Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 14 de 14
Filter
3.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(9): e30010, 2021 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1417039

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared SARS-CoV-2, causing COVID-19, as a pandemic. The UK mass vaccination program commenced on December 8, 2020, vaccinating groups of the population deemed to be most vulnerable to severe COVID-19 infection. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the early vaccine administration coverage and outcome data across an integrated care system in North West London, leveraging a unique population-level care data set. Vaccine effectiveness of a single dose of the Oxford/AstraZeneca and Pfizer/BioNTech vaccines were compared. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study identified 2,183,939 individuals eligible for COVID-19 vaccination between December 8, 2020, and February 24, 2021, within a primary, secondary, and community care integrated care data set. These data were used to assess vaccination hesitancy across ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic deprivation measures (Pearson product-moment correlations); investigate COVID-19 transmission related to vaccination hubs; and assess the early effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccination (after a single dose) using time-to-event analyses with multivariable Cox regression analysis to investigate if vaccination independently predicted positive SARS-CoV-2 in those vaccinated compared to those unvaccinated. RESULTS: In this study, 5.88% (24,332/413,919) of individuals declined and did not receive a vaccination. Black or Black British individuals had the highest rate of declining a vaccine at 16.14% (4337/26,870). There was a strong negative association between socioeconomic deprivation and rate of declining vaccination (r=-0.94; P=.002) with 13.5% (1980/14,571) of individuals declining vaccination in the most deprived areas compared to 0.98% (869/9609) in the least. In the first 6 days after vaccination, 344 of 389,587 (0.09%) individuals tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. The rate increased to 0.13% (525/389,243) between days 7 and 13, before then gradually falling week on week. At 28 days post vaccination, there was a 74% (hazard ratio 0.26, 95% CI 0.19-0.35) and 78% (hazard ratio 0.22, 95% CI 0.18-0.27) reduction in risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 for individuals that received the Oxford/AstraZeneca and Pfizer/BioNTech vaccines, respectively, when compared with unvaccinated individuals. A very low proportion of hospital admissions were seen in vaccinated individuals who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (288/389,587, 0.07% of all patients vaccinated) providing evidence for vaccination effectiveness after a single dose. CONCLUSIONS: There was no definitive evidence to suggest COVID-19 was transmitted as a result of vaccination hubs during the vaccine administration rollout in North West London, and the risk of contracting COVID-19 or becoming hospitalized after vaccination has been demonstrated to be low in the vaccinated population. This study provides further evidence that a single dose of either the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine or the Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine is effective at reducing the risk of testing positive for COVID-19 up to 60 days across all age groups, ethnic groups, and risk categories in an urban UK population.


Subject(s)
Anti-Vaccination Movement/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Vaccines/standards , Immunization Programs/standards , Anti-Vaccination Movement/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cohort Studies , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunization Programs/statistics & numerical data , London , Retrospective Studies
4.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(5): 1137-1140, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380037

ABSTRACT

A country's preparedness for a prompt and successful implementation of vaccination programs plays a pivotal role in disease control and prevention. As it stands now, Afghanistan seems to be ill-prepared to embrace a successful implementation of the COVID-19 vaccination program because of a spate of challenges. These include, but are not limited to, the insufficient number of vaccinators, a dearth of fully integrated functioning cold chain, challenging geographical barriers, cultural issues, insecurity, and protracted conflict. The COVID-19 infodemic along with vaccine mistrust in the country will lead to a pervasive public vaccine hesitancy in Afghanistan, which will present serious obstacles to the COVID-19 immunization efforts. The politicization of the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) and the complaints of embezzlement and misuse of the pandemic aid have already eroded public trust during the pandemic. To ensure a large-scale and equitable distribution of COVID-19 vaccines, the cold chain infrastructure should be strengthened, and the immunization personnel trained. Antivaccination propaganda and misinformation should be tackled with effective communication approaches and effective community engagement, which consider culturally relevant messages appropriate to the culture and people. The allegations of corruption should be addressed to revive public trust in public health interventions, including COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization Programs , Public Health/methods , Afghanistan/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/economics , Communication , Female , Geography , Humans , Immunization Programs/methods , Immunization Programs/standards , Public Health/economics , Public Health/standards , Trust , Vaccination
5.
Value Health ; 24(11): 1543-1550, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340748

