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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(7): 264-270, 2022 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1689712

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccination is recommended for persons who are pregnant, breastfeeding, trying to get pregnant now, or who might become pregnant in the future, to protect them from COVID-19.§ Infants are at risk for life-threatening complications from COVID-19, including acute respiratory failure (1). Evidence from other vaccine-preventable diseases suggests that maternal immunization can provide protection to infants, especially during the high-risk first 6 months of life, through passive transplacental antibody transfer (2). Recent studies of COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy suggest the possibility of transplacental transfer of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies that might provide protection to infants (3-5); however, no epidemiologic evidence currently exists for the protective benefits of maternal immunization during pregnancy against COVID-19 in infants. The Overcoming COVID-19 network conducted a test-negative, case-control study at 20 pediatric hospitals in 17 states during July 1, 2021-January 17, 2022, to assess effectiveness of maternal completion of a 2-dose primary mRNA COVID-19 vaccination series during pregnancy against COVID-19 hospitalization in infants. Among 379 hospitalized infants aged <6 months (176 with COVID-19 [case-infants] and 203 without COVID-19 [control-infants]), the median age was 2 months, 21% had at least one underlying medical condition, and 22% of case- and control-infants were born premature (<37 weeks gestation). Effectiveness of maternal vaccination during pregnancy against COVID-19 hospitalization in infants aged <6 months was 61% (95% CI = 31%-78%). Completion of a 2-dose mRNA COVID-19 vaccination series during pregnancy might help prevent COVID-19 hospitalization among infants aged <6 months.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Immunity, Maternally-Acquired , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , /immunology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , United States/epidemiology
4.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(12): 100468, 2021 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550142

ABSTRACT

In view of the scarcity of data to guide decision making, we evaluated how BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 vaccines affect the immune response in lactating women and the protective profile of breastmilk. Compared with controls, lactating women had a higher frequency of circulating RBD memory B cells and higher anti-RBD antibody titers but similar neutralizing capacity. We show that upon vaccination, immune transfer to breastmilk occurs through a combination of anti-spike secretory IgA (SIgA) antibodies and spike-reactive T cells. Although we found that the concentration of anti-spike IgA in breastmilk might not be sufficient to directly neutralize SARS-CoV-2, our data suggest that cumulative transfer of IgA might provide the infant with effective neutralization capacity. Our findings put forward the possibility that breastmilk might convey both immediate (through anti-spike SIgA) and long-lived (via spike-reactive T cells) immune protection to the infant. Further studies are needed to address this possibility and to determine the functional profile of spike T cells.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory/immunology , Milk, Human/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Immunity, Maternally-Acquired , Lactation/immunology , Vaccination , /immunology
5.
Placenta ; 117: 47-56, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474964

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Maternal anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike antibodies can cross the placenta during pregnancy, and neonates born to infected mothers have acquired antibodies at birth. Few studies reported data on the histopathological changes of the placenta during infection and placental infection. SARS-CoV-2 infection may cause impaired development of the placenta, thus predisposing maternal and fetal unfavorable outcomes. The prospective study aims to evaluate the risk of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and placental passage of anti-Spike antibodies as well as the impact of clinical severity on placental structures. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study on 30 pregnant women infected by SARS-CoV-2 with their neonates. The demographic features and pregnancy outcomes were collected. Gross and microscopic examinations of the placentas were done. Maternal and umbilical cord sera were obtained at the time of delivery. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from neonates immediately after birth. RESULTS: The concentrations of total anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike antibodies were higher in pregnant women with moderate to severe/critical disease. The maternal total anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike levels were correlated with those of neonatal levels. The rate of placental abnormalities is high in the mothers with severe disease, and those with positive anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM. All neonates had negative nasopharyngeal swabs for SARS- CoV-2 infections and all placentas were negative in immunohistochemical staining for Spike protein. DISCUSSION: The maternally derived anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike antibody can transmit to neonates born to infected mothers regardless of gestational age. Our results indicated that the disease severity is associated with ischemic placental pathology which may result in adverse pregnancy outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Placenta Diseases/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , Cohort Studies , Female , Fetal Blood/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Maternally-Acquired/immunology , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Placenta/chemistry , Placenta/pathology , Placenta/virology , Placenta Diseases/pathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Pregnancy Outcome , Premature Birth , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
7.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 20(12): 1619-1628, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442947

