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Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(3): 1346-1357, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-20244894


Objetivo: Relatar a experiência da construção e utilização de um instrumento de estratificação de risco para vacinação de idosos contra a COVID-19. Métodos: Relato da experiência desenvolvida no município de Massapê ­ Ceará, durante o ano de 2021, a partir do início da campanha de vacinação de idosos contra a COVID-19. Descrição da Experiência: Por conta da escassez de imunobiológicos, na fase inicial da vacinação contra a COVID-19, a Secretaria da Saúde do município de Massapê, estado do Ceará, criou um instrumento para estratificação de riscos sanitários, epidemiológicos e sociais dos idosos, contendo seus dados sociodemográficos e as comorbidades. Após o estabelecimento das variáveis, foram estabelecidos escores para os estratos de risco, que foram classificados em baixo (um a três pontos), médio (quatro a seis pontos), alto (sete a nove pontos) e muito alto (dez pontos e mais). Considerações Finais: O estudo mostra que, apesar da pandemia de COVID-19, uma crise sanitária global sem precedentes como já dito, ações pontuais, mesmo que localizadas, podem ter efeito em cadeia e ser replicadas em outros cenários e momentos.

Objective: To report the experience of building and using a risk stratification instrument for vaccinating the elderly against COVID-19. Methods: Report of the experience developed in the municipality of Massapê - Ceará, during the year 2021, from the beginning of the vaccination campaign for the elderly against COVID-19. Experience Description: Due to the scarcity of immunobiologicals, in the initial phase of vaccination against COVID-19, the Department of Health of the municipality of Massapê, state of Ceará, created an instrument to stratify the health, epidemiological and social risks of the elderly, containing sociodemographic data and comorbidities of the elderly. After establishing the variables, scores were established for the risk strata, which were classified as low (one to three points), medium (four to six points), high (seven to nine points) and very high (ten points and more). Final Considerations: The study shows that, despite the COVID-19 pandemic, an unprecedented global health crisis as already mentioned, specific actions, even if localized, can have a chain effect and be replicated in other scenarios and times.

Objetivo: Relatar la experiencia de construcción y uso de un instrumento de estratificación de riesgo para la vacunación de ancianos contra la COVID-19. Métodos: Informe de la experiencia desarrollada en el municipio de Massapê - Ceará, durante el año 2021, desde el inicio de la campaña de vacunación de ancianos contra la COVID-19. Descripción de la Experiencia: Debido a la escasez de inmunobiológicos, en la fase inicial de la vacunación contra la COVID-19, la Secretaría de Salud del municipio de Massapê, estado de Ceará, creó un instrumento para estratificar los riesgos sanitarios, epidemiológicos y sociales de los ancianos, que contiene datos sociodemográficos y comorbilidades de los ancianos. Luego de establecer las variables, se establecieron puntajes para los estratos de riesgo, los cuales se clasificaron en bajo (uno a tres puntos), medio (cuatro a seis puntos), alto (siete a nueve puntos) y muy alto (diez puntos y más). Consideraciones finales: El estudio muestra que, a pesar de la pandemia de COVID-19, una crisis sanitaria mundial sin precedentes como ya se mencionó, las acciones específicas, aunque sean localizadas, pueden tener un efecto en cadena y replicarse en otros escenarios y tiempos.

Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aged , Stratified Sampling , Immunization Programs/supply & distribution , Risk Assessment , Health Management , COVID-19
Vaccine ; 41(28): 4151-4157, 2023 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235979


OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the distribution of routine immunizations globally. Multi-country studies assessing a wide spectrum of vaccines and their coverage rates are needed to determine global performance in achieving vaccination goals. METHODS: Global vaccine coverage data for 16 antigens were obtained from WHO/UNICEF Estimates of National Immunization Coverage. Tobit regression was performed for all country-antigen pairs for which data were continuously available between 2015-2020 or 2015-2021 to predict vaccine coverage in 2020/2021. Vaccines for which multi-dose data were available were assessed to determine whether vaccine coverage for subsequent doses were lower than that of first doses. RESULTS: Vaccine coverage was significantly lower-than-predicted for 13/16 antigens in 2020 and all assessed antigens in 2021. Lower-than-predicted vaccine coverage was typically observed in South America, Africa, Eastern Europe, and Southeast Asia. There was a statistically significant coverage drop for subsequent doses of the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, pneumococcus, and rotavirus vaccines compared to first doses in 2020 and 2021. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic exerted larger disruptions to routine vaccination services in 2021 than in 2020. Global efforts will be needed to recoup vaccine coverage losses sustained during the pandemic and broaden vaccine access in areas where coverage was previously inadequate.

COVID-19 , Vaccination Coverage , Humans , Infant , Pandemics/prevention & control , Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine , Immunization Schedule , Immunization Programs , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 19(1): 2194190, 2023 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234553


WHO-recommended vaccines substantially prevent and control vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs), but their inclusion differs among countries and regions. We reviewed the application for WHO-recommended vaccines in China and described the concerns and obstacles in driving the inclusion of more vaccines into China's NIP, including immunization strategies, financial barriers, vaccination services, and behavioral and social supply-side and demand-side factors. China has made significant efforts, however, they may not be sufficient until the inclusion of more WHO-recommended vaccines in the National Immunization Program (NIP), ensuring that the vaccination encompasses the whole life course of individuals, establishment of more trustworthy vaccination finance and procurement, increasing vaccine development, optimizing vaccine demand forecasts, improving the accessibility and equity of vaccination services, capturing the key points of behavioral and social drivers of vaccination on the demand side, and establishing holistic prevention and control from a public health perspective.

Vaccination , Vaccines , Humans , Immunization , Immunization Programs , China , World Health Organization
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 72(23): 613-620, 2023 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243279


Since the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was established in 1988, the number of wild poliovirus (WPV) cases has declined by >99.9%, and WPV serotypes 2 and 3 have been declared eradicated (1). By the end of 2022, WPV type 1 (WPV1) transmission remained endemic only in Afghanistan and Pakistan (2,3). However, during 2021-2022, Malawi and Mozambique reported nine WPV1 cases that were genetically linked to Pakistan (4,5), and circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) outbreaks were detected in 42 countries (6). cVDPVs are oral poliovirus vaccine-derived viruses that can emerge after prolonged circulation in populations with low immunity allowing reversion to neurovirulence and can cause paralysis. Polioviruses are detected primarily through surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), and poliovirus is confirmed through stool specimen testing. Environmental surveillance, the systematic sampling of sewage and testing for the presence of poliovirus, supplements AFP surveillance. Both surveillance systems were affected by the COVID-19 pandemic's effects on public health activities during 2020 (7,8) but improved in 2021 (9). This report updates previous reports (7,9) to describe surveillance performance during 2021-2022 in 34 priority countries.* In 2022, a total of 26 (76.5%) priority countries met the two key AFP surveillance performance indicator targets nationally compared with 24 (70.6%) countries in 2021; however, substantial gaps remain in subnational areas. Environmental surveillance expanded to 725 sites in priority countries, a 31.1% increase from the 553 sites reported in 2021. High-quality surveillance is critical to rapidly detect poliovirus transmission and enable prompt poliovirus outbreak response to stop circulation. Frequent monitoring of surveillance guides improvements to achieve progress toward polio eradication.

COVID-19 , Enterovirus , Poliomyelitis , Poliovirus , Humans , Pandemics , alpha-Fetoproteins , Disease Eradication , Population Surveillance , Global Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Poliomyelitis/diagnosis , Poliovirus/genetics , Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Immunization Programs
Int Health ; 14(6): 632-638, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231890


BACKGROUND: Immunization is a cost-effective public health strategy to reduce vaccine preventable disease, especially in childhood. METHODS: This paper reports the philosophy, service delivery, achievements and lessons learned from an immunization program in rural Nigeria privately financed via a corporate social responsibility initiative from GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals. RESULTS: The immunization program served the community for a 16-y period extending from 1998 until 2015, resulting in an increase in age-appropriate immunization coverage from 43% to 78%. CONCLUSION: In its success, this immunization program exemplified the importance of early and sustained community engagement, integration of strategies to optimize implementation outcomes and effective team building well before some of these principles were accepted and codified in the literature. The project also underscores the important role that the private sector can bring to achieving critical immunization goals, especially among underserved populations and provides a model for successful public-private partnership.

