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1.
Int J Biol Sci ; 18(2): 617-636, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1689841

ABSTRACT

Among numerous studies on coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19), we noted that the infection and mortality rates of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) increased with age and that fetuses known to be particularly susceptible to infection were better protected despite various mutations. Hence, we established the hypothesis that a new immune system exists that forms before birth and decreases with aging. Methods: To prove this hypothesis, we established new ex-vivo culture conditions simulating the critical environmental factors of fetal stem cells (FSCs) in early pregnancy. Then, we analyzed the components from FSCs cultivated newly developed ex-vivo culture conditions and compared them from FSCs cultured in a normal condition. Results: We demonstrated that immunoglobulin M (IgM), a natural antibody (NAb) produced only in early B-1 cells, immunoglobulins (Igs) including IgG3, which has a wide range of antigen-binding capacity and affinity, complement proteins, and antiviral proteins are induced in FSCs only cultured in newly developed ex-vivo culture conditions. Particularly we confirmed that their extracellular vesicles (EVs) contained NAbs, Igs, various complement proteins, and antiviral proteins, as well as human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G), responsible for immune tolerance. Conclusion: Our results suggest that FSCs in early pregnancy can form an independent immune system responding to unlearned antigens as a self-defense mechanism before establishing mature immune systems. Moreover, we propose the possibility of new solutions to cope with various infectious diseases based on the factors in NAbs-containing EVs, especially not causing unnecessary immune reaction due to HLA-G.


Subject(s)
Aging/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Fetal Stem Cells/physiology , Immunity/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibody Affinity , Antigens, Viral , Complement System Proteins , Female , Fetal Stem Cells/virology , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulins/metabolism , Pregnancy
2.
Cell Death Dis ; 13(2): 137, 2022 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683990

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is triggered by various aetiological factors such as trauma, sepsis and respiratory viruses including SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus. Immune profiling of severe COVID-19 patients has identified a complex pattern of cytokines including granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-5, which are significant mediators of viral-induced hyperinflammation. This strong response has prompted the development of therapies that block GM-CSF and other cytokines individually to limit inflammation related pathology. The common cytokine binding site of the human common beta (ßc) receptor signals for three inflammatory cytokines: GM-CSF, IL-5 and IL-3. In this study, ßc was targeted with the monoclonal antibody (mAb) CSL311 in engineered mice devoid of mouse ßc and ßIL-3 and expressing human ßc (hßcTg mice). Direct pulmonary administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) caused ARDS-like lung injury, and CSL311 markedly reduced lung inflammation and oedema, resulting in improved oxygen saturation levels in hßcTg mice. In a separate model, influenza (HKx31) lung infection caused viral pneumonia associated with a large influx of myeloid cells into the lungs of hßcTg mice. The therapeutic application of CSL311 potently decreased accumulation of monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils, and eosinophils without altering lung viral loads. Furthermore, CSL311 treatment did not limit the viral-induced expansion of NK and NKT cells, or the tissue expression of type I/II/III interferons needed for efficient viral clearance. Simultaneously blocking GM-CSF, IL-5 and IL-3 signalling with CSL311 may represent an improved and clinically applicable strategy to reducing hyperinflammation in the ARDS setting.


Subject(s)
Cytokine Receptor Common beta Subunit/genetics , Cytokine Receptor Common beta Subunit/physiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Cytokine Receptor Common beta Subunit/immunology , Cytokines , Eosinophils/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunity/genetics , Immunity/physiology , Inflammation/immunology , Leukocytes/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Neutrophils/metabolism , Receptors, Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Receptors, Interleukin-3 , Receptors, Interleukin-5 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology
3.
Cell Rep ; 38(3): 110271, 2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588135

