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6.
J Pediatr ; 231: 17-23, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1176841

ABSTRACT

Mandatory school vaccination policies with exclusion of unvaccinated students can be a powerful tool in ensuring high vaccination rates. Some parents may object to mandatory vaccination policies, claiming exemptions based on medical, religious, or philosophical reasons. Individual schools, school systems, or local or regional governments have different policies with respect to whether, and what kind of, exemptions may be allowed. In the setting of the current pandemic, questions regarding the acceptability of exemptions have resurfaced, as schools and local governments struggle with how to safely return children to school. Anticipating that school attendance will be facilitated by the development of a vaccine, school systems will face decisions about whether to mandate vaccination and whether to permit exemptions. The American Academy of Pediatrics promulgates policy favoring the elimination of nonmedical exemptions generally in schools. This discussion considers whether schools should eliminate nonmedical exemptions to vaccination as proposed in the American Academy of Pediatrics policy, ultimately concluding that broad elimination of exemptions is not justified and advocating a more nuanced approach that encourages school attendance while promoting vaccination and broader public health goals.


Subject(s)
Health Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , Immunization Programs/ethics , Schools/ethics , Vaccination Refusal/ethics , Vaccination/ethics , Adolescent , Attitude to Health , Child , Humans , Immunization Programs/legislation & jurisprudence , Parents , Schools/legislation & jurisprudence , United States , Vaccination/legislation & jurisprudence , Vaccination Refusal/legislation & jurisprudence
7.
Infection ; 49(3): 387-399, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-962163

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Increasing influenza vaccination coverage in healthcare workers is a challenge. Especially during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, high vaccination coverage should be attained. This review analyzed strategies to increase influenza vaccination coverage in healthcare workers. METHODS: A literature search using PubMed was conducted and 32 publications on influenza vaccination campaigns for healthcare workers were reviewed for key interventions and resulting vaccination coverage. RESULTS: Among key interventions analyzed, mandatory vaccination policies or multifaceted campaigns including a vaccinate-or-wear-a-mask policy as well as mandatory declination reached vaccination coverage in healthcare workers of over 90%. Although campaigns solely based on education and promotion or on-site-vaccination did not regularly exceed an absolute vaccination coverage of 40%, a substantial relative increase in vaccination coverage was reached by implementation of these strategies. CONCLUSION: Mandatory vaccination policies are effective measures to achieve high overall vaccination coverage. In clinics where policies are infeasible, multifaceted campaigns comprising on-site vaccination, vaccination stands and educational and promotional campaigns as well as incentives should be implemented. Lessons learned from influenza campaigns could be implemented in future SARS-CoV-2 vaccination campaigns.


Subject(s)
Health Personnel , Immunization Programs , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccination Coverage , Humans , Immunization Programs/legislation & jurisprudence , Immunization Programs/methods , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , Immunization Programs/statistics & numerical data , Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Vaccination
8.
Indian J Tuberc ; 68(3): 401-404, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-907098

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUD: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a new respiratory infectious disease, and there is no vaccine currently. Previous studies have found that BCG vaccination can provide extensive protection against respiratory infectious diseases. METHODS: Herein, we obtained the latest data from the World Health Organization (WHO) as of August 12, 2020, and determined the relationship between three parameters (including the BCG vaccination coverage, human development index (HDI), and transmission classifications) and the incidence rate and mortality of COVID-19. RESULTS: The results showed that the morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 in countries with BCG vaccination recommendation were significantly lower than these in countries without BCG vaccination recommendation, and countries with lower HDI have lower morbidity and mortality. In addition, we also found that the mode of virus transmission is also related to the morbidity and mortality of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Although our data supports the hypothesis that BCG vaccination is beneficial in reducing the morbidity and mortality of COVID-19, the data supporting this result may be inaccurate due to many confounders such as PCR testing rate, population characteristics, and protection strategies, the reliability of this result still needs to be verified by clinical trials.


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine , COVID-19 , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Immunization Programs , Adjuvants, Immunologic/therapeutic use , BCG Vaccine/immunology , BCG Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Developing Countries/statistics & numerical data , Efficiency, Organizational , Government Regulation , Humans , Immunization Programs/legislation & jurisprudence , Immunization Programs/methods , Mortality , Needs Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Am J Public Health ; 110(10): 1561-1563, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-831748

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To determine whether holding vaccine misconceptions, in the form of negative beliefs about vaccines, correlates with opposing governmental action at all levels designed to increase vaccination (e.g., removing personal belief and religious vaccine exemptions).Methods. Drawing on data from a nationally representative survey of 1938 US adults, we assessed the relation between negative beliefs about vaccines and provaccination policies.Results. Beyond sociodemographic and policy-relevant variables, such as gender and partisan affiliation, questionable negative beliefs about vaccines are the strongest predictor of opposition to policies designed to increase vaccination.Conclusions. Negative beliefs about vaccines in the general population may thwart the passage or implementation of policies designed to increase vaccination. Implementing strategies that reduce these negative beliefs should be a priority of educators and public health officials.


Subject(s)
Health Policy , Vaccination Refusal/psychology , Vaccination/trends , Adult , Female , Humans , Immunization Programs/legislation & jurisprudence , Male , Public Health , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States , Vaccines/administration & dosage
10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(15): 703-705, 2020 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696226

ABSTRACT

Since the COVID-19 pandemic first hit Wuhan, China, in December 2019, scientists have been racing to develop and test novel vaccines to protect against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The speed of scientific discovery related to COVID-19 is unprecedented. With several vaccine candidates already being tested in clinical trials, we pose the question: what will the vaccine hesitant do in the face of this pandemic?


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Immunization Programs/legislation & jurisprudence , Legislation, Drug , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Vaccination Refusal , Viral Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Humans , Patient Education as Topic/legislation & jurisprudence , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination Refusal/psychology
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