Developing Countries , Public-Private Sector Partnerships , Humans , Nigeria , Immunization Programs , Immunization , Vaccination
Cien Saude Colet ; 27(3): 951-956, 2022 Mar.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239042


This paper reflects on the vaccination campaign against COVID-19 in Brazil in light of the consideration of scientific evidence in the decision-making process. Brazil has one of the largest and most complete vaccination programs in the world, the National Immunization Program (Programa Nacional de Imunizações or PNI). Unfortunately, in the current context, with the political interference of the federal government, the PNI lost its role in conducting the vaccination campaign against COVID-19. Despite being a vaccination campaign with a lot of potential and one of the most accepted by the population among countries in the world, it presented many problems and left several gaps in the Brazilian scenario. In this sense, it is essential that the quality scientific evidence produced during this period can guide a constant remodeling of the vaccination strategy. Four points deserve to be highlighted: 1) the interval between doses; 2) the interchangeability between vaccines; 3) vaccination in children and adolescentes; and 4) the need for better evidence to define the vaccination strategy in certain groups and age groups.

O presente texto trata de refletir sobre a campanha de vacinação contra COVID-19 no Brasil à luz da consideração das evidências científicas no processo de tomada de decisão. O Brasil possui um dos maiores e mais completos programas de vacinação do mundo, o Programa Nacional de Imunizações (PNI). Infelizmente, no contexto atual, com as interferências políticas do governo federal, o PNI perdeu seu protagonismo na condução da campanha de vacinação contra a COVID-19. Apesar de ser uma campanha de vacinação com muito potencial e uma das mais aceitas pela população entre os países no mundo, apresentou muitos problemas e deixou diversas lacunas no cenário brasileiro. Nesse sentido, é fundamental que as evidências científicas de qualidade produzidas nesse período possam guiar uma remodelagem constante da estratégia de vacinação. Quatro pontos merecem ser destacados: 1) o intervalo entre as doses; 2) a intercambialidade entre vacinas; 3) a vacinação em adolescentes; e 4) a necessidade de melhores evidências para definir a estratégia de vacinação em certos grupos e faixas etárias.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Humans , Immunization Programs
Cien Saude Colet ; 27(3): 969-978, 2022 Mar.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236329


This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the vaccination numbers for immunization geared toward individuals under 12 months of age in Brazil. This study analyzed the numbers of the nationwide vaccination coverage of ten vaccines present in the calendar from the National Immunization Program (NIP) over the past eight years (2013-2020). This is an ecological study, and all data were taken from the NIP. In comparison to the previous years, 2020 recorded the lowest figures of vaccination coverage (VC) of the average of the group of studied vaccines - 79.07% - while in 2019, this same index was 84.44%, resulting in a drop of 11.10% between these two periods. Moreover, during the year of the pandemic, of the ten analyzed vaccines, nine recorded their lowest historical VC figures, all of which were at least 14 percentage points below the goals set by the Brazilian Ministry of Health (MS, in Portuguese). Although there had already been a tendency toward a decline in VC, for various reasons, the present study illustrates that the numbers recorded in 2020 were significantly lower, a phenomenon also reported in other countries. Therefore, although it is impossible to affirm that the COVID-19 pandemic and its distancing measures are the causes for the drop in the immunization numbers, it can be inferred that there is indeed an association.

O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o impacto da pandemia de COVID-19 nos valores de vacinação para as imunizações voltadas a indivíduos com menos de um ano de vida no Brasil. Analisou-se os valores de cobertura vacinal, em território nacional, de dez vacinas presentes no calendário do Programa Nacional de Imunizações (PNI) durante os últimos oito anos (2013-2020). Esse é um estudo ecológico e todos os dados foram extraídos do PNI. Comparativamente aos anos prévios, em 2020 registrou-se o menor valor de cobertura vacinal da média do conjunto das vacinas estudadas, 75,07%, enquanto em 2019 esse mesmo índice ficou em 84,44%, resultando em uma queda de 11,10% entre esses dois períodos. Além disso, no ano da pandemia, das dez vacinas analisadas, nove registraram o seu menor valor histórico de cobertura, todas estando a no mínimo 14 pontos percentuais abaixo da meta do Ministério da Saúde. Embora já houvesse uma tendência de queda na cobertura vacinal, por diversos motivos, o presente estudo demonstra que os valores registrados em 2020 foram significativamente menores, fenômeno também registrado em outros países. Portanto, mesmo não conseguindo afirmar que a pandemia de COVID-19 e as medidas de distanciamento sejam as causas da queda dos valores de imunização, podemos inferir que há uma associação.

COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Humans , Immunization Programs , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage
Rev Bras Enferm ; 75(4): e750401, 2022 10 17.
Article in English, Portuguese, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325202
Math Biosci Eng ; 20(6): 10828-10865, 2023 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316756


In this paper we study different vaccination strategies that could have been implemented for the early COVID-19 pandemic. We use a demographic epidemiological mathematical model based on differential equations in order to investigate the efficacy of a variety of vaccination strategies under limited vaccine supply. We use the number of deaths as the metric to measure the efficacy of each of these strategies. Finding the optimal strategy for the vaccination programs is a complex problem due to the large number of variables that affect the outcomes. The constructed mathematical model takes into account demographic risk factors such as age, comorbidity status and social contacts of the population. We perform simulations to assess the performance of more than three million vaccination strategies which vary depending on the vaccine priority of each group. This study focuses on the scenario corresponding to the early vaccination period in the USA, but can be extended to other countries. The results of this study show the importance of designing an optimal vaccination strategy in order to save human lives. The problem is extremely complex due to the large amount of factors, high dimensionality and nonlinearities. We found that for low/moderate transmission rates the optimal strategy prioritizes high transmission groups, but for high transmission rates, the optimal strategy focuses on groups with high CFRs. The results provide valuable information for the design of optimal vaccination programs. Moreover, the results help to design scientific vaccination guidelines for future pandemics.

COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vaccination , Immunization Programs , Risk Factors
Am J Disaster Med ; 17(3): 261-268, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315978


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has required healthcare systems to adapt, innovate, and collaborate to protect public health through treatment, testing, and vaccination initiatives related to the virus. As the pandemic evolved, lessons learned early on through testing and treatment were applied to vaccination efforts. Hartford HealthCare (HHC) is one of the largest healthcare systems in New England and took an integral role in vaccinating patients throughout the region, thus providing one of the largest vaccination campaigns in Connecticut. Early planning for equipment and personnel, in addition to effective communication between providers and patients, was critical in accomplishing HHC's goal of rapidly providing access to COVID-19 vaccines. The efficient and effective response to the pandemic at HHC was led by the Office of Emergency Management, which worked to ensure continuity of patient care and physician excellence in the face of disaster. Initially, resources were directed to testing and treatment of the disease; as vaccine clinical trials announced successful outcomes, these efforts shifted to preparing for the storage and distribution of a mass number of vaccines. This manuscript details the factors that enabled success in HHC's vaccination campaign and serves to provide a useful template for similar healthcare systems for future pandemic response.

COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Connecticut/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Immunization Programs
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 42(5): e154-e157, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315885


In Japan, immunization is regulated by the Immunization Law, enacted shortly after World War II ended. It has been subsequently revised in response to social changes; however, after public health conditions improved, adverse events following immunization have received more public attention than the effectiveness of vaccination. This kind of public opinion had a major impact on the immunization program, leading to a so-called "vaccine gap" around a decade ago, that is, the less availability of vaccines for routine vaccination as compared with other countries. However, in recent years, several vaccines have been approved and are being routinely administered with the same schedule as in other countries. National immunization programs are influenced by various factors, such as cultures, customs, habits and ideas. This paper summarizes the status of immunization schedule and practices in Japan, process of policymaking, and possible future issues.

Immunization Programs , Vaccines , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Vaccination , Vaccines/adverse effects , Japan
Vaccine ; 41(25): 3683-3687, 2023 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313647


Parental hesitancy poses a serious threat to the success of the COVID-19 childhood vaccination campaign. We investigate whether adults' opinions on childhood vaccination can be influenced via two survey experiments in Italy (n = 3,633 participants) and the UK (n = 3,314 participants). Respondents were randomly assigned to: a "risk treatment" that highlighted the potential risks of COVID-19 to a child, a "herd immunity treatment" that emphasized the community benefits of pediatric vaccination, or a control message. Participants' probability of supporting COVID-19 childhood vaccination was then assessed on a 0-100 scale. We find that the "risk treatment" reduced the proportion of Italian parents strongly against vaccination by up to 29.6 %, while increasing the proportion of neutral parents by up to 45.0 %. The "herd immunity treatment", instead, was only effective among non-parents, resulting in a lower proportion of individuals against pediatric vaccination and a higher proportion of individuals in favor (both shifted by around 20 %).

COVID-19 , Adult , Child , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Herd , Immunization Programs , Italy/epidemiology , Vaccination
Int J Public Health ; 68: 1605614, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312127


Objectives: Mass vaccination has been a key component in the effort to control the COVID-19 pandemic. Different countries have formulated their mass vaccination campaigns in different ways and with different priorities, with varying results. This study focuses on the case of Qatar in comparison with regional neighbors in the Gulf Cooperation Community (GCC) and with global benchmarks (G7 and OECD nations) in terms of the deployment of its mass vaccination program. Methods: Data on national vaccine administration and policy were obtained from Our World in Data and the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker for the period of 25 November 2020, when public vaccination first began to be implemented within the GCC, and June 2021, when Qatar's mass vaccination campaign concluded. Factors compared cross-nationally included the total number of vaccine doses administered, doses administered per 100 population, the time taken to reach certain vaccination thresholds (5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 doses per 100 population), and policy regarding administration to specific priority groups. Cumulative vaccination rates were also compared graphically by date. Results: A descriptive comparison of vaccination rates illustrated that there were similar aggregate patterns among the GCC, G7, and OECD groups of countries, and that there was a great deal of heterogeneity in the patterns of vaccination between countries within each of these groups. The mass vaccination program in Qatar outpaced the aggregate GCC, G7, and OECD groups. Conclusion: There were large between-country differences in the speed of mass vaccination progress which did not appear to be directly explained by national wealth. It is suggested that administrative and program management factors could account for some of these differences.

COVID-19 , Humans , Qatar/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , Vaccination , Immunization Programs
Vaccine ; 41(21): 3301-3304, 2023 05 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319419
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 19(1): 2199656, 2023 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2292007


The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) threat is subsiding through extensive vaccination worldwide. However, the pandemic imposed major disruptions in global immunization programs and has aggravated the risks of vaccine-preventable disease (VPD) outbreaks. Particularly, lower-middle-income regions with minimal vaccine coverage and circulating vaccine-derived viral strains, such as polio, suffered additional burden of accumulated zero-dose children, further making them vulnerable to VPDs. However, there is no compilation of routine immunization disruptions and recovery prospects. There is a noticeable change in the routine vaccination coverage across different phases of the pandemic in six distinct global regions. We have summarized the impact of COVID-19 on routine global vaccination programs and also identified the prospects of routine immunization to combat COVID-like outbreaks.

COVID-19 , Vaccines , Child , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization Schedule , Vaccination , Immunization Programs
J Pediatr (Rio J) ; 99 Suppl 1: S1-S3, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302906