ABSTRACT

The utility of the urinary proteome in infectious diseases remains unclear. Here, we analyzed the proteome and metabolome of urine and serum samples from patients with COVID-19 and healthy controls. Our data show that urinary proteins effectively classify COVID-19 by severity. We detect 197 cytokines and their receptors in urine, but only 124 in serum using TMT-based proteomics. The decrease in urinary ESCRT complex proteins correlates with active SARS-CoV-2 replication. The downregulation of urinary CXCL14 in severe COVID-19 cases positively correlates with blood lymphocyte counts. Integrative multiomics analysis suggests that innate immune activation and inflammation triggered renal injuries in patients with COVID-19. COVID-19-associated modulation of the urinary proteome offers unique insights into the pathogenesis of this disease. This study demonstrates the added value of including the urinary proteome in a suite of multiomics analytes in evaluating the immune pathobiology and clinical course of COVID-19 and, potentially, other infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/urine , Immunity , Metabolome , Proteome/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunity/physiology , Male , Metabolome/immunology , Metabolomics , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Proteome/immunology , Proteome/metabolism , Proteomics , Urinalysis/methods , Young Adult
4.
Cell Rep ; 37(11): 110112, 2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530687

ABSTRACT

An ideal vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 is expected to elicit broad immunity to prevent viral infection and disease, with efficient viral clearance in the upper respiratory tract (URT). Here, the N protein and prefusion-full S protein (SFLmut) are combined with flagellin (KF) and cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) to generate a candidate vaccine, and this vaccine elicits stronger systemic and mucosal humoral immunity than vaccines containing other forms of the S protein. Furthermore, the candidate vaccine administered via intranasal route can enhance local immune responses in the respiratory tract. Importantly, human ACE2 transgenic mice given the candidate vaccine are protected against lethal SARS-CoV-2 challenge, with superior protection in the URT compared with that in mice immunized with an inactivated vaccine. In summary, the developed vaccine can elicit a multifaceted immune response and induce robust viral clearance in the URT, which makes it a potential vaccine for preventing disease and infection of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Combined Modality Therapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Administration, Intranasal , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Female , Flagellin/immunology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunity/immunology , Immunity/physiology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunization , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Nucleotides, Cyclic/immunology , Phosphoproteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination , Vero Cells
5.
Gastroenterology ; 162(2): 548-561.e4, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475507

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is associated with altered gut microbiota composition. Phylogenetic groups of gut bacteria involved in the metabolism of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were depleted in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. We aimed to characterize a functional profile of the gut microbiome in patients with COVID-19 before and after disease resolution. METHODS: We performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing on fecal samples from 66 antibiotics-naïve patients with COVID-19 and 70 non-COVID-19 controls. Serial fecal samples were collected (at up to 6 times points) during hospitalization and beyond 1 month after discharge. We assessed gut microbial pathways in association with disease severity and blood inflammatory markers. We also determined changes of microbial functions in fecal samples before and after disease resolution and validated these functions using targeted analysis of fecal metabolites. RESULTS: Compared with non-COVID-19 controls, patients with COVID-19 with severe/critical illness showed significant alterations in gut microbiome functionality (P < .001), characterized by impaired capacity of gut microbiome for SCFA and L-isoleucine biosynthesis and enhanced capacity for urea production. Impaired SCFA and L-isoleucine biosynthesis in gut microbiome persisted beyond 30 days after recovery in patients with COVID-19. Targeted analysis of fecal metabolites showed significantly lower fecal concentrations of SCFAs and L-isoleucine in patients with COVID-19 before and after disease resolution. Lack of SCFA and L-isoleucine biosynthesis significantly correlated with disease severity and increased plasma concentrations of CXCL-10, NT- proB-type natriuretic peptide, and C-reactive protein (all P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Gut microbiome of patients with COVID-19 displayed impaired capacity for SCFA and L-isoleucine biosynthesis that persisted even after disease resolution. These 2 microbial functions correlated with host immune response underscoring the importance of gut microbial functions in SARS-CoV-2 infection pathogenesis and outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/microbiology , Fatty Acids, Volatile/biosynthesis , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics , Immunity/physiology , Isoleucine/biosynthesis , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , Case-Control Studies , Feces/microbiology , Female , Humans , Male , Metagenomics , Middle Aged , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
6.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 46: 116356, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347508

