition, most of the S100A12 activation was accompanied by IFI27 activation. Furthermore, the activation of IFI27 was most pronounced within the first week of symptom onset, but generally waned after 2-3 weeks. On the other hand, the activation of S100A12 displayed no apparent correlation with disease duration and could last for several months in certain patients. These features of the two-tiered innate immune response can further our understanding on the disease mechanism of COVID-19 and may have implications to the clinical triage. Development of a convenient two-gene protocol for the routine serial monitoring of this two-tiered immune response will be a valuable addition to the existing laboratory tests.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunity, Innate , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Genetic Markers , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Interferons , S100A12 Protein/genetics
8.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 377, 2022 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119328

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant infection generally gives rise to asymptomatic to moderate COVID-19 in vaccinated people. The immune cells can be reprogrammed or "imprinted" by vaccination and infections to generate protective immunity against subsequent challenges. Considering the immune imprint in Omicron infection is unclear, here we delineate the innate immune landscape of human Omicron infection via single-cell RNA sequencing, surface proteome profiling, and plasma cytokine quantification. We found that monocyte responses predominated in immune imprints of Omicron convalescents, with IL-1ß-associated and interferon (IFN)-responsive signatures with mild and moderate symptoms, respectively. Low-density neutrophils increased and exhibited IL-1ß-associated and IFN-responsive signatures similarly. Mild convalescents had increased blood IL-1ß, CCL4, IL-9 levels and PI3+ neutrophils, indicating a bias to IL-1ß responsiveness, while moderate convalescents had increased blood CXCL10 and IFN-responsive monocytes, suggesting durative IFN responses. Therefore, IL-1ß- or IFN-responsiveness of myeloid cells may indicate the disease severity of Omicron infection and mediate post-COVID conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Cytokines , Immunity, Innate/genetics
9.
Life Sci ; 301: 120624, 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105537

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To study effects on cellular innate immune responses to ORF8, ORF10, and Membrane protein (M protein) from the Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes COVID-19, in combination with cannabidiol (CBD). MAIN METHODS: HEK293 cells transfected with plasmids expressing control vector, ORF8, ORF10, or M protein were assayed for cell number and markers of apoptosis at 24 h, and interferon and interferon-stimulated gene expression at 14 h, with or without CBD. Cells transfected with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (Poly (I:C)) were also studied as a general model of RNA-type viral infection. KEY FINDINGS: Reduced cell number and increased early and late apoptosis were found when expression of viral genes was combined with 1-2 µM CBD treatment, but not in control-transfected cells treated with CBD, or in cells expressing viral genes but treated only with vehicle. In cells expressing viral genes, CBD augmented expression of IFNγ, IFNλ1 and IFNλ2/3, as well as the 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) family members OAS1, OAS2, OAS3, and OASL. CBD also augmented expression of these genes in control cells not expressing viral genes, but without enhancing apoptosis. CBD similarly enhanced the cellular anti-viral response to Poly (I:C). SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate a poor ability of HEK293 cells to respond to SARS-CoV-2 genes alone, but an augmented innate anti-viral response to these genes in the presence of CBD. Thus, CBD may prime components of the innate immune system, increasing readiness to respond to RNA-type viral infection without activating apoptosis, and could be studied for potential in prophylaxis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cannabidiol , Antiviral Agents , Apoptosis , Cannabidiol/pharmacology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Interferons/pharmacology , Membrane Proteins , Poly I-C/pharmacology , RNA , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099576

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces immune-mediated type 1 interferon (IFN-1) production, the pathophysiology of which involves sterile alpha motif and histidine-aspartate domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) tetramerization and the cytosolic DNA sensor cyclic-GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-stimulator of interferon genes (STING) signaling pathway. As a result, type I interferonopathies are exacerbated. Aspirin inhibits cGAS-mediated signaling through cGAS acetylation. Acetylation contributes to cGAS activity control and activates IFN-1 production and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling via STING. Aspirin and dapsone inhibit the activation of both IFN-1 and NF-κB by targeting cGAS. We define these as anticatalytic mechanisms. It is necessary to alleviate the pathologic course and take the lag time of the odds of achieving viral clearance by day 7 to coordinate innate or adaptive immune cell reactions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Interferon Type I , Humans , Acetylation , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Drug Repositioning , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Aspirin , Immunity, Innate/genetics
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(37): e2210321119, 2022 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001009

