Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 578
Filter
1.
J Infect Dis ; 224(12 Suppl 2): S749-S753, 2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2189126

ABSTRACT

Bangladesh is entering from low-income to lower-middle-income status in 2020, and this will be completed in the next 5 years. With gross national income growing, vaccines will need to be procured through private market for the Expanded Program on Immunization. A cost-benefit analysis is needed to evaluate vaccine demand in different socioeconomic groups in the country, to inform this procurement. Moreover, disease burden studies and awareness of importance of specific vaccines are needed as we move forward. A life-course approach to vaccination may enable whole society to realize the full potential of vaccination and address most significant threats to its success over time.


Subject(s)
Cholera Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cholera/prevention & control , Sustainable Development , Vaccination , Bangladesh , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Humans , Immunization Programs
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(47): 1489-1495, 2022 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2145601

ABSTRACT

All six World Health Organization (WHO) regions have committed to eliminating measles.* The Immunization Agenda 2021-2030 (IA2030)† aims to achieve the regional targets as a core indicator of impact and positions measles as the tracer of a health system's ability to deliver essential childhood vaccines. IA2030 highlights the importance of ensuring rigorous measles surveillance systems to document immunity gaps and achieve 95% coverage with 2 timely doses of measles-containing vaccine (MCV) among children. This report describes progress toward measles elimination during 2000-2021 and updates a previous report (1). During 2000-2021, estimated global coverage with a first MCV dose (MCV1) increased from 72% to a peak of 86% in 2019, but decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic to 83% in 2020 and to 81% in 2021, the lowest MCV1 coverage recorded since 2008. All countries conducted measles surveillance, but only 47 (35%) of 135 countries reporting discarded cases§ achieved the sensitivity indicator target of two or more discarded cases per 100,000 population in 2021, indicating surveillance system underperformance in certain countries. Annual reported measles incidence decreased 88% during 2000-2016, from 145 to 18 cases per 1 million population, then rebounded to 120 in 2019 during a global resurgence (2), before declining to 21 in 2020 and to 17 in 2021. Large and disruptive outbreaks were reported in 22 countries. During 2000-2021, the annual number of estimated measles deaths decreased 83%, from 761,000 to 128,000; an estimated 56 million measles deaths were averted by vaccination. To regain progress and achieve regional measles elimination targets during and after the COVID-19 pandemic, accelerating targeted efforts is necessary to reach all children with 2 MCV doses while implementing robust surveillance and identifying and closing immunity gaps to prevent cases and outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Measles , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , Disease Eradication , Immunization Programs , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Measles Vaccine
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(11): e2243127, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2127460

ABSTRACT

Importance: New York City, an early epicenter of the pandemic, invested heavily in its COVID-19 vaccination campaign to mitigate the burden of disease outbreaks. Understanding the return on investment (ROI) of this campaign would provide insights into vaccination programs to curb future COVID-19 outbreaks. Objective: To estimate the ROI of the New York City COVID-19 vaccination campaign by estimating the tangible direct and indirect costs from a societal perspective. Design, Setting, and Participants: This decision analytical model of disease transmission was calibrated to confirmed and probable cases of COVID-19 in New York City between December 14, 2020, and January 31, 2022. This simulation model was validated with observed patterns of reported hospitalizations and deaths during the same period. Exposures: An agent-based counterfactual scenario without vaccination was simulated using the calibrated model. Main Outcomes and Measures: Costs of health care and deaths were estimated in the actual pandemic trajectory with vaccination and in the counterfactual scenario without vaccination. The savings achieved by vaccination, which were associated with fewer outpatient visits, emergency department visits, emergency medical services, hospitalizations, and intensive care unit admissions, were also estimated. The value of a statistical life (VSL) lost due to COVID-19 death and the productivity loss from illness were accounted for in calculating the ROI. Results: During the study period, the vaccination campaign averted an estimated $27.96 (95% credible interval [CrI], $26.19-$29.84) billion in health care expenditures and 315 724 (95% CrI, 292 143-340 420) potential years of life lost, averting VSL loss of $26.27 (95% CrI, $24.39-$28.21) billion. The estimated net savings attributable to vaccination were $51.77 (95% CrI, $48.50-$55.85) billion. Every $1 invested in vaccination yielded estimated savings of $10.19 (95% CrI, $9.39-$10.87) in direct and indirect costs of health outcomes that would have been incurred without vaccination. Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this modeling study showed an association of the New York City COVID-19 vaccination campaign with reduction in severe outcomes and avoidance of substantial economic losses. This significant ROI supports continued investment in improving vaccine uptake during the ongoing pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , New York City/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization Programs , Investments
5.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(11)2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123745

ABSTRACT

We would like to thank Çinar et al. for their appreciation and insightful discussions presented in their comment [...].