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, periodic recurrence of viral infections, and the emergence of challenging variants has created an urgent need of alternative therapeutic approaches to combat the spread of viral infections, failing to which may pose a greater risk to mankind in future. Resilience against antiviral drugs or fast evolutionary rate of viruses is stressing the scientific community to identify new therapeutic approaches for timely control of disease. Host metabolic pathways are exquisite reservoir of energy to viruses and contribute a diverse array of functions for successful replication and pathogenesis of virus. Targeting the host factors rather than viral enzymes to cease viral infection, has emerged as an alternative antiviral strategy. This approach offers advantage in terms of increased threshold to viral resistance and can provide broad-spectrum antiviral action against different viruses. The article here provides substantial review of literature illuminating the host factors and molecular mechanisms involved in innate/adaptive responses to viral infection, hijacking of signalling pathways by viruses and the intracellular metabolic pathways required for viral replication. Host-targeted drugs acting on the pathways usurped by viruses are also addressed in this study. Host-directed antiviral therapeutics might prove to be a rewarding approach in controlling the unprecedented spread of viral infection, however the probability of cellular side effects or cytotoxicity on host cell should not be ignored at the time of clinical investigations.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Positive-Strand RNA Viruses/drug effects , Animals , Cytokines/metabolism , Frameshifting, Ribosomal/drug effects , Frameshifting, Ribosomal/physiology , Glycosylation/drug effects , Humans , Immunity/drug effects , Immunity/physiology , Lipid Metabolism/drug effects , Lipid Metabolism/physiology , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/drug effects , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/physiology , Polyamines/metabolism , Positive-Strand RNA Viruses/physiology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/physiology , Ubiquitination/drug effects , Ubiquitination/physiology
7.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255335, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341502

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus has led to a pandemic with millions of people affected. The present study finds that risk-factors for severe COVID-19 disease courses, i.e. male sex, older age and sedentary life style are associated with higher prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) serum levels in blood samples from unaffected subjects. In COVID-19 patients, PGE2 blood levels are markedly elevated and correlate positively with disease severity. SARS-CoV-2 induces PGE2 generation and secretion in infected lung epithelial cells by upregulating cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 and reducing the PG-degrading enzyme 15-hydroxyprostaglandin-dehydrogenase. Also living human precision cut lung slices (PCLS) infected with SARS-CoV-2 display upregulated COX-2. Regular exercise in aged individuals lowers PGE2 serum levels, which leads to increased Paired-Box-Protein-Pax-5 (PAX5) expression, a master regulator of B-cell survival, proliferation and differentiation also towards long lived memory B-cells, in human pre-B-cell lines. Moreover, PGE2 levels in serum of COVID-19 patients lowers the expression of PAX5 in human pre-B-cell lines. The PGE2 inhibitor Taxifolin reduces SARS-CoV-2-induced PGE2 production. In conclusion, SARS-CoV-2, male sex, old age, and sedentary life style increase PGE2 levels, which may reduce the early anti-viral defense as well as the development of immunity promoting severe disease courses and multiple infections. Regular exercise and Taxifolin treatment may reduce these risks and prevent severe disease courses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Dinoprostone/blood , Immunity , Adolescent , Adult , Animals , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dinoprostone/pharmacology , Dinoprostone/physiology , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Immunity/drug effects , Immunity/physiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vero Cells , Young Adult
9.
Nat Med ; 27(3): 454-462, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319036

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic continues to spread relentlessly, associated with a high frequency of respiratory failure and mortality. Children experience largely asymptomatic disease, with rare reports of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Identifying immune mechanisms that result in these disparate clinical phenotypes in children could provide critical insights into coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathogenesis. Using systems serology, in this study we observed in 25 children with acute mild COVID-19 a functional phagocyte and complement-activating IgG response to SARS-CoV-2, similar to the acute responses generated in adults with mild disease. Conversely, IgA and neutrophil responses were significantly expanded in adults with severe disease. Moreover, weeks after the resolution of SARS-CoV-2 infection, children who develop MIS-C maintained highly inflammatory monocyte-activating SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies, distinguishable from acute disease in children but with antibody levels similar to those in convalescent adults. Collectively, these data provide unique insights into the potential mechanisms of IgG and IgA that might underlie differential disease severity as well as unexpected complications in children infected with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Age of Onset , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Carrier State/blood , Carrier State/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunity/physiology , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Young Adult
10.
Pharmacol Ther ; 228: 107927, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281523

ABSTRACT

Complex regulation of the immune response is necessary to support effective defense of an organism against hostile invaders and to maintain tolerance to harmless microorganisms and autoantigens. Recent studies revealed previously unappreciated roles of CD71+ erythroid cells (CECs) in regulation of the immune response. CECs physiologically reside in the bone marrow where erythropoiesis takes place. Under stress conditions, CECs are enriched in some organs outside of the bone marrow as a result of extramedullary erythropoiesis. However, the role of CECs goes well beyond the production of erythrocytes. In neonates, increased numbers of CECs contribute to their vulnerability to infectious diseases. On the other side, neonatal CECs suppress activation of immune cells in response to abrupt colonization with commensal microorganisms after delivery. CECs are also enriched in the peripheral blood of pregnant women as well as in the placenta and are responsible for the regulation of feto-maternal tolerance. In patients with cancer, anemia leads to increased frequency of CECs in the peripheral blood contributing to diminished antiviral and antibacterial immunity, as well as to accelerated cancer progression. Moreover, recent studies revealed the role of CECs in HIV and SARS-CoV-2 infections. CECs use a full arsenal of mechanisms to regulate immune response. These cells suppress proinflammatory responses of myeloid cells and T-cell proliferation by the depletion of ʟ-arginine by arginase. Moreover, CECs produce reactive oxygen species to decrease T-cell proliferation. CECs also secrete cytokines, including transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß), which promotes T-cell differentiation into regulatory T-cells. Here, we comprehensively describe the role of CECs in orchestrating immune response and indicate some therapeutic approaches that might be used to regulate their effector functions in the treatment of human conditions.


Subject(s)
Antigens, CD , Erythroid Cells , Immunity , Receptors, Transferrin , Antigens, CD/physiology , COVID-19 , Erythroid Cells/metabolism , Humans , Immunity/physiology , Receptors, Transferrin/physiology
11.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 17: 17455065211022262, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259152

ABSTRACT

In COVID-19 disease, are reported gender differences in relation to severity and death. The aim of this review is to highlight gender differences in the immune response to COVID-19. The included studies were identified using PubMed, until 30 October 2020. The search included the following keywords: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, gender, age, sex, and immune system. Literature described that females compared to males have greater inflammatory, antiviral, and humoral immune responses. In female, estrogen is a potential ally to alleviate SARS-COV-2 disease. In male, testosterone reduces vaccination response and depresses the cytokine response. In the older patients, and in particular, in female older patients, it has been reported a progressive functional decline in the immune systems. Differences by gender were reported in infection diseases, including SARS-CoV-2. These data should be confirmed by the other epidemiological studies.


Subject(s)
Aging/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immune System/physiology , Immunity/physiology , Sex Factors , Estrogens/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Testosterone/metabolism , Vaccination
12.
Curr Res Transl Med ; 69(2): 103289, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1179993

ABSTRACT

Elevated PCT level in COVID-19 was associated with higher risk of severe disease and higher risk of overall mortality. An increased PCT level of PCT in COVID-19 patients especially in severe cases would be assumed as bacterial coinfection. Could PCT level increase in SARS-CoV-2 infection without bacterial coinfection? Several SARS-CoV-2 proteins activate STAT3-dependent transcriptional pathways particularly in monocytes, that could lead to increased PCT production. STAT3α isoform could cause increased ACE2 expression, resulting more SARS-CoV-2 infected cells and further production of PCT.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coinfection/diagnosis , Procalcitonin/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Bacterial Infections/blood , Bacterial Infections/complications , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Coinfection/blood , Coinfection/complications , Humans , Immunity/physiology , Monocytes/metabolism , Monocytes/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , Procalcitonin/metabolism , STAT3 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Signal Transduction/immunology
13.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 59, 2021 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1105715

ABSTRACT

Virus-like particles (VLPs) are virus-derived structures made up of one or more different molecules with the ability to self-assemble, mimicking the form and size of a virus particle but lacking the genetic material so they are not capable of infecting the host cell. Expression and self-assembly of the viral structural proteins can take place in various living or cell-free expression systems after which the viral structures can be assembled and reconstructed. VLPs are gaining in popularity in the field of preventive medicine and to date, a wide range of VLP-based candidate vaccines have been developed for immunization against various infectious agents, the latest of which is the vaccine against SARS-CoV-2, the efficacy of which is being evaluated. VLPs are highly immunogenic and are able to elicit both the antibody- and cell-mediated immune responses by pathways different from those elicited by conventional inactivated viral vaccines. However, there are still many challenges to this surface display system that need to be addressed in the future. VLPs that are classified as subunit vaccines are subdivided into enveloped and non- enveloped subtypes both of which are discussed in this review article. VLPs have also recently received attention for their successful applications in targeted drug delivery and for use in gene therapy. The development of more effective and targeted forms of VLP by modification of the surface of the particles in such a way that they can be introduced into specific cells or tissues or increase their half-life in the host is likely to expand their use in the future. Recent advances in the production and fabrication of VLPs including the exploration of different types of expression systems for their development, as well as their applications as vaccines in the prevention of infectious diseases and cancers resulting from their interaction with, and mechanism of activation of, the humoral and cellular immune systems are discussed in this review.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/biosynthesis , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Immunity/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/biosynthesis , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/immunology , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/therapeutic use
14.
J Clin Pharmacol ; 61(8): 987-1000, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1103313