ABSTRACT

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as critical regulators of gene expression, yet their contribution to immune regulation in humans remains poorly understood. Here, we report that the primate-specific lncRNA CHROMR is induced by influenza A virus and SARS-CoV-2 infection and coordinates the expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) that execute antiviral responses. CHROMR depletion in human macrophages reduces histone acetylation at regulatory regions of ISG loci and attenuates ISG expression in response to microbial stimuli. Mechanistically, we show that CHROMR sequesters the interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-2-dependent transcriptional corepressor IRF2BP2, thereby licensing IRF-dependent signaling and transcription of the ISG network. Consequently, CHROMR expression is essential to restrict viral infection of macrophages. Our findings identify CHROMR as a key arbitrator of antiviral innate immune signaling in humans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , DNA-Binding Proteins , Immunity, Innate , Influenza A virus , Influenza, Human , RNA, Long Noncoding , SARS-CoV-2 , Transcription Factors , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza, Human/genetics , Influenza, Human/immunology , Interferon Regulatory Factors/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factors/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Transcription Factors/metabolism
12.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 486, 2022 Jul 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974114

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), including microRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), are pivotal regulators involved in the pathogenic mechanism of multiple coronaviruses. Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) has evolved multiple strategies to escape the innate immune response of host cells, but whether ncRNAs are involved in this process during PDCoV infection is still unknown. RESULTS: In this study, the expression profiles of miRNAs, lncRNAs and mRNAs in IPEC-J2 cells infected with PDCoV at 0, 12 and 24 hours postinfection (hpi) were identified through small RNA and RNA sequencing. The differentially expressed miRNAs (DEmiRNAs), lncRNAs (DElncRNAs) and mRNAs (DEmRNAs) were screened from the comparison group of IPEC-J2 cells at 0 and 12 hpi as well as the comparison group of IPEC-J2 cells at 12 and 24 hpi. The target genes of these DEncRNAs were predicted. The bioinformatics analysis of the target genes revealed multiple significantly enriched functions and pathways. Among them, the genes that were associated with innate immunity were specifically screened. The expression of innate immunity-related ncRNAs and mRNAs was validated by RT-qPCR. Competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) regulatory networks among innate immunity-related ncRNAs and their target mRNAs were established. Moreover, we found that the replication of PDCoV was significantly inhibited by two innate immunity-related miRNAs, ssc-miR-30c-3p and ssc-miR-374b-3p, in IPEC-J2 cells. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a data platform to conduct studies of the pathogenic mechanism of PDCoV from a new perspective and will be helpful for further elucidation of the functional role of ncRNAs involved in PDCoV escaping the innate immune response.


Subject(s)
MicroRNAs , RNA, Long Noncoding , Animals , Immunity, Innate/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Untranslated , Swine
13.
Int J Biol Sci ; 18(12): 4731-4743, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954688

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is caused by an RNA virus, SARS-CoV-2. The genome of SARS-CoV-2 lacks a nuclear phase in its life cycle and is replicated in the cytoplasm. However, interfering with nuclear trafficking using pharmacological inhibitors greatly reduces virus infection and virus replication of other coronaviruses is blocked in enucleated cells, suggesting a critical role of the nucleus in virus infection. Here, we summarize the alternations of nuclear pathways caused by SARS-CoV-2, including nuclear translocation pathways, innate immune responses, mRNA metabolism, epigenetic mechanisms, DNA damage response, cytoskeleton regulation, and nuclear rupture. We consider how these alternations contribute to virus replication and discuss therapeutic treatments that target these pathways, focusing on small molecule drugs that are being used in clinical studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Pandemics , Virus Replication/genetics
14.
Immunogenetics ; 74(1): 149-165, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906024

ABSTRACT

Birds are important hosts for many RNA viruses, including influenza A virus, Newcastle disease virus, West Nile virus and coronaviruses. Innate defense against RNA viruses in birds involves detection of viral RNA by pattern recognition receptors. Several receptors of different classes are involved, such as endosomal toll-like receptors and cytoplasmic retinoic acid-inducible gene I-like receptors, and their downstream adaptor proteins. The function of these receptors and their antagonism by viruses is well established in mammals; however, this has received less attention in birds. These receptors have been characterized in a few bird species, and the completion of avian genomes will permit study of their evolution. For each receptor, functional work has established ligand specificity and activation by viral infection. Engagement of adaptors, regulation by modulators and the supramolecular organization of proteins required for activation are incompletely understood in both mammals and birds. These receptors bind conserved nucleic acid agonists such as single- or double-stranded RNA and generally show purifying selection, particularly the ligand binding regions. However, in birds, these receptors and adaptors differ between species, and between individuals, suggesting that they are under selection for diversification over time. Avian receptors and signalling pathways, like their mammalian counterparts, are targets for antagonism by a variety of viruses, intent on escape from innate immune responses.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus , RNA , Animals , Birds/genetics , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Influenza A virus/genetics , Ligands , Mammals/genetics
16.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 137, 2022 04 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805598

ABSTRACT

Whether and how innate antiviral response is regulated by humoral metabolism remains enigmatic. We show that viral infection induces progesterone via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in mice. Progesterone induces downstream antiviral genes and promotes innate antiviral response in cells and mice, whereas knockout of the progesterone receptor PGR has opposite effects. Mechanistically, stimulation of PGR by progesterone activates the tyrosine kinase SRC, which phosphorylates the transcriptional factor IRF3 at Y107, leading to its activation and induction of antiviral genes. SARS-CoV-2-infected patients have increased progesterone levels, and which are co-related with decreased severity of COVID-19. Our findings reveal how progesterone modulates host innate antiviral response, and point to progesterone as a potential immunomodulatory reagent for infectious and inflammatory diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/genetics , Humans , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Mice , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Progesterone/pharmacology
17.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 50(5): 2509-2521, 2022 03 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722548

ABSTRACT

Upon SARS-CoV-2 infection, viral intermediates specifically activate the IFN response through MDA5-mediated sensing and accordingly induce ADAR1 p150 expression, which might lead to viral A-to-I RNA editing. Here, we developed an RNA virus-specific editing identification pipeline, surveyed 7622 RNA-seq data from diverse types of samples infected with SARS-CoV-2, and constructed an atlas of A-to-I RNA editing sites in SARS-CoV-2. We found that A-to-I editing was dynamically regulated, varied between tissue and cell types, and was correlated with the intensity of innate immune response. On average, 91 editing events were deposited at viral dsRNA intermediates per sample. Moreover, editing hotspots were observed, including recoding sites in the spike gene that affect viral infectivity and antigenicity. Finally, we provided evidence that RNA editing accelerated SARS-CoV-2 evolution in humans during the epidemic. Our study highlights the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to hijack components of the host antiviral machinery to edit its genome and fuel its evolution, and also provides a framework and resource for studying viral RNA editing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , RNA Editing/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adenosine Deaminase/genetics , Adenosine Deaminase/immunology , Adenosine Deaminase/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Base Sequence , Binding Sites/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Gene Expression/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/genetics , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/immunology , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/metabolism , Mutation , Protein Binding , RNA Editing/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/immunology , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(5)2022 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715409

ABSTRACT

We propose a new hypothesis that explains the maintenance and evolution of MHC polymorphism. It is based on two phenomena: the constitution of the repertoire of naive T lymphocytes and the evolution of the pathogen and its impact on the immune memory of T lymphocytes. Concerning the latter, pathogen evolution will have a different impact on reinfection depending on the MHC allomorph. If a mutation occurs in a given region, in the case of MHC allotypes, which do not recognize the peptide in this region, the mutation will have no impact on the memory repertoire. In the case where the MHC allomorph binds to the ancestral peptides and not to the mutated peptide, that individual will have a higher chance of being reinfected. This difference in fitness will lead to a variation of the allele frequency in the next generation. Data from the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic already support a significant part of this hypothesis and following up on these data may enable it to be confirmed. This hypothesis could explain why some individuals after vaccination respond less well than others to variants and leads to predict the probability of reinfection after a first infection depending upon the variant and the HLA allomorph.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , HLA Antigens/immunology , Polymorphism, Genetic/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Gene Frequency , HLA Antigens/genetics , HLA Antigens/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Mutation/genetics , Mutation/immunology , Pandemics , Peptides/immunology , Peptides/metabolism , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , T-Lymphocytes/cytology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism
19.
Environ Res ; 210: 112890, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706308

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) symptoms range from mild to severe illness; the cause for this differential response to infection remains unknown. Unravelling the immune mechanisms acting at different levels of the colonization process might be key to understand these differences. We carried out a multi-tissue (nasal, buccal and blood; n = 156) gene expression analysis of immune-related genes from patients affected by different COVID-19 severities, and healthy controls through the nCounter technology. Mild and asymptomatic cases showed a powerful innate antiviral response in nasal epithelium, characterized by activation of interferon (IFN) pathway and downstream cascades, successfully controlling the infection at local level. In contrast, weak macrophage/monocyte driven innate antiviral response and lack of IFN signalling activity were present in severe cases. Consequently, oral mucosa from severe patients showed signals of viral activity, cell arresting and viral dissemination to the lower respiratory tract, which ultimately could explain the exacerbated innate immune response and impaired adaptative immune responses observed at systemic level. Results from saliva transcriptome suggest that the buccal cavity might play a key role in SARS-CoV-2 infection and dissemination in patients with worse prognosis. Co-expression network analysis adds further support to these findings, by detecting modules specifically correlated with severity involved in the abovementioned biological routes; this analysis also provides new candidate genes that might be tested as biomarkers in future studies. We also found tissue specific severity-related signatures mainly represented by genes involved in the innate immune system and cytokine/chemokine signalling. Local immune response could be key to determine the course of the systemic response and thus COVID-19 severity. Our findings provide a framework to investigate severity host gene biomarkers and pathways that might be relevant to diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents , Biomarkers , COVID-19/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Nasal Mucosa , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Cell ; 185(5): 881-895.e20, 2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649960

ABSTRACT

Post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) represent an emerging global crisis. However, quantifiable risk factors for PASC and their biological associations are poorly resolved. We executed a deep multi-omic, longitudinal investigation of 309 COVID-19 patients from initial diagnosis to convalescence (2-3 months later), integrated with clinical data and patient-reported symptoms. We resolved four PASC-anticipating risk factors at the time of initial COVID-19 diagnosis: type 2 diabetes, SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia, Epstein-Barr virus viremia, and specific auto-antibodies. In patients with gastrointestinal PASC, SARS-CoV-2-specific and CMV-specific CD8+ T cells exhibited unique dynamics during recovery from COVID-19. Analysis of symptom-associated immunological signatures revealed coordinated immunity polarization into four endotypes, exhibiting divergent acute severity and PASC. We find that immunological associations between PASC factors diminish over time, leading to distinct convalescent immune states. Detectability of most PASC factors at COVID-19 diagnosis emphasizes the importance of early disease measurements for understanding emergent chronic conditions and suggests PASC treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Convalescence , Adaptive Immunity/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autoantibodies/blood , Biomarkers/metabolism , Blood Proteins/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Transcriptome , Young Adult , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
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