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Immunization Programs , RNA, Messenger
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 42(Suppl 1): 8, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110978

ABSTRACT

The vulnerable populations in the protracted humanitarian crisis in South Sudan are faced with constrained access to health services and frequent disease outbreaks. Here, we describe the experiences of emergency mobile medical teams (eMMT) assembled by the World Health Organization (WHO) South Sudan to respond to public health emergencies. Interventions: the eMMTs, multidisciplinary teams based at national, state and county levels, are rapidly deployed to conduct rapid assessments, outbreak investigations, and initiate public health response during acute emergencies. The eMMTs were deployed to locations affected by flooding, conflicts, famine, and disease outbreaks. We reviewed records of deployment reports, outreach and campaign registers, and analyzed the key achievements of the eMMTs for 2017 through 2020. Achievements: the eMMTs investigated disease outbreaks including cholera, measles, Rift Valley fever and coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in 13 counties, conducted mobile outreaches in emergency locations in 38 counties (320,988 consultations conducted), trained 550 healthcare workers including rapid response teams, and supported reactive measles vaccination campaigns in seven counties [148,726, (72-125%) under-5-year-old children vaccinated] and reactive oral cholera vaccination campaigns in four counties (355,790 vaccinated). The eMMT is relevant in humanitarian settings and can reduce excess morbidity and mortality and fill gaps that routine health facilities and health partners could not bridge. However, the scope of the services offered needs to be broadened to include mental and psychosocial care and a strategy for ensuring continuity of vaccination services and management of chronic conditions after the mobile outreach is instituted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cholera , Measles , Child, Preschool , Cholera/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Emergencies , Humans , Immunization Programs , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , South Sudan/epidemiology
7.
Pan Afr Med J ; 41(Suppl 2): 4, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110972

ABSTRACT

Introduction: a year after the start of COVID-19 vaccination, coverage remains very low in the African Region. Different challenges and operational barriers have been documented, but countries will need to supplement the available information with operational research in order to adequately respond to practical questions regarding how best to scale up COVID-19 vaccination. We conducted a survey among immunisation program staff working in the African Region, in order to identify the high priority operational research questions relevant to COVID-19 vaccination. Methods: proposed operational research questions categorized into six topic areas were sent to resource persons, asking them to rate according to the relevance, urgency, feasibility, and potential impact of the research questions on the progress of COVID vaccination. Results: a total of 25 research questions have been given an average weighted rating of 75% or more by the respondents. Nine of these top priority research questions were in the area of demand generation, risk communication and community engagement while 8 questions covered the area of service delivery. Conclusion: countries should plan for and coordinate stakeholders to ensure that relevant operational research is done to respond to the top priority research questions, with a view to influence policies and implementation of strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Operations Research , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunization Programs , Vaccination
8.
Pediatr Ann ; 51(11): e426-e430, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110337

ABSTRACT

The landscape of pediatric vaccination has changed dramatically due to changing attitudes toward immunizations and recent world events. The rise of vaccine hesitancy and refusal related to the concurrent rise of social media and anti-vaccination messages with misinformation campaigns have led to populations of children being unimmunized or under-immunized. These populations have been left vulnerable to the rapid spread of vaccine-preventable infection. Additionally, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the clinical syndrome known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) resulted in the emergence of a worldwide pandemic. Control measures to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 resulted in numerous reports of children missing routine vaccines along with the stopping of many public health immunization programs. Finally, armed conflicts and war have led to large family migrations from their homelands to various countries and regions leading to increased risk for missed maternal and child immunization as well as difficulty in keeping vaccination records. [Pediatr Ann. 2022;51(11):e426-e430.].


Subject(s)
Armed Conflicts , Vaccination Hesitancy , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Vaccines , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases/epidemiology , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases/prevention & control , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccines/adverse effects , Immunization Programs , Disinformation , Emigration and Immigration , Mothers , Vaccination Refusal
9.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(10): 1648-1649, 2022 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110328