ABSTRACT

Since the discovery of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), numerous research has been undertaken to delineate the various effects of the virus which manifests in many ways all over the body. The association between the SARS-CoV-2 invasion mechanism and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) receptors, created many debates about the possible consequences of using RAAS-modulating drugs including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) during the pandemic. Many clinical studies were conducted to assess the outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients who use ACEi/ARBs following the arguments claiming to discontinue these drugs as a precautionary measure. Although several studies mainly analyzed the outcomes of the disease, this review aimed to compare specific blood markers in both groups of COVID-19 patients to gain better insight into the interaction of ACEi/ARBs with different body functions during the infection. Several databases were searched using a combination of keywords followed by screening and data extraction. Only 28 studies met our inclusion criteria, the majority of which showed no significant difference between the inflammation markers of COVID-19 patients who used or did not use ACEi/ARBs. Interestingly, 6 studies reported lower inflammatory markers in COVID-19 patients who used ACEi/ARBs, and 6 studies reported better outcomes among the same group. We therefore concluded that the use of ACEi/ARBs may not lead to worse prognosis of COVID-19 and may even play a protective role against the hyperinflammatory response associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Immunity , Renin-Angiotensin System/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Immunity/drug effects , Immunity/physiology , Prognosis , Protective Factors
15.
Curr Opin Pulm Med ; 27(3): 193-198, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101917

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The wide spectrum of COVID-19 clinical manifestations demonstrates the determinant role played by the individual immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the course of the disease. Thanks to the large number of published data, we are beginning to understand the logic of the human response to a virus adapted to bat immunity. RECENT FINDINGS: Impairment of types I and III interferon responses may facilitate the occurrence of severe COVID-19 with reduced antiviral activity associated to potent inflammation. The human T and B-cell germline repertoire contain the specificities able to react against SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Although inflammation disrupts the structure of germinal centers, memory T and B cells can be found in the blood of patients after mild and severe COVID 19. SUMMARY: Further studies are indispensable to better understand the human immune response to SARS-CoV-2. The diversity of the individual reaction may contribute to explain the clinical manifestation spectrum. Immunological memory can be demonstrated in patients, convalescent from mild, moderate, or severe COVID-19, but we do not know whether asymptomatic individuals have memory of the virus. Tailored vaccination protocols may be needed for individuals with previous SAS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Immunity/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Severity of Illness Index
17.
Brain Behav Immun ; 91: 649-667, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064858

ABSTRACT

For the last two decades, researchers have placed hopes in a new era in which a combination of reperfusion and neuroprotection would revolutionize the treatment of stroke. Nevertheless, despite the thousands of papers available in the literature showing positive results in preclinical stroke models, randomized clinical trials have failed to show efficacy. It seems clear now that the existing data obtained in preclinical research have depicted an incomplete picture of stroke pathophysiology. In order to ameliorate bench-to-bed translation, in this review we first describe the main actors on stroke inflammatory and immune responses based on the available preclinical data, highlighting the fact that the link between leukocyte infiltration, lesion volume and neurological outcome remains unclear. We then describe what is known on neuroinflammation and immune responses in stroke patients, and summarize the results of the clinical trials on immunomodulatory drugs. In order to understand the gap between clinical trials and preclinical results on stroke, we discuss in detail the experimental results that served as the basis for the summarized clinical trials on immunomodulatory drugs, focusing on (i) experimental stroke models, (ii) the timing and selection of outcome measuring, (iii) alternative entry routes for leukocytes into the ischemic region, and (iv) factors affecting stroke outcome such as gender differences, ageing, comorbidities like hypertension and diabetes, obesity, tobacco, alcohol consumption and previous infections like Covid-19. We can do better for stroke treatment, especially when targeting inflammation following stroke. We need to re-think the design of stroke experimental setups, notably by (i) using clinically relevant models of stroke, (ii) including both radiological and neurological outcomes, (iii) performing long-term follow-up studies, (iv) conducting large-scale preclinical stroke trials, and (v) including stroke comorbidities in preclinical research.


Subject(s)
Stroke Rehabilitation/methods , Stroke/immunology , Stroke/physiopathology , Animals , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Comorbidity , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Immunity/immunology , Immunity/physiology , Inflammation/immunology , Neuroprotection/immunology , Neuroprotection/physiology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Reperfusion/methods , Reperfusion/trends
18.
Immunity ; 53(3): 510-523, 2020 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-761744

ABSTRACT

Integrated immunometabolic responses link dietary intake, energy utilization, and storage to immune regulation of tissue function and is therefore essential for the maintenance and restoration of homeostasis. Adipose-resident leukocytes have non-traditional immunological functions that regulate organismal metabolism by controlling insulin action, lipolysis, and mitochondrial respiration to control the usage of substrates for production of heat versus ATP. Energetically expensive vital functions such as immunological responses might have thus evolved to respond accordingly to dietary surplus and deficit of macronutrient intake. Here, we review the interaction of dietary intake of macronutrients and their metabolism with the immune system. We discuss immunometabolic checkpoints that promote healthspan and highlight how dietary fate and regulation of glucose, fat, and protein metabolism might affect immunity.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Diet , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Immune System/physiology , Immunity/physiology , Caloric Restriction , Dietary Fats , Glucose/metabolism , Humans , Leukocytes/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , Obesity/pathology
19.
Respir Med ; 175: 106204, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023739

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, the novel coronavirus pandemic, has already spread around the globe affecting more than 18 million people. As previously observed with other coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-2 deeply dysregulate the immune system eliciting respiratory failure and a state of systemic hyperinflammation in severely ill individuals. Immunotherapy is often used to downgrade the detrimental effects of the disease sustained by high-level of cytokines. Those treatments, however, are known to undermine patients' ability to contain tuberculosis (TB) infection. This study aims to describe interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) results in severe COVID-19 patients eligible for immunosuppressive treatment. Aggregate data were gathered from five hospitals in Milan, Italy, from March 1 to May 15, 2020 and retrospectively analyses. Results were summarized using absolute frequencies and percentages and compared using a two-sided Chi-squared test. Overall, 462 COVID-19 patients were eligible for immunosuppressive therapy, among which 335 were tested using IGRA testing. More than one-third of them (122/335; 36.4%) had an indeterminate IGRA result because of insufficient immune response to mitogen control, 19 (5.7%) tested positive and 194 (57.9) negative. The majority of patients with lymphocytopenia (i.e., total lymphocyte count [TLC] below 1000 cells/mm3) had indeterminate IGRAs (81/155; 52.3%). The proportion becomes even higher in patients with severe lymphocytopenia (i.e., TLC<500 cells/mm3) (36/57; 63%). Our results suggest a possible negative impact of COVID-19 related immune dysregulation on TB infection assessment and management. Close monitoring of individuals with or without retesting of individuals with indeterminate IGRAs and further basic science investigations should to be sought to better comprehend their implication on TB epidemiology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Immunosuppression Therapy/methods , Interferon-gamma Release Tests/methods , Latent Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunity/physiology , Interferon-gamma Release Tests/statistics & numerical data , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Italy/epidemiology , Latent Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Latent Tuberculosis/immunology , Latent Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Lymphopenia/immunology , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index
20.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 135: 111233, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009323

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, has led to the ongoing global pandemic. Although most patients experience no or only mild symptoms, some patients can develop severe illness, such as progressive pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and multiple organ failure caused by cytokine release syndrome. A majority of COVID-19 patients also develop gastrointestinal symptoms. These can present special challenges to the management of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) due to potential interactions between the immune response related to SARS-CoV-2 infection and dysregulated immunity associated with IBD. In this context, the pathogenesis of COVID-19 is reviewed in order to address these questions regarding immune interactions between COVID-19 and IBD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Immunity/physiology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/physiopathology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/epidemiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Humans , Immunity/drug effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
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