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The concern of undergoing vaccination during pregnancy and lactation, in absence of data on safety and efficacy in these target populations, is subject of ongoing debate nationally and internationally. However, the only real prophylactic strategy against COVID-19 is still mass vaccination, which means to vaccinate infants and pregnant and lactating women. AREAS COVERED: This is a systematic review aiming to evaluate the safety and the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines in pregnant and lactating women and their newborns. We did advanced research on PubMed and Google Scholar, and searched for any evidence also on ClinicalTrials.gov. Results refer to a timeline going until 12 June 2021. EXPERT OPINION: Our efforts must be directed to vaccine more and more population groups which have been preliminarily excluded from the vaccination campaign. Studies have not so far highlighted plausible adverse effects in vaccinated pregnant women or in their newborns. Reactogenicity across lactating and pregnant women does not seem to differ from general population. Likewise, abortion rate does not differ from non-vaccinated pregnant women studied before the COVID-19 pandemic. It also seems that a major amount of anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulins is transferred through the placenta and the breastmilk to the newborn, providing humoral immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Vaccination , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Immunity, Maternally-Acquired , Infant, Newborn , Lactation , Pandemics , Pregnancy
8.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(7): 2151-2155, 2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246118

ABSTRACT

AIM: To discuss available information on the opportunity for pregnant women affected by diabetes/obesity to receive COVID-19 vaccine. DATA SYNTHESIS: Pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection are at high risk for severe acute respiratory syndrome and adverse outcomes. Pregnant women with severe COVID-19 present increased rates of preterm delivery (<37 gestational weeks), cesarean delivery and neonatal admissions to the intensive care unit. Comorbidity such as diabetes (pregestational or gestational) or obesity further increased maternal and fetal complications. It is known that diabetic or obese patients with COVID-19 present an unfavorable course and a worse prognosis, with a direct association between worse outcome and suboptimal glycol-metabolic control or body mass index (BMI) levels. Critical COVID-19 infection prevention is important for both mother and fetus. Vaccination during pregnancy is a common practice. Vaccines against COVID-19 are distributed across the world with some population considered to have a priority. Since pregnant women are excluded from clinical trials very little information are available on safety and efficacy of COVD-19 vaccines during pregnancy. However, it is well known the concept of passive immunization of the newborn obtained with transplacental passage of protective antibodies into the fetal/neonatal circulation after maternal infection or vaccination. Moreover, it has been reported that COVID-19 vaccine-induced IgG pass to the neonates through breastmilk. Therefore, maternal vaccination can protect mother, fetus and baby. CONCLUSIONS: After an individual risk/benefit evaluation pregnant and lactating women should be counselled to receive COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Diabetes, Gestational/blood , Lactation , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy in Diabetics/blood , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vaccination , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Clinical Decision-Making , Diabetes, Gestational/diagnosis , Diabetes, Gestational/therapy , Female , Glycemic Control , Humans , Immunity, Maternally-Acquired , Maternal-Fetal Exchange , Milk, Human/immunology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy in Diabetics/diagnosis , Pregnancy in Diabetics/therapy , Prenatal Care , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/adverse effects
9.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1361-1369, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196509

ABSTRACT

Current evidence suggests that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is predominantly transmitted from human-to-human. However, evidence on vertical transmission and natural passive immunity among the newborns exposed to COVID-19 is scanty and varies. This poses a challenge on preventive interventions for the newborns. We conducted a systematic review to first, determine the likelihood of vertical transmission among COVID-19 exposed infants and second, determine whether antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were generated among COVID-19 vertically exposed but negative infants. This review registered in PROSPERO searched evidence from PubMed/MEDLINE and Google Scholar, among others. About 517 studies were pooled, where 33 articles (5.8%) met the inclusion criteria such as infection prevention and control measures at birth. A total of 205 infants born to COVID-19 positive mothers were studied. Overall, 6.3% (13/205; 95% CI: 3.0%-9.7%) of the infants tested positive for COVID-19 virus at birth. Of 33 eligible studies, six studies (18.8%) reported about immunoglobulin G/M (IgG/IgM) against SARS-CoV-2. IgG/IgM were detected in 90% infants (10/11; 95% CI: 73.9%-107.9%) who tested negative for COVID-19 virus. The median antibody levels detected were 75.49 AU/ml (range, 7.25-140.32 AU/ml) and 3.79 AU/ml (range, 0.16-45.83 AU/ml), p = .0041 for IgG and IgM, respectively. In conclusion, the current evidence revealed a low possibility of vertical transmission of COVID-19 and antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were detected among vertically exposed but negative infants. Further studies on transplacental transmission and the magnitude of natural passive immunity in infants born to mothers with COVID-19 are warranted.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Female , Humans , Immunity, Maternally-Acquired , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Seroepidemiologic Studies
10.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1810-1813, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196504