ABSTRACT

The first year of the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic registered the highest number of children under the age of one year who did not receive basic vaccines since 2009. The pronounced rise in vaccine-preventable diseases in 2020 and 2021 was largely attributable to the disruption of the vaccine schedule for children around the world. Routine vaccinations were missed in consideration of movement restrictions to prevent the spread of COVID-19. On the other hand, health resources were re-allocated to COVID-19, resulting in strained health care systems and the marginalization of essential health services like routine vaccination campaigns. The COVID-19 pandemic has clearly illustrated the potential of vaccines in saving lives and preventing disabilities. The unequal roll-out of vaccination programmes has simultaneously deepened the existing gaps between high and low-income countries. Disruption in other key life-saving immunization programmes is driving these inequalities even further. Prompt and sustainable investments in routine immunization programmes, including catch-up vaccination strategies, are essential to avert the impact of years of neglect of this important public health issue. In particular, the recent declining trends in vaccination coverage are putting decades of progress at risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Infant , Child , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Priorities , Vaccination , Immunization Programs , Immunization Schedule , Immunization , Global Health
10.
Euro Surveill ; 27(39)2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109633

ABSTRACT

BackgroundAfter an outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 Beta variant in the district of Schwaz/Austria, vaccination with Comirnaty vaccine (BNT162b2 mRNA, BioNTech-Pfizer) had been offered to all adult inhabitants (≥ 16 years) in March 2021. This made Schwaz one of the most vaccinated regions in Europe at that time (70% of the adult population took up the offer). In contrast, all other Austrian districts remained with low vaccine coverage.AimWe studied whether this rapid mass vaccination campaign provided indirect protection to unvaccinated individuals such as children (< 16 years) living in the same district.MethodsTo study the effect of the campaign we used two complementary approaches. We compared infection rates among the population of children (< 16 years) in Schwaz with (i) the child population from similar districts (using the synthetic control method), and (ii) with the child population from municipalities along the border of Schwaz not included in the campaign (using an event study approach).ResultsBefore the campaign, we observed very similar infection spread across the cohort of children in Schwaz and the control regions. After the campaign, we found a significant reduction of new cases among children of -64.5% (95%-CI: -82.0 to -30.2%) relative to adjacent border municipalities (using the event study model). Employing the synthetic control method, we observed a significant reduction of -42.8% in the same cohort.ConclusionOur results constitute novel evidence of an indirect protection effect from a group of vaccinated individuals to an unvaccinated group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Measles , Adult , Austria/epidemiology , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Humans , Immunization Programs , Measles/epidemiology , Measles Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
11.
Vaccine ; 40(46): 6664-6669, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106124

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Elderly people in long-term care facilities (LTCF) are at higher risk for (severe) COVID-19, yet evidence of vaccine effectiveness (VE) in this population is scarce. In November 2021 (Delta period), a COVID-19 outbreak occurred at a LTCF in the Netherlands, continuing despite measures and booster vaccination campaign. We investigated the outbreak to assess VE of primary COVID-19 vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 infection and mortality, and to describe the impact of the booster vaccination. METHODS: We calculated attack rate (AR) and case fatality (CF) per vaccination status (unvaccinated, primarily vaccinated and boostered). We calculated VE - at on average 6 months after vaccination - as 1- risk ratio (RR) using the crude risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between vaccination status (primary vaccination versus unvaccinated) and outcomes (SARS-CoV-2 infection and mortality < 30 days after testing positive for SARS-CoV-2). RESULTS: The overall AR was 67% (70/105). CF was 33% (2/6) among unvaccinated cases, 12% among primarily vaccinated (7/58) and 0% (0/5) among boostered. The VE of primary vaccination was 17% (95% CI -28%; 46%) against SARS-CoV-2 infection and 70% (95% CI -44%; 96%) against mortality. Among boostered residents (N = 55), there were 25 cases in the first week after receiving the booster dose, declining to 5 in the second and none in the third week. CONCLUSION: VE of primary vaccination in residents of LTCF was very low against SARS-CoV-2 infection and moderate against mortality. There were few cases at 2 weeks after the booster dose and no deaths, despite the presence of susceptible residents. These data are consistent with the positive impact of the booster vaccination in curbing transmission. Timely booster vaccination in residents of LTCF is therefore important.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Vaccine Efficacy , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunization Programs , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control
12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(44): 1396-1400, 2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100530

ABSTRACT

In 2020, the World Health Assembly endorsed the Immunization Agenda 2030, an ambitious global immunization strategy to reduce morbidity and mortality from vaccine-preventable diseases (1). This report updates a 2020 report (2) with global, regional,* and national vaccination coverage estimates and trends through 2021. Global estimates of coverage with 3 doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-containing vaccine (DTPcv3) decreased from an average of 86% during 2015-2019 to 83% in 2020 and 81% in 2021. Worldwide in 2021, 25.0 million infants (19% of the target population) were not vaccinated with DTPcv3, 2.1 million more than in 2020 and 5.9 million more than in 2019. In 2021, the number of infants who did not receive any DTPcv dose by age 12 months (18.2 million) was 37% higher than in 2019 (13.3 million). Coverage with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) decreased from an average of 85% during 2015-2019 to 84% in 2020 and 81% in 2021. These are the lowest coverage levels for DTPcv3 and MCV1 since 2008. ​Global coverage estimates were also lower in 2021 than in 2020 and 2019 for bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine (BCG) as well as for the completed series of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (Hib), hepatitis B vaccine (HepB), polio vaccine (Pol), and rubella-containing vaccine (RCV). The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in disruptions to routine immunization services worldwide. Full recovery to immunization programs will require context-specific strategies to address immunization gaps by catching up missed children, prioritizing essential health services, and strengthening immunization programs to prevent outbreaks (3).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccination Coverage , Infant , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine , Immunization Programs , Vaccination , Measles Vaccine , Rubella Vaccine , Immunization Schedule
13.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(11)2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099653

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein mRNA-based vaccines have prevented countless mortality and morbidity, and have an excellent risk/benefit ratio. However, various adverse events may rarely occur after the BNT162b2 vaccine, like any other medical intervention. The COVID-19 itself and the spike protein produced endogenously by mRNA vaccines may have immunological, microenvironmental, prothrombotic, and neoplastic effects. As a contribution to the published report, we would like to share our experience regarding four cases in which myeloid neoplasms emerged following the vaccination. Conclusions: There is no doubt that vaccination could continue along the lines of established universal recommendations. Meanwhile, all hematological adverse events must be closely monitored and reported. Further efforts should be focused on the probable pathobiological mechanisms and causalities of spike protein-related toxicity and clonal myeloid disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Humans , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Immunization Programs , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
14.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090357

ABSTRACT

In the SCOPE study, we monitored SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in a national sample of residents and staff from Belgian nursing homes. Here, we report the seroprevalence among infected and infection-naive residents and staff after the primary COVID-19 vaccination campaign. Among 1554 vaccinated nursing home residents and 1082 vaccinated staff from 69 nursing homes in Belgium, we assessed the proportion having SARS-CoV-2 antibodies approximately two (April 2021), four (June 2021), and six months (August 2021) after a two-dose regimen of the BNT162b2 vaccine. We measured the seroprevalence using SARS-CoV-2 antibody rapid tests and collected socio-demographic and COVID-19 medical data using an online questionnaire. Two months after vaccination (baseline), we found a seroprevalence of 91% (95% CI: 89-93) among vaccinated residents and 99% (95% CI: 98-99) among vaccinated staff. Six months after vaccination, the seroprevalence significantly decreased to 68% (95% CI: 64-72) among residents and to 89% (95% CI; 86-91) among staff (p < 0.001). The seroprevalence was more likely to decrease among infection-naive residents, older residents, or residents with a high care dependency level. These findings emphasize the need for close monitoring of nursing home residents, as a substantial part of this population fails to mount a persistent antibody response after BNT162b2 vaccination.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Humans , Belgium/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Prospective Studies , Immunization Programs , Antibodies, Viral , Nursing Homes , Vaccination
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18108, 2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087311

ABSTRACT

While understanding the time evolution of Covid-19 pandemic is needed to plan economics and tune sanitary policies, a quantitative information of the recurrent epidemic waves is elusive. This work describes a statistical physics study of the subsequent waves in the epidemic spreading of Covid-19 and disclose the frequency components of the epidemic waves pattern over two years in United States, United Kingdom and Japan. These countries have been taken as representative cases of different containment policies such as "Mitigation" (USA and UK) and "Zero Covid" (Japan) policies. The supercritical phases in spreading have been identified by intervals with RIC-index > 0. We have used the wavelet transform of infection and fatality waves to get the spectral analysis showing a dominant component around 130 days. Data of the world dynamic clearly indicates also the crossover to a different phase due to the enforcement of vaccination campaign. In Japan and United Kingdom, we observed the emergence in the infection waves of a long period component (~ 170 days) during vaccination campaign. These results indicate slowing down of the epidemic spreading dynamics due to the vaccination campaign. Finally, we find an intrinsic difference between infection and fatality waves pointing to a non-trivial variation of the lethality due to different gene variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , United States , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Immunization Programs , Vaccination
16.
Vaccine ; 40(50): 7262-7269, 2022 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086819

ABSTRACT

Vaccines are among the safest and most effective primary prevention measures. Thanks to the synergistic global efforts of research institutions, pharmaceutical companies and national health services, COVID-19 vaccination campaigns were successfully rolled out less than a year after the start of the pandemic. While the unprecedented speed of development and approval of COVID-19 vaccines has been applauded as a public health success story, it also spurred considerable controversy and hesitancy even amongst individuals that did not previously hold anti-vaccination stances. This study aimed to compare pre- and post-pandemic vaccine confidence trends in different demographic groups by analysing the outcomes of two online surveys run respectively in November 2019 and January 2022 involving a total of 1009 participants. Non-parametric tests highlighted a statistically significant decline in vaccine confidence in the 2022 cohort compared to the 2019 cohort, with median Vaccine Confidence Score dropping from 22 to 20 and 23.8% of participants reporting that their confidence in vaccines had declined since the onset of the pandemic. While the majority of internal trends were comparable between the two surveys with regards to gender, graduate status and religious belief, vaccine confidence patterns showed considerable alterations with regards to age and ethnicity. Middle-aged participants were considerably more hesitant than younger groups in the 2019 cohort, however this was not the case in the 2022 survey. In both surveys White participants showed significantly higher vaccine confidence than those from Black backgrounds; in the 2022 cohort, unlike the pre-pandemic group, Asian participants showed significantly lower confidence than White ones. This study suggests that paradoxically, despite the success of COVID-19 vaccination campaigns, vaccine confidence has significantly declined since the onset of the pandemic; the comparison of a pre- and post-pandemic cohort sheds light on the differential effect that the pandemic had on vaccine confidence in different demographic groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , Middle Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Immunization Programs
18.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 75(4): e750401, 2022 10 17.
Article in English, Portuguese, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079843
19.
Vaccine ; 40(48): 6917-6923, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076796

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Knowing the settings where children ages 5-17 years received COVID-19 vaccination in the United States, and how settings changed over time and varied by socio-demographics, is of interest for planning and implementing vaccination programs. METHODS: Data from the National Immunization Survey-Child COVID-19 Module (NIS-CCM) were analyzed to assess place of COVID-19 vaccination among vaccinated children ages 5-17 years. Interviews from July 2021 thru May 2022 were included in the analyses for a total of n = 39,286 vaccinated children. The percentage of children receiving their COVID-19 vaccine at each type of setting was calculated overall, by sociodemographic characteristics, and by month of receipt of COVID-19 vaccine. RESULTS: Among vaccinated children ages 5-11 years, 46.9 % were vaccinated at a medical place, 37.1 % at a pharmacy, 8.1 % at a school, 4.7 % at a mass vaccination site, and 3.2 % at some other non-medical place. Among vaccinated children ages 12-17 years, 35.1 % were vaccinated at a medical place, 47.9 % at a pharmacy, 8.3 % at a mass vaccination site, 4.8 % at a school, and 4.0 % at some other non-medical place. The place varied by time among children ages 12-17 years but minimally for children ages 5-11 years. There was variability in the place of COVID-19 vaccination by age, race/ethnicity, health insurance, urbanicity, and region. CONCLUSION: Children ages 5-17 years predominantly received their COVID-19 vaccinations at pharmacies and medical places. The large proportion of vaccinated children receiving vaccination at pharmacies is indicative of the success in the United States of expanding the available settings where children could be vaccinated. Medical places continue to play a large role in vaccinating children, especially younger children, and should continue to stock COVID-19 vaccine to keep it available for those who are not yet vaccinated, including the newly recommended group of children < 5 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , United States , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Immunization Programs , Immunization
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071414

ABSTRACT

Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in New York State (NYS), local health departments (LHDs) have worked to mitigate the highly infectious disease. As lead public health experts in their communities, LHDs are responsible for providing communicable disease control, emergency response, and establishing immunization programs, including leading large-scale vaccine distribution efforts. The aim of this qualitative study was to understand the processes used by LHDs in NYS to administer COVID-19 vaccines, as well as identify successes and challenges, and highlight lessons learned to improve future mass vaccination campaigns. Data were collected in two phases: (1) extant data collection of public communications; and (2) discussion groups with public health leaders across the state. Notable themes from both phases include: partnerships, programmatic elements, communication, role of LHD, State-LHD coordination, and human and physical resources. Analysis of both public and internal communications from LHDs across NYS revealed several core challenges LHDs faced during COVID-19 vaccine rollout and identified innovative solutions that LHDs used to facilitate vaccine access, administration, and uptake in their communities. Findings from this multi-phase qualitative analysis support the need to bolster the capacity and training of the local public health workforce to ensure preparedness for future public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Pandemics/prevention & control , New York , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization Programs , Public Health , Local Government
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL