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3.
Placenta ; 117: 47-56, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474964

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Maternal anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike antibodies can cross the placenta during pregnancy, and neonates born to infected mothers have acquired antibodies at birth. Few studies reported data on the histopathological changes of the placenta during infection and placental infection. SARS-CoV-2 infection may cause impaired development of the placenta, thus predisposing maternal and fetal unfavorable outcomes. The prospective study aims to evaluate the risk of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and placental passage of anti-Spike antibodies as well as the impact of clinical severity on placental structures. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study on 30 pregnant women infected by SARS-CoV-2 with their neonates. The demographic features and pregnancy outcomes were collected. Gross and microscopic examinations of the placentas were done. Maternal and umbilical cord sera were obtained at the time of delivery. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from neonates immediately after birth. RESULTS: The concentrations of total anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike antibodies were higher in pregnant women with moderate to severe/critical disease. The maternal total anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike levels were correlated with those of neonatal levels. The rate of placental abnormalities is high in the mothers with severe disease, and those with positive anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM. All neonates had negative nasopharyngeal swabs for SARS- CoV-2 infections and all placentas were negative in immunohistochemical staining for Spike protein. DISCUSSION: The maternally derived anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike antibody can transmit to neonates born to infected mothers regardless of gestational age. Our results indicated that the disease severity is associated with ischemic placental pathology which may result in adverse pregnancy outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Placenta Diseases/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , Cohort Studies , Female , Fetal Blood/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Maternally-Acquired/immunology , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Placenta/chemistry , Placenta/pathology , Placenta/virology , Placenta Diseases/pathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Pregnancy Outcome , Premature Birth , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
5.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1810-1813, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196504

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) vertical transmission is an open issue. Recent reports call into question in utero or peripartum viral transmission to the offspring. Few data are available on immunoglobulin G (IgG) and/or IgM in newborns. Insufficient evidence is available regarding passive immunity in neonates born from SARS-CoV-2 infected women. We report a case of a neonate showing the presence of blood specific IgG and the absence of IgM and negative nasopharyngeal swab. He was born from an asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2-infected mother with positive IgG and IgM. The transplacental passage of specific IgG antibodies from the affected mother to the unaffected fetus highlights neonatal passive immunity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/transmission , Immunity, Maternally-Acquired/immunology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology
6.
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol ; 57(6): 974-978, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1162972

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral load and infection-to-delivery interval with maternal and cord serum concentrations of anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies and transplacental transfer ratio in pregnant women with active or recovered SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: This was a prospective case series of consecutive pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between 27 March 2020 and 24 January 2021. We collected information regarding deep throat saliva or nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results, serial cycle threshold (Ct) values at and after diagnosis, demographic, clinical and outcome data, and neonatal NPS RT-PCR results. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of IgG and immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 was performed in maternal and cord blood serum samples obtained at delivery. Correlation of maternal Ct values, infection-to-delivery interval, infection duration and viral load area under the curve (AUC) with gestational age (GA) at diagnosis, maternal and cord serum IgG concentrations and transplacental transfer ratio of IgG were evaluated using Pearson's correlation. RESULTS: Twenty pregnant women who consented to participate and who had delivered their babies by 31 January 2021 were included in the study, comprising 14 who had recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and six with active infection at delivery. The median GA at clinical manifestation was 32.7 (range, 11.9-39.4) weeks. The median infection-to-delivery interval and infection duration were 41.5 (range, 2-187) days and 10.0 (range, 1-48) days, respectively. The median GA at delivery was 39.1 (range, 32.4-40.7) weeks and the median seroconversion interval was 14 (range, 1-19) days. Of 13 neonates born to seropositive mothers with recovered infection at delivery, 12 tested positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG. All neonatal NPS samples were negative for SARS-CoV-2 and all cord sera tested negative for IgM. The median transplacental transfer ratio of IgG was 1.3 (interquartile range, 0.9-1.6). There was a negative correlation between infection-to-delivery interval and anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG concentrations in maternal (r = -0.6693, P = 0.0087) and cord (r = -0.6554, P = 0.0068) serum and a positive correlation between IgG concentration in maternal serum and viral load AUC (r = 0.5109, P = 0.0310). A negative correlation was observed between transfer ratio and viral load AUC (r = -0.4757, P = 0.0409). CONCLUSIONS: In pregnant women who have recovered from COVID-19, anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG concentrations at delivery increased with increasing viral load during infection and decreased with increasing infection-to-delivery interval. The median transplacental transfer ratio of IgG was 1.3 and it decreased with increasing viral load during infection. © 2021 International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Maternally-Acquired/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Viral Load/immunology , Adult , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cohort Studies , Female , Fetal Blood/immunology , Gestational Age , Humans , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Time Factors
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2030455, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-985883