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Amid a pandemic, vaccines represent a promising solution for mitigating public health and economic crises, and an improved understanding of individuals' vaccination intentions is crucial to design optimal immunization campaigns. This study predicts uptake rates for different COVID-19 vaccine specifications and identifies personal characteristics that moderate an individual's responsiveness to vaccine attributes. METHODS: We developed an online survey with contingent specifications of a COVID-19 vaccine, varying in effectiveness, risks of side effects, duration of immunity, and out-of-pocket cost. Using population-averaged logit models, we estimated vaccine uptake rates that account for uncertainty, heterogeneity across respondents, and interactions between vaccine and personal characteristics. RESULTS: We obtained 3047 completed surveys. The highest uptake rate for an annual vaccine, 62%, is predicted when vaccine effectiveness is 80% to 90%, side effects are minimal, and the vaccine is provided at zero cost, with decreases seen in the uptake rate for less effective vaccines, for example, 50% for 50% to 60% effectiveness. Moreover, we found that Americans' response to vaccine effectiveness depends on their self-reported concern, that is, concerned respondents report a higher willingness to get vaccinated. Our findings also indicate that COVID-19 vaccine uptake rates decrease with vaccine cost and that responsiveness to vaccine cost is moderated by income. CONCLUSIONS: Although providing the COVID-19 vaccine at zero cost will motivate many individuals to get vaccinated, a policy focused exclusively on vaccine cost may not be enough to reach herd immunity thresholds. Although those concerned with COVID-19 will participate, further evidence is needed on how to incentivize participation among the unconcerned (43%) to prevent further pandemic spread.


Subject(s)
Anti-Vaccination Movement/psychology , Immunization Programs/standards , Anti-Vaccination Movement/trends , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunization Programs/methods , Immunization Programs/statistics & numerical data , Intention , Motivation , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
8.
Nurs Adm Q ; 45(3): 219-225, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249346

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has overwhelmed communities. Physical, emotional, and financial struggles have heightened, especially with our vulnerable populations. People have been afraid to return to their provider's office. For children, there has been an interruption of well-visits and immunizations. As the nation saw a decline in immunization uptake, a pilot nurse-led program was designed to increase vaccinations and address the social determinant needs during a global pandemic. The purpose of this article is to describe the planning and implementation of a curbside immunization event. The Logic model was used as a framework to ensure an efficient and replicable process. Initial observations showed an overall increase in immunization uptake and 97% of participants current with recommended vaccinations. Most parents (93%) would attend again and recommend it to others. They also felt that infection control precautions helped make the care delivered safe and efficient. Social determinants of health were assessed and addressed. This method of vaccine delivery is a viable model going into the future. Others may replicate this model, and it may also serve as a platform regarding flu or COVID-19 vaccine distribution.


Subject(s)
Immunization/nursing , Models, Nursing , Social Determinants of Health/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunization/statistics & numerical data , Immunization Programs/methods , Immunization Programs/standards , Immunization Programs/statistics & numerical data , Michigan , Pilot Projects
11.
Br J Cancer ; 124(5): 860-861, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-962855

ABSTRACT

Patients with cancer should benefit from COVID-19 vaccination. Some of the most advanced vaccine candidates are mRNAs encapsulated into lipid carriers, and small liposomes are expected to accumulate in tumour tissues through the enhanced and permeation retention effect. However, to what extent solid tumours could take up a significant part of the vaccine dose as well remains unknown. This calls for a careful evaluation of the efficacy of these promising mRNA COVID-19 vaccines administered as lipid carriers for patients with solid tumours, including a possible re-appraisal of the dosing for optimal protection of this specific and frail population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Drug Carriers , Neoplasms/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Acceleration , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Drug Carriers/standards , Frailty/epidemiology , Frailty/therapy , Humans , Immunization Programs/standards , Liposomes/administration & dosage , Liposomes/adverse effects , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/immunology , Pandemics , RNA, Messenger/administration & dosage , RNA, Messenger/standards , Time Factors , Vaccination/methods
12.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 104(2): 446-448, 2020 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-955245