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) vertical transmission is an open issue. Recent reports call into question in utero or peripartum viral transmission to the offspring. Few data are available on immunoglobulin G (IgG) and/or IgM in newborns. Insufficient evidence is available regarding passive immunity in neonates born from SARS-CoV-2 infected women. We report a case of a neonate showing the presence of blood specific IgG and the absence of IgM and negative nasopharyngeal swab. He was born from an asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2-infected mother with positive IgG and IgM. The transplacental passage of specific IgG antibodies from the affected mother to the unaffected fetus highlights neonatal passive immunity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/transmission , Immunity, Maternally-Acquired/immunology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology
11.
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol ; 57(6): 974-978, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1162972

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral load and infection-to-delivery interval with maternal and cord serum concentrations of anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies and transplacental transfer ratio in pregnant women with active or recovered SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: This was a prospective case series of consecutive pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between 27 March 2020 and 24 January 2021. We collected information regarding deep throat saliva or nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results, serial cycle threshold (Ct) values at and after diagnosis, demographic, clinical and outcome data, and neonatal NPS RT-PCR results. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of IgG and immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 was performed in maternal and cord blood serum samples obtained at delivery. Correlation of maternal Ct values, infection-to-delivery interval, infection duration and viral load area under the curve (AUC) with gestational age (GA) at diagnosis, maternal and cord serum IgG concentrations and transplacental transfer ratio of IgG were evaluated using Pearson's correlation. RESULTS: Twenty pregnant women who consented to participate and who had delivered their babies by 31 January 2021 were included in the study, comprising 14 who had recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and six with active infection at delivery. The median GA at clinical manifestation was 32.7 (range, 11.9-39.4) weeks. The median infection-to-delivery interval and infection duration were 41.5 (range, 2-187) days and 10.0 (range, 1-48) days, respectively. The median GA at delivery was 39.1 (range, 32.4-40.7) weeks and the median seroconversion interval was 14 (range, 1-19) days. Of 13 neonates born to seropositive mothers with recovered infection at delivery, 12 tested positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG. All neonatal NPS samples were negative for SARS-CoV-2 and all cord sera tested negative for IgM. The median transplacental transfer ratio of IgG was 1.3 (interquartile range, 0.9-1.6). There was a negative correlation between infection-to-delivery interval and anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG concentrations in maternal (r = -0.6693, P = 0.0087) and cord (r = -0.6554, P = 0.0068) serum and a positive correlation between IgG concentration in maternal serum and viral load AUC (r = 0.5109, P = 0.0310). A negative correlation was observed between transfer ratio and viral load AUC (r = -0.4757, P = 0.0409). CONCLUSIONS: In pregnant women who have recovered from COVID-19, anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG concentrations at delivery increased with increasing viral load during infection and decreased with increasing infection-to-delivery interval. The median transplacental transfer ratio of IgG was 1.3 and it decreased with increasing viral load during infection. © 2021 International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Maternally-Acquired/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Viral Load/immunology , Adult , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cohort Studies , Female , Fetal Blood/immunology , Gestational Age , Humans , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Time Factors
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2030455, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-985883

ABSTRACT

Importance: Biological data are lacking with respect to risk of vertical transmission and mechanisms of fetoplacental protection in maternal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Objective: To quantify SARS-CoV-2 viral load in maternal and neonatal biofluids, transplacental passage of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody, and incidence of fetoplacental infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was conducted among pregnant women presenting for care at 3 tertiary care centers in Boston, Massachusetts. Women with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results positive for SARS-CoV-2 were recruited from April 2 to June 13, 2020, and follow-up occurred through July 10, 2020. Contemporaneous participants without SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled as a convenience sample from pregnant women with RT-PCR results negative for SARS-CoV-2. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy, defined by nasopharyngeal swab RT-PCR. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes were SARS-CoV-2 viral load in maternal plasma or respiratory fluids and umbilical cord plasma, quantification of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in maternal and cord plasma, and presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the placenta. Results: Among 127 pregnant women enrolled, 64 with RT-PCR results positive for SARS-CoV-2 (mean [SD] age, 31.6 [5.6] years) and 63 with RT-PCR results negative for SARS-CoV-2 (mean [SD] age, 33.9 [5.4] years) provided samples for analysis. Of women with SARS-CoV-2 infection, 23 (36%) were asymptomatic, 22 (34%) had mild disease, 7 (11%) had moderate disease, 10 (16%) had severe disease, and 2 (3%) had critical disease. In viral load analyses among 107 women, there was no detectable viremia in maternal or cord blood and no evidence of vertical transmission. Among 77 neonates tested in whom SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were quantified in cord blood, 1 had detectable immunoglobuilin M to nucleocapsid. Among 88 placentas tested, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was not detected in any. In antibody analyses among 37 women with SARS-CoV-2 infection, anti-receptor binding domain immunoglobin G was detected in 24 women (65%) and anti-nucleocapsid was detected in 26 women (70%). Mother-to-neonate transfer of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was significantly lower than transfer of anti-influenza hemagglutinin A antibodies (mean [SD] cord-to-maternal ratio: anti-receptor binding domain immunoglobin G, 0.72 [0.57]; anti-nucleocapsid, 0.74 [0.44]; anti-influenza, 1.44 [0.80]; P < .001). Nonoverlapping placental expression of SARS-CoV-2 receptors angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and transmembrane serine protease 2 was noted. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, there was no evidence of placental infection or definitive vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Transplacental transfer of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was inefficient. Lack of viremia and reduced coexpression and colocalization of placental angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and transmembrane serine protease 2 may serve as protective mechanisms against vertical transmission.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Fetal Blood/immunology , Immunity, Maternally-Acquired/immunology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Placenta/metabolism , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Female , Fetal Blood/virology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Infant, Newborn , Influenza A virus/immunology , Male , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Placenta/pathology , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Load
14.
J Reprod Immunol ; 143: 103250, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939094

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread rapidly across the world. The vast majority of patients with COVID-19 manifest mild to moderate symptoms but may progress to severe cases or even mortalities. Young adults of reproductive age are the most affected population by SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, there is no consensus yet if pregnancy contributes to the severity of COVID-19. Initial studies of pregnant women have found that COVID-19 significantly increases the risk of preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, and low birth weight, which have been associated with non-communicable diseases in offspring. Besides, maternal viral infections with or without vertical transmission have been allied with neurological and behavioral disorders of the offspring. In this review, obstetrical outcomes of women with COVID-19 and possible risks for their offspring are discussed by reviewing maternal immune responses to COVID-19 based on the current evidence. Structural and systemic follow-up of offspring who are exposed to SARS-CoV-2 in-utero is suggested.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Child of Impaired Parents , Fetal Growth Retardation/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Immunity, Maternally-Acquired , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Problem Behavior , Risk
15.
J Perinatol ; 41(4): 850-859, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740034

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the presence and the levels of antibodies reactive to SARS-CoV-2 S1 and S2 subunits (S1 + S2), and nucleocapsid protein. STUDY DESIGN: The levels of SARS-CoV-2 S1 + S2- and nucleocapsid-reactive SIgM/IgM, IgG and SIgA/IgA were measured in human milk samples from 41 women during the COVID-19 pandemic (2020-HM) and from 16 women 2 years prior to the outbreak (2018-HM). RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 S1 + S2-reactive SIgA/IgA, SIgM/IgM and IgG were detected in 97.6%, 68.3% and 58.5% in human milk whereas nucleocapsid-reactive antibodies were detected in 56.4%, 87.2% and 46.2%, respectively. S1 + S2-reactive IgG was higher in milk from women that had symptoms of viral respiratory infection(s) during the last year than in milk from women without symptom. S1 + S2- and nucleocapsid-reactive IgG were higher in the 2020-HM group compared to the 2018-HM group. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of SARS-CoV-2-reactive antibodies in human milk could provide passive immunity to breastfed infants and protect them against COVID-19 diseases.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Milk, Human/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Maternally-Acquired , Immunoglobulin A/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin M/analysis , Infant, Newborn , Protein Subunits , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , United States/epidemiology
17.
Am J Perinatol ; 37(12): 1280-1282, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-714356

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Data regarding transplacental passage of maternal coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) antibodies and potential immunity in the newborn is limited. CASE REPORT: We present a 25-year-old multigravida with known red blood cell isoimmunization, who was found to be COVID-19 positive at 27 weeks of gestation while undergoing serial periumbilical blood sampling and intrauterine transfusions. Maternal COVID-19 antibody was detected 2 weeks after positive molecular testing. Antibodies were never detected on cord blood samples from two intrauterine fetal cord blood samples as well as neonatal cord blood at the time of delivery. CONCLUSION: This case demonstrates a lack of passive immunity of COVID-19 antibodies from a positive pregnant woman to her fetus, neither in utero nor at the time of birth. Further studies are needed to understand if passage of antibodies can occur and if that can confer passive immunity in the newborn. KEY POINTS: · Passive immunity should not be assumed in COVID-19 infection in pregnancy.. · Isoimmunization may impair passive immunity of certain antibodies.. · Vaccination to or maternal infection of COVID-19 may not be protective for the fetus..


Subject(s)
Anemia/therapy , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Blood Transfusion, Intrauterine , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Fetal Blood/immunology , Immunity, Maternally-Acquired/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Adult , Anemia/etiology , Betacoronavirus , Blood Group Incompatibility/complications , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Trimester, Second , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(30): e21335, 2020 Jul 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-683201

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Since the end of December 2019, the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic has occurred and spread rapidly throughout China. At present, China's epidemic situation has been basically controlled, but the number of cases worldwide is increasing day by day. On March 11, the WHO officially announced that the COVID-19 had become a global pandemic. However, there are currently limited data on pregnant women with COVID-19 pneumonia and their infants. In this paper, a case of a pregnant woman infected with COVID-19 pneumonia is reported. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a clinically confirmed COVID-19 pregnant woman. The patient was tested negative 4 times in nucleic acid test, but immunoglobulin G was positive and immunoglobulin M was negative before delivery, suggesting a previous infection. DIAGNOSES: The pregnant woman underwent a computed tomography scan of both lungs at 29 + 2 weeks of pregnancy, and scattered stiffness and frosted glass shadows of both lungs were observed. According to the diagnostic criteria for COVID-19 pneumonia in the "New Coronavirus Prevention and Control Plan Fifth Edition" of the National Health Commission of China, she was diagnosed as a clinically confirmed case. INTERVENTIONS: The pregnant women received nebulized inhalation and oral cephalosporin treatment in a community hospital and was discharged after the symptoms disappeared. After that, she was isolated at home. OUTCOMES: The pregnant woman gave birth to a healthy baby after being cured from COVID-19 infection. The nucleic acid test of the neonatal pharyngeal swab was negative, and the neonatal serum test showed positive for immunoglobulin G and negative for immunoglobulin M. LESSONS SUBSECTIONS: The findings of this case report are useful for understanding the possible clinical features of COVID-19 infection in pregnant women, the duration of the antibody, and passive immunity of the fetus.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Adult , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Maternally-Acquired , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Live Birth , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Am J Reprod Immunol ; 84(5): e13299, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-631724

ABSTRACT

Pregnant women are a potentially highly vulnerable population due to anatomical, physiological, and immunological changes under the COVID-19 pandemic. Issues related to pregnancy with COVID-19 attracted widespread attention from researchers. A large number of articles were published aiming to elaborate clinical characteristics and outcomes of pregnant women infected with COVID-19, in order to provide evidence for management. The existing data suggest that the overall prognosis of pregnancy with COVID-19 is promising when compared with that of other previous coronaviruses. There is still maternal morbidity and mortality related to COVID-19 reported. However, the optimal management of severe and critically ill cases of COVID-19-infected pregnancy is poorly clarified. The possibility of postpartum exacerbation in pregnancy with COVID-19 is also worthy of attention for obstetricians. This review makes further elaboration of the above issues.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Maternally-Acquired/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , COVID-19/virology , Critical Illness , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Symptom Flare Up
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