ABSTRACT

Importance: Biological data are lacking with respect to risk of vertical transmission and mechanisms of fetoplacental protection in maternal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Objective: To quantify SARS-CoV-2 viral load in maternal and neonatal biofluids, transplacental passage of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody, and incidence of fetoplacental infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was conducted among pregnant women presenting for care at 3 tertiary care centers in Boston, Massachusetts. Women with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results positive for SARS-CoV-2 were recruited from April 2 to June 13, 2020, and follow-up occurred through July 10, 2020. Contemporaneous participants without SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled as a convenience sample from pregnant women with RT-PCR results negative for SARS-CoV-2. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy, defined by nasopharyngeal swab RT-PCR. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes were SARS-CoV-2 viral load in maternal plasma or respiratory fluids and umbilical cord plasma, quantification of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in maternal and cord plasma, and presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the placenta. Results: Among 127 pregnant women enrolled, 64 with RT-PCR results positive for SARS-CoV-2 (mean [SD] age, 31.6 [5.6] years) and 63 with RT-PCR results negative for SARS-CoV-2 (mean [SD] age, 33.9 [5.4] years) provided samples for analysis. Of women with SARS-CoV-2 infection, 23 (36%) were asymptomatic, 22 (34%) had mild disease, 7 (11%) had moderate disease, 10 (16%) had severe disease, and 2 (3%) had critical disease. In viral load analyses among 107 women, there was no detectable viremia in maternal or cord blood and no evidence of vertical transmission. Among 77 neonates tested in whom SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were quantified in cord blood, 1 had detectable immunoglobuilin M to nucleocapsid. Among 88 placentas tested, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was not detected in any. In antibody analyses among 37 women with SARS-CoV-2 infection, anti-receptor binding domain immunoglobin G was detected in 24 women (65%) and anti-nucleocapsid was detected in 26 women (70%). Mother-to-neonate transfer of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was significantly lower than transfer of anti-influenza hemagglutinin A antibodies (mean [SD] cord-to-maternal ratio: anti-receptor binding domain immunoglobin G, 0.72 [0.57]; anti-nucleocapsid, 0.74 [0.44]; anti-influenza, 1.44 [0.80]; P < .001). Nonoverlapping placental expression of SARS-CoV-2 receptors angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and transmembrane serine protease 2 was noted. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, there was no evidence of placental infection or definitive vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Transplacental transfer of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was inefficient. Lack of viremia and reduced coexpression and colocalization of placental angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and transmembrane serine protease 2 may serve as protective mechanisms against vertical transmission.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Fetal Blood/immunology , Immunity, Maternally-Acquired/immunology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Placenta/metabolism , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Female , Fetal Blood/virology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Infant, Newborn , Influenza A virus/immunology , Male , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Placenta/pathology , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Load
9.
Am J Perinatol ; 37(12): 1280-1282, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-714356

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Data regarding transplacental passage of maternal coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) antibodies and potential immunity in the newborn is limited. CASE REPORT: We present a 25-year-old multigravida with known red blood cell isoimmunization, who was found to be COVID-19 positive at 27 weeks of gestation while undergoing serial periumbilical blood sampling and intrauterine transfusions. Maternal COVID-19 antibody was detected 2 weeks after positive molecular testing. Antibodies were never detected on cord blood samples from two intrauterine fetal cord blood samples as well as neonatal cord blood at the time of delivery. CONCLUSION: This case demonstrates a lack of passive immunity of COVID-19 antibodies from a positive pregnant woman to her fetus, neither in utero nor at the time of birth. Further studies are needed to understand if passage of antibodies can occur and if that can confer passive immunity in the newborn. KEY POINTS: · Passive immunity should not be assumed in COVID-19 infection in pregnancy.. · Isoimmunization may impair passive immunity of certain antibodies.. · Vaccination to or maternal infection of COVID-19 may not be protective for the fetus..


Subject(s)
Anemia/therapy , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Blood Transfusion, Intrauterine , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Fetal Blood/immunology , Immunity, Maternally-Acquired/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Adult , Anemia/etiology , Betacoronavirus , Blood Group Incompatibility/complications , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Trimester, Second , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Am J Reprod Immunol ; 84(5): e13299, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-631724

ABSTRACT

Pregnant women are a potentially highly vulnerable population due to anatomical, physiological, and immunological changes under the COVID-19 pandemic. Issues related to pregnancy with COVID-19 attracted widespread attention from researchers. A large number of articles were published aiming to elaborate clinical characteristics and outcomes of pregnant women infected with COVID-19, in order to provide evidence for management. The existing data suggest that the overall prognosis of pregnancy with COVID-19 is promising when compared with that of other previous coronaviruses. There is still maternal morbidity and mortality related to COVID-19 reported. However, the optimal management of severe and critically ill cases of COVID-19-infected pregnancy is poorly clarified. The possibility of postpartum exacerbation in pregnancy with COVID-19 is also worthy of attention for obstetricians. This review makes further elaboration of the above issues.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Maternally-Acquired/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , COVID-19/virology , Critical Illness , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Symptom Flare Up
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