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2.
Epidemiol Prev ; 45: In press, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607585

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: to present an evaluation of the campaign for vaccination against COVID-19 in the territory covered by the Agency for Health Protection of the Metropolitan Area of Milan from 01.01.2021 to 30.09.2021. DESIGN: descriptive study of vaccine adherence; predictive study of the factors associated with vaccine adherence, efficacy of vaccination in terms of hospitalization and mortality, and factors that increase the risk of hospital admission following full vaccination. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: population-based study with subjects aged >18 years eligible for vaccination (N. 2,981,997). An information system obtained by integrating various administrative healthcare sources made it possible to analyse socioeconomic characteristics, COVID-19 related hospitalizations, and general mortality in subjects eligible for vaccination. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: full vaccination (2 doses); COVID-19-related hospitalizations, COVID-19-related hospitalizations occurring more than 15 days after the second dose, general mortality. RESULTS: in the first nine months of the vaccination campaign, 74.7% of the subjects (N. 2,228,915) was fully vaccinated, whereas 15.6% (N. 465,829) did not even receive one dose. Women have a lower probability of getting vaccinated than men; the 50-59 years and 70+ years age groups emerge as the most problematic to reach, while the younger one (<40) is the most adherent. A social gradient emerged, with residents of more disadvantaged areas progressively less incline to get vaccinated than those living in more affluent areas. Adherence is greater in Italian citizenship and is likely to increase with an increase in the number of chronic conditions. Hospitalizations amounted to 1.22% (N. 5,672) in the unvaccinated population compared to 0.05% (N. 1,013) in the vaccinated population; general mortality was 4.51% (N. 15,198) in the unvaccinated population against 0.32% (N. 8.733) in the vaccinated population. Sociodemographic factors and the presence of previous health conditions are important predictors of hospitalization outcomes even within the fully vaccinated population. Specifically, the highest hazard ratios are found in subjects with heart failure (HR 2.15; 95%CI 1.83-2.53), in immunocompromised patients (HR 2.02; 95%CI 1.52-2.69), and in transplant recipients (HR 1.92; 95%CI 1.10-3.33). CONCLUSIONS: vaccination campaign adherence is affected by the sociodemographic characteristics of the population and is a determining factor in preventing hospitalizations for COVID-19 and death. The persistent higher risk of hospitalization in chronic subjects following the second dose emphasizes the need to direct booster doses to the more vulnerable. Information systems proved to be effective monitoring tools in the absence of specific trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Immunization Programs , Italy/epidemiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
4.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 11(1): 6, 2022 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608320

ABSTRACT

Bhutan has reported a total of 2596 COVID-19 cases and three deaths as of September 15, 2021. With support from India, the United States, Denmark, the People's Republic of China, Croatia and other countries, Bhutan was able to conduct two rounds of nationwide vaccination campaign. While many countries struggle to overcome vaccine refusal or hesitancy due to complacency, a lack of trust, inconvenience and fear, escalated in some countries by anti-vaccine groups, Bhutan managed to inoculate more than 95% of its eligible populations in two rounds of vaccination campaign. Enabling factors of this successful vaccination campaign were strong national leadership, a well-coordinated national preparedness plan, and high acceptability of vaccine due to effective mass communication and social engagement led by religious figures, volunteers and local leaders. In this short report, we described the national strategic plan and enabling factors that led to the success of this historical vaccination campaign.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Bhutan , Humans , Immunization Programs , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
5.
NASN Sch Nurse ; 37(1_suppl): 3S-14S, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582809

ABSTRACT

For decades, school-located vaccinations clinics (SLVs) have successfully offered influenza and routine childhood immunizations that have contributed to lowering the morbidity and mortality of vaccine-preventable diseases. These SLVs laid the foundation for state and local health departments and school districts to quickly implement SLVs in response to COVID-19. To support school nurses and immunization programs in implementing future SLVs during the COVID-19 pandemic, we explored the landscape of SLVs between August 2019 and late summer 2021 using publicly available information from school and health department websites, news articles reporting on SLVs, and internal documents provided by school nurses and immunization programs who hosted SLVs. Our scan identified variability in the reach, scope, and approach to SLVs, but consistent themes persist such as the importance of partnerships and SLVs as an opportunity to promote equitable access to vaccinations. Useful documents and resources for planning and hosting SLV clinics were compiled into a table. With COVID-19 vaccines now available to all school-age children, SLVs provide an even greater opportunity to improve school and community health. The included resources are designed to provide support for those interested in SLV implementation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , School Nursing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Humans , Immunization Programs , Pandemics , Policy , SARS-CoV-2 , School Health Services , Schools , Vaccination
6.
NASN Sch Nurse ; 37(1_suppl): 15S-23S, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582808

ABSTRACT

School-located vaccination clinics (SLVs) are an established strategy to offer influenza and routine vaccinations and improve student and community health. The COVID-19 pandemic has led many communities to expand SLVs to include COVID-19 vaccines. However, these SLVs are less documented than in the past due to the fast-paced nature of the pandemic and the additional pressures put on schools and public health organizations. We conducted five virtual roundtables with 30 school nurses and state immunization program managers from across the United States to gain insight into SLVs occurring during the COVID-19 pandemic. Roundtables explored participants' experiences planning and implementing SLVs, including factors influencing success and available resources. Findings highlighted SLVs as an opportunity to increase access and equity for vaccines. Participants shared strategies for School-located vaccination (SLV) funding, partnership building, vaccine storage and management, consent, data sharing, messaging, and promotion. These shared experiences offer useful insights for those interested in future and sustained SLV implementation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , School Nursing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunization Programs , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , School Health Services , Schools , United States , Vaccination
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580850

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Italy, the under-30 age category was the one that joined the anti-COVID-19 vaccination campaign in an important way. This study investigates the emotional states and motivations underlying joining the anti-COVID-19 vaccination campaign. METHODS: A questionnaire consisting of SF-12, STAI Y, and open questions was administered to investigate the state of health, the state of anxiety, and motivational states of the participants. RESULTS: Of the sample, 80.7% were vaccinated at the first call, deeming the action important to combat the infection. However, 48.2% stated that they were quite worried about the problems related to the pandemic, 37.3% feared being directly infected, and 43.4% were worried about the health of relatives and friends. CONCLUSIONS: The positive impact that the vaccination campaign has had on the under-30 category is very significant for the immunization process, which is of fundamental importance for fighting the pandemic, so the "benefits" outweigh the "risks" related to the COVID-19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Emotions , Humans , Immunization Programs , Italy/epidemiology , Motivation , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination
9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 781161, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575929

ABSTRACT

Globally, vaccine hesitancy is a growing public health problem. It is detrimental to the consolidation of immunization program achievements and elimination of vaccine-targeted diseases. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in China and explore its contributing factors. A national cross-sectional online survey among Chinese adults (≥18 years old) was conducted between August 6, 2021 and August 9 via a market research company. We collected sociodemographic information; lifestyle behavior; quality of life; the knowledge, awareness, and behavior of COVID-19; the knowledge, awareness, and behavior of COVID-19 vaccine; willingness of COVID-19 vaccination; accessibility of COVID-19 vaccination services; skepticism about COVID-19 and COVID-19 vaccine; doctor and vaccine developer scale; and so on. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to estimate the associations by using logistic regression models. A total of 29,925 residents (48.64% men) were enrolled in our study with mean age of 30.99 years. We found an overall prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy at 8.40% (95% CI, 8.09-8.72) in primary vaccination and 8.39% (95% CI, 8.07-8.70) in booster vaccination. In addition, after adjusting for potential confounders, we found that women, higher educational level, married residents, higher score of health condition, never smoked, increased washing hands, increased wearing mask, increased social distance, lower level of vaccine conspiracy beliefs, disease risks outweigh vaccine risk, higher level of convenient vaccination, and higher level of trust in doctor and developer were more willing to vaccinate than all others (all p < 0.05). Age, sex, educational level, marital status, chronic disease condition, smoking, healthy behaviors, the curability of COVID-19, the channel of accessing information of COVID-19 vaccine, endorsement of vaccine conspiracy beliefs, weigh risks of vaccination against risks of the disease, making a positive influence on the health of others around you, and lower trust in healthcare system may affect the variation of willingness to take a COVID-19 vaccine (all p < 0.05). The prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy was modest in China, even with the slight resulting cascade of changing vaccination rates between the primary and booster vaccination. Urgent action to address vaccine hesitancy is needed in building trust in medical personnel and vaccine producers, promoting the convenience of vaccination services, and spreading reliable information of COVID-19 vaccination via the Internet and other media.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , /statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , China/epidemiology , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Female , Humans , Immunization Programs , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Population Surveillance , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Young Adult
11.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6995096, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573872

ABSTRACT

At the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, early modelling studies estimated a reduction in childhood vaccinations in low- and middle-income countries. Regular provision of both curative and preventive services such as antenatal care and childhood immunizations has been negatively affected since the onset of the pandemic. Our study was aimed at examining the impact that the pandemic had on childhood vaccination services at the Tamale Teaching Hospital (TTH). A mixed methods study design was employed for the study, which was conducted at the Child Welfare Clinic (CWC) of the TTH. With quantitative approach, we retrospectively looked at the uptake of the various vaccines during the pandemic era, defined as the period between 1st March 2020 and 28th February, 2021, and the prepandemic era defined as the period 1st March 2019 to 29th February, 2020. The qualitative approach was used to understand the perspective of five healthcare providers at the CWC and the four caregivers of children who have missed a vaccine or delayed in coming, on the factors accounting for any observed change. Data analysis was done using Microsoft Excel 2016 and thematic content analysis. Quantitative data were presented in frequencies, percentages, and line graphs. With the exception of the Measles Rubella (MR) 2 vaccine, we observed a decline ranging from 47% (2298) to 10.5% (116), with the greatest decline seen in the BCG and the least decline seen in the MR1 vaccine. The month of May 2020 saw the greatest decline, that is, 70.6% (813). A decline of 38.3% (4473) was noted when comparison was made between the designated prepandemic and pandemic eras, for all the vaccines in our study. Fear of COVID-19 infection and misinformation were commonly given as reasons for the decline. Catch-up immunization schedule should be instituted to curtail possible future outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases.


Subject(s)
Immunization Programs/trends , Vaccination/trends , BCG Vaccine , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Ghana/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Measles Vaccine , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers/trends
12.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 198, 2021 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571757

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the delivery of immunisation services globally. Many countries have postponed vaccination campaigns out of concern about infection risks to the staff delivering vaccination, the children being vaccinated, and their families. The World Health Organization recommends considering both the benefit of preventive campaigns and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when making decisions about campaigns during COVID-19 outbreaks, but there has been little quantification of the risks. METHODS: We modelled excess SARS-CoV-2 infection risk to vaccinators, vaccinees, and their caregivers resulting from vaccination campaigns delivered during a COVID-19 epidemic. Our model used population age structure and contact patterns from three exemplar countries (Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, and Brazil). It combined an existing compartmental transmission model of an underlying COVID-19 epidemic with a Reed-Frost model of SARS-CoV-2 infection risk to vaccinators and vaccinees. We explored how excess risk depends on key parameters governing SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility, and aspects of campaign delivery such as campaign duration, number of vaccinations, and effectiveness of personal protective equipment (PPE) and symptomatic screening. RESULTS: Infection risks differ considerably depending on the circumstances in which vaccination campaigns are conducted. A campaign conducted at the peak of a SARS-CoV-2 epidemic with high prevalence and without special infection mitigation measures could increase absolute infection risk by 32 to 45% for vaccinators and 0.3 to 0.5% for vaccinees and caregivers. However, these risks could be reduced to 3.6 to 5.3% and 0.1 to 0.2% respectively by use of PPE that reduces transmission by 90% (as might be achieved with N95 respirators or high-quality surgical masks) and symptomatic screening. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection risks to vaccinators, vaccinees, and caregivers during vaccination campaigns can be greatly reduced by adequate PPE, symptomatic screening, and appropriate campaign timing. Our results support the use of adequate risk mitigation measures for vaccination campaigns held during SARS-CoV-2 epidemics, rather than cancelling them entirely.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Brazil , Burkina Faso , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Ethiopia , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment
14.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 313, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547767

ABSTRACT

For 15 years, the Annual African Vaccinology Course (AAVC) hosted by the Vaccines for Africa Initiative, has been at the forefront of vaccinology training in Africa. The AAVC was developed in 2005 in response to the growing demand for vaccinology training in Africa. To date, 958 policy makers, immunization managers, public and private health practitioners, scientists, postgraduate and postdoctoral students have been trained. These participants are from 44 of the 54 African countries. The course content covers diverse topics such as considerations for new vaccine introduction, mathematical modelling, and emerging and re-emerging vaccine preventable diseases. As the landscape of vaccinology continues to evolve, the AAVC aims to expand the reach of vaccinology training using blended learning approaches which will incorporate online and face-to-face formats, while expanding access to this popular course. Ultimately, the AAVC endeavours to develop a big pool of vaccinology expertise in Africa and to strengthen regional ownership for immunization programmes.


Subject(s)
Vaccination/methods , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccinology/education , Africa , Humans , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases/prevention & control
15.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 134, 2021.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547728

ABSTRACT

Introduction: no one can deny that vaccination against several serious diseases in the world, and particularly in Morocco, has given very satisfactory protective results. The extension of the COVID-19 pandemic in our country has led to a significant decline in childhood immunization, which could have severe repercussions increasing the risk of future outbreaks. Hence, the measures of the Ministry of Health to correct the situation. The purpose of this study was to highlight the extent of vaccine release during COVID-19 pandemic and to make recommendations to restore vaccination programmes. Methods: we conducted a cross-sectional study of the effect of containment measures during this pandemic on the monitoring of children´s vaccinations. We conducted a national survey of pediatricians using an electronic questionnaire administered via Google Forms. We collected, analyzed and interpreted the results. Results: one hundred and three Moroccan pediatricians answered the questionnaire. More than 2-thirds (78.6%) of pediatricians practiced in the private sector and delivered vaccines in the immunization schedule. The majority of pediatricians (95%) were asked about parental vaccine concerns. We noted that 82.5% of parents were reluctant to go to the local health department and 5.8% refused to take vaccination during COVID-19 pandemic. About 22% of pediatricians completely stopped immunization services and 72.8% delayed immunizations from 3 to 4 weeks. Vaccination stoppage involved older children in two thirds of cases. Conclusion: it is essential to maintain public confidence in vaccination. Ongoing and timely assessment of vaccine coverage as well as clear recommendations and broad public awareness are essential to respond to vaccine changes during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunization Schedule , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunization Programs , Male , Middle Aged , Morocco , Parents , Pediatricians/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination Coverage
16.
Epidemiol Prev ; 45(5): 395-400, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1543061

ABSTRACT

Politics is facing the need to make important decisions about anti-COVID-19 vaccination campaign in uncertain and changing contexts. With reference to the time frame between the administration of the first and second dose, the scientific evidence is still weak and comes from different contexts. New ways to collect and synthesize expert knowledge and opinions are needed with the direct involvement of the citizens in order to explain the uncertainties and maintain trust in institutions and their decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Politics , Humans , Immunization Programs , Italy , Trust
17.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(5): 444-450, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537216

ABSTRACT

Psychiatric disorders, and especially severe mental illness, are associated with an increased risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality. People with severe mental illness should therefore be prioritised in vaccine allocation strategies. Here, we discuss the risk for worse COVID-19 outcomes in this vulnerable group, the effect of severe mental illness and psychotropic medications on vaccination response, the attitudes of people with severe mental illness towards vaccination, and, the potential barriers to, and possible solutions for, an efficient vaccination programme in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunization Programs , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunization Programs/ethics , Immunization Programs/methods , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , Mental Disorders/psychology , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination Coverage , Vulnerable Populations/psychology
19.
Euro Surveill ; 26(43)2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528793

ABSTRACT

BackgroundUp-to-date seroprevalence estimates are critical to describe the SARS-CoV-2 immune landscape and to guide public health decisions.AimWe estimate seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies 15 months into the COVID-19 pandemic and 6 months into the vaccination campaign.MethodsWe conducted a population-based cross-sectional serosurvey between 1 June and 7 July 2021, recruiting participants from age- and sex-stratified random samples of the general population. We tested participants for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies targeting the spike (S) or nucleocapsid (N) proteins using the Roche Elecsys immunoassays. We estimated the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies seroprevalence following vaccination and/or infection (anti-S antibodies), or infection only (anti-N antibodies).ResultsAmong 3,355 individuals (54.1% women; 20.8% aged < 18 years and 13.4% aged ≥ 65 years), 2,161 (64.4%) had anti-S antibodies and 906 (27.0%) had anti-N antibodies. The total seroprevalence was 66.1% (95% credible interval (CrI): 64.1-68.0). We estimated that 29.9% (95% Crl: 28.0-31.9) of the population developed antibodies after infection; the rest having developed antibodies via vaccination. Seroprevalence estimates differed markedly across age groups, being lowest among children aged 0-5 years (20.8%; 95% Crl: 15.5-26.7) and highest among older adults aged ≥ 75 years (93.1%; 95% Crl: 89.6-96.0). Seroprevalence of antibodies developed via infection and/or vaccination was higher among participants with higher educational level.ConclusionMost of the population has developed anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, despite most teenagers and children remaining vulnerable to infection. As the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant spreads and vaccination rates stagnate, efforts are needed to address vaccine hesitancy, particularly among younger individuals and to minimise spread among children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunization Programs , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pandemics , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Switzerland
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