ABSTRACT

Poliomyelitis, a crippling viral disease, has been affecting many children in Pakistan despite the numerous efforts that have been taken to curb its spread. The COVID-19 pandemic has halted mass polio vaccination campaigns globally, including Pakistan, resulting in a resurgence of new cases. Pakistan managed to flatten the COVID-19 curve from July to October that made three immunization drives possible, but the COVID-19 cases are on the rise again which can again complicate the polio situation in the country if left unmonitored. The efforts of Pakistan have been effective with no significant rise in polio cases in 2020 as compared with 2019. We discuss the numerous challenges faced by the polio eradication program in Pakistan. To help eliminate polio, Pakistan needs to enhance its efforts in the struggle against polio with the same zeal and stringency used to flatten the curve of COVID-19 in these challenging times.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Eradication/methods , Disease Eradication/standards , Immunization Programs , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Child , Disease Eradication/organization & administration , Female , Humans , Immunization Programs/methods , Immunization Programs/standards , Pakistan/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , World Health Organization
13.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(11): 1034-1037, 2020 Nov.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-912917

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 is an emerging pandemic infection whose significant ability to spread in a naïve population is well established. The first response of states to the COVID-19 outbreak was to impose lock-down and social barrier measures, such as wearing a surgical mask or social distancing. One of the consequences of this pandemic in terms of public health was the suspension or slowdown of infant vaccination campaigns, in almost all countries. The indirect effects of COVID-19 may therefore weigh on mortality from measles and polio in developing countries. In this pandemic chaos, the only hope lies in the rapid development of an effective vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, acceptance of this vaccine has not yet been won, as beyond the many unknowns that will inevitably weigh around such rapid development, skepticism among vaccine hesitants is growing.


TITLE: COVID-19 et vaccination : une dérégulation globale. ABSTRACT: La COVID-19 est une infection pandémique émergente dont l'importante capacité à se propager dans une population dénuée d'immunité n'est plus à prouver. La première réponse des États à la flambée de COVID-19 fut d'imposer un confinement et des mesures barrières, telles que le port du masque et la distanciation sociale. Une des répercussions de cette pandémie, en matière de santé publique, fut la suspension ou le ralentissement brusque des campagnes de vaccination des nourrissons, un peu partout dans le monde. Un des effets indirects de la COVID-19 est donc le risque de peser sur la mortalité mondiale, principalement via une recrudescence de la rougeole et de la poliomyélite, principalement dans les pays en voie de développement. Dans ce chaos potentiel, le seul espoir réside dans le développement rapide d'un vaccin efficace contre le SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2). Cependant, l'acceptation de ce vaccin par la population n'est pas évidente, car outre les nombreuses inconnues qui vont peser inévitablement dans le cas d'un développement très rapide du vaccin, le scepticisme des hésitants vaccinaux va à nouveau se développer.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Immunization Programs/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , Immunization Programs/standards , Immunization Programs/trends , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Participation/statistics & numerical data , Patient Participation/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Public Health/standards , Public Health/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination Coverage/organization & administration , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use
14.
Euro Surveill ; 25(25)2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-621605

ABSTRACT

Sentinel surveillance of acute hospitalisations in response to infectious disease emergencies such as the 2009 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic is well described, but recognition of its potential to supplement routine public health surveillance and provide scalability for emergency responses has been limited. We summarise the achievements of two national paediatric hospital surveillance networks relevant to vaccine programmes and emerging infectious diseases in Canada (Canadian Immunization Monitoring Program Active; IMPACT from 1991) and Australia (Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance; PAEDS from 2007) and discuss opportunities and challenges in applying their model to other contexts. Both networks were established to enhance capacity to measure vaccine preventable disease burden, vaccine programme impact, and safety, with their scope occasionally being increased with emerging infectious diseases' surveillance. Their active surveillance has increased data accuracy and utility for syndromic conditions (e.g. encephalitis), pathogen-specific diseases (e.g. pertussis, rotavirus, influenza), and adverse events following immunisation (e.g. febrile seizure), enabled correlation of biological specimens with clinical context and supported responses to emerging infections (e.g. pandemic influenza, parechovirus, COVID-19). The demonstrated long-term value of continuous, rather than incident-related, operation of these networks in strengthening routine surveillance, bridging research gaps, and providing scalable public health response, supports their applicability to other countries.


Subject(s)
Hospitals, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Immunization Programs/standards , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Population Surveillance/methods , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Australia/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Data Accuracy , Health Policy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , National Health Programs/standards , Public Health Surveillance , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL