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1.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(10): 1648-1649, 2022 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110328

ABSTRACT

The first year of the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic registered the highest number of children under the age of one year who did not receive basic vaccines since 2009. The pronounced rise in vaccine-preventable diseases in 2020 and 2021 was largely attributable to the disruption of the vaccine schedule for children around the world. Routine vaccinations were missed in consideration of movement restrictions to prevent the spread of COVID-19. On the other hand, health resources were re-allocated to COVID-19, resulting in strained health care systems and the marginalization of essential health services like routine vaccination campaigns. The COVID-19 pandemic has clearly illustrated the potential of vaccines in saving lives and preventing disabilities. The unequal roll-out of vaccination programmes has simultaneously deepened the existing gaps between high and low-income countries. Disruption in other key life-saving immunization programmes is driving these inequalities even further. Prompt and sustainable investments in routine immunization programmes, including catch-up vaccination strategies, are essential to avert the impact of years of neglect of this important public health issue. In particular, the recent declining trends in vaccination coverage are putting decades of progress at risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Infant , Child , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Priorities , Vaccination , Immunization Programs , Immunization Schedule , Immunization , Global Health
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(44): 1396-1400, 2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100530

ABSTRACT

In 2020, the World Health Assembly endorsed the Immunization Agenda 2030, an ambitious global immunization strategy to reduce morbidity and mortality from vaccine-preventable diseases (1). This report updates a 2020 report (2) with global, regional,* and national vaccination coverage estimates and trends through 2021. Global estimates of coverage with 3 doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-containing vaccine (DTPcv3) decreased from an average of 86% during 2015-2019 to 83% in 2020 and 81% in 2021. Worldwide in 2021, 25.0 million infants (19% of the target population) were not vaccinated with DTPcv3, 2.1 million more than in 2020 and 5.9 million more than in 2019. In 2021, the number of infants who did not receive any DTPcv dose by age 12 months (18.2 million) was 37% higher than in 2019 (13.3 million). Coverage with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) decreased from an average of 85% during 2015-2019 to 84% in 2020 and 81% in 2021. These are the lowest coverage levels for DTPcv3 and MCV1 since 2008. ​Global coverage estimates were also lower in 2021 than in 2020 and 2019 for bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine (BCG) as well as for the completed series of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (Hib), hepatitis B vaccine (HepB), polio vaccine (Pol), and rubella-containing vaccine (RCV). The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in disruptions to routine immunization services worldwide. Full recovery to immunization programs will require context-specific strategies to address immunization gaps by catching up missed children, prioritizing essential health services, and strengthening immunization programs to prevent outbreaks (3).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccination Coverage , Infant , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine , Immunization Programs , Vaccination , Measles Vaccine , Rubella Vaccine , Immunization Schedule
3.
MMW Fortschr Med ; 164(16): 32-33, 2022 09.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2094822
5.
Elife ; 112022 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067163

ABSTRACT

Background: The development of vaccines to control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic progression is a worldwide priority. CoronaVac is an inactivated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine approved for emergency use with robust efficacy and immunogenicity data reported in trials in China, Brazil, Indonesia, Turkey, and Chile. Methods: This study is a randomized, multicenter, and controlled phase 3 trial in healthy Chilean adults aged ≥18 years. Volunteers received two doses of CoronaVac separated by 2 (0-14 schedule) or 4 weeks (0-28 schedule); 2302 volunteers were enrolled, 440 were part of the immunogenicity arm, and blood samples were obtained at different times. Samples from a single center are reported. Humoral immune responses were evaluated by measuring the neutralizing capacities of circulating antibodies. Cellular immune responses were assessed by ELISPOT and flow cytometry. Correlation matrixes were performed to evaluate correlations in the data measured. Results: Both schedules exhibited robust neutralizing capacities with the response induced by the 0-28 schedule being better. No differences were found in the concentration of antibodies against the virus and different variants of concern (VOCs) between schedules. Stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with Mega pools of Peptides (MPs) induced the secretion of interferon (IFN)-γ and the expression of activation induced markers in CD4+ T cells for both schedules. Correlation matrixes showed strong correlations between neutralizing antibodies and IFN-γ secretion. Conclusions: Immunization with CoronaVac in Chilean adults promotes robust cellular and humoral immune responses. The 0-28 schedule induced a stronger humoral immune response than the 0-14 schedule. Funding: Ministry of Health, Government of Chile, Confederation of Production and Commerce & Millennium Institute on Immunology and Immunotherapy, Chile. Clinical trial number: NCT04651790.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunization Schedule , Adult , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Immunity, Humoral , Interferons , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 16294, 2022 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050543

ABSTRACT

Several factors related to anti-spike(S) IgG antibody titers after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination have been elucidated, but the magnitude of the effects of each factor has not been fully understood. This cross-sectional study assessed anti-S and anti-nucleocapsid (N) antibody titers on 3744 healthy volunteers (median age, 36 years; IQR, 24-49 years; females, 59.0%) who received two doses of mRNA-1273 or BNT162b2 vaccine and completed a survey questionnaire. Multiple regression was conducted to identify factors associated with antibody titers. All but one participant tested positive for anti-S antibodies (99.97%). The following factors were independently and significantly associated with high antibody titer: < 3 months from vaccination (ratio of means 4.41); mRNA-1273 vaccine (1.90, vs BNT162b2); anti-N antibody positivity (1.62); age (10's: 1.50, 20's: 1.37, 30's: 1.26, 40's: 1.16, 50's: 1.15, vs ≧60's); female (1.07); immunosuppressive therapy (0.54); current smoking (0.85); and current drinking (0.96). The largest impact on anti-S IgG antibody titers was found in elapsed time after vaccination, followed by vaccine brand, immunosuppressants, previous SARS-CoV-2 infection (anti-N antibody positive), and age. Although the influence of adverse reactions after the vaccine, gender, smoking, and drinking was relatively small, they were independently related factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunoglobulin G , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/administration & dosage , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , Adult , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunosuppressive Agents , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Vaccination , Young Adult
7.
Vaccine ; 40(44): 6367-6373, 2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042187

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the delivery of essential health services, such as routine immunization. We assessed the impact of the pandemic on the uptake of routine immunization in rural Gambia. METHODS: We collected real-time vaccine administration data in the Basse and Fuladu West Health & Demographic Surveillance Systems from September 01, 2019, to December 31, 2020. We assessed the monthly number of Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) clinic attendances and vaccines administered, comparing data during the baseline period (September 01, 2019-March 31, 2020), COVID-19 interruption period (April 01-June 30, 2020), initial recovery period (Jul 01-September 30, 2020) and the late recovery period (October 01-December 31, 2020). RESULTS: Compared to the baseline period, there was an overall average monthly decline of 13.4% in EPI attendance and 38.3% reduction in average monthly immunizations during the interruption period. This decrease was particularly noticeable for Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) (47.2%), birth dose hepatitis B (Hep B) (46.9%), 1st dose pentavalent (Penta1) (43.1%), 1st dose pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV1) (42.4%), and measles vaccines (15.5%). Comparing the late recovery to baseline period, average monthly EPI attendance was 5.3% higher, with 1.9% increase in average monthly immunizations. Monthly immunizations for BCG were 3.0% greater, 2.5% greater for Hep B, 22.7% greater for oral polio vaccine (OPV1), 2.0% less for Penta1, 19.2% less for Penta2, and 2.6% less for PCV1. CONCLUSION: The reduced EPI attendance during the pandemic interruption period lasted only 3 months. Significant recovery in EPI attendance occurred during the late recovery period, while rates of monthly immunization returned to pre-pandemic levels for most antigens. EPI programmes should implement strategies to deliver missed antigens when infants do present to EPI clinics, aware that missed doses may be age dependent.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Infant , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , BCG Vaccine , Gambia/epidemiology , Vaccines, Conjugate , Vaccination , Immunization Programs , Immunization , Immunization Schedule
9.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(9): 1313-1320, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1946943

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The omicron (B.1.1.529) variant of SARS-CoV-2 has increased capacity to elude immunity and cause breakthrough infections. The aim of this study was to estimate the effectiveness of mRNA-based vaccine boosters (third dose) against infection with the omicron variant by age, sex, time since complete vaccination, type of primary vaccine, and type of booster. METHODS: In this nationwide cohort study, we linked data from three nationwide population registries in Spain (Vaccination Registry, Laboratory Results Registry, and National Health System registry) to select community-dwelling individuals aged 40 years or older, who completed their primary vaccine schedule at least 3 months before the start of follow-up, and had not tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 since the start of the pandemic. On each day between Jan 3, and Feb 6, 2022, we matched individuals who received a booster mRNA vaccine and controls of the same sex, age group, postal code, type of vaccine, time since primary vaccination, and number of previous tests. We estimated risk of laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared groups using risk ratios (RR) and risk differences. Vaccine effectiveness was calculated as one minus RR. FINDINGS: Between Jan 3, and Feb 6, 2022, 3 111 159 matched pairs were included in our study. Overall, the estimated effectiveness from day 7 to 34 after a booster was 51·3% (95% CI 50·2-52·4). Estimated effectiveness was 52·5% (51·3-53·7) for an mRNA-1273 booster and 46·2% (43·5-48·7) for a BNT162b2 booster. Effectiveness was 58·6% (55·5-61·6) if primary vaccination had been with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Oxford-AstraZeneca), 55·3% (52·3-58·2) with mRNA-1273 (Moderna), 49·7% (48·3-51·1) with BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech), and 48·0% (42·5-53·7) with Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen). Estimated effectiveness was 43·6% (40·0-47·1) when the booster was administered between 151 days and 180 days after complete vaccination and 52·2% (51·0-53·3) if administered more than 180 days after primary scheduled completion. INTERPRETATION: Booster mRNA vaccine-doses were moderately effective in preventing infection with the omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 for over a month after administration, which indicates their suitability as a strategy to limit the health effects of COVID-19 in periods of omicron variant domination. Estimated effectiveness was higher for mRNA-1273 compared with BNT162b2 and increased with time between completed primary vaccination and booster. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Ad26COVS1 , BNT162 Vaccine , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Cohort Studies , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Spain , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
13.
Front Immunol ; 13: 915580, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933697

ABSTRACT

Myocarditis (MYO) is a relatively uncommon inflammatory disease that involves the heart muscle. It can be a very severe disease as it can lead to the development of acute or chronic heart failure and, in a not marginal number of cases, to death. Most of the cases are diagnosed in healthy people younger than 30 years of age. Moreover, males are affected about twice as much as females. Viruses are among the most common causes of MYO, but how viral infection can lead to MYO development is not precisely defined. After COVID-19 pandemic declaration, incidence rate of MYO has significantly increased worldwide because of the SARS-CoV-2 infection. After the introduction of anti-COVID-19 vaccines, reports of post-immunization MYO have emerged, suggesting that a further cause of MYO together with the SARS-CoV-2 infection could increase the risk of heart damage during pandemic. Main aim of this study is to discuss present knowledge regarding etiopathogenesis and clinical findings of MYO associated with COVID-19 vaccine administration and whether the risk of this adverse events can modify the initially suggested recommendation for the use of COVID-19 vaccines in pediatric age. Literature analysis showed that MYO is an adverse event that can follow the COVID-19 immunization with mRNA vaccines in few persons, particularly young adults, adolescents, and older children. It is generally a mild disease that should not modify the present recommendations for immunization with the authorized COVID-19 mRNA vaccines. Despite this, further studies are needed to evaluate presently undefined aspects of MYO development after COVID-19 vaccine administration and reduce the risk of development of this kind of vaccine complication. Together with a better definition of the true incidence of MYO and the exact role of the various factors in conditioning incidence variations, it is essential to establish long-term evolution of acute COVID-19 related MYO.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Child , Female , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Male , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/etiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines , Young Adult
14.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(9): 1255-1256, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1907934
15.
Vaccine ; 40(26): 3597-3604, 2022 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873314

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At least one-half of adults beginning an immunization series with a three-dose hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine (ENGERIX-B, RECOMBIVAX-B) have been reported not to receive the third dose. Use of a two-dose vaccine may improve adherence and lead to greater overall levels of seroprotection. OBJECTIVE: To examine expected levels of adherence and overall seroprotection at one year among adults in routine clinical settings beginning an immunization series with either ENGERIX-B or the two-dose HBV vaccine, HEPLISAV-B. METHODS: Decision-analytic model comparing expected levels of adherence and overall seroprotection at one year among a hypothetical cohort of one million previously unvaccinated adults aged ≥ 30 years receiving first doses of either ENGERIX-B or HEPLISAV-B in a routine clinical setting. We stratified the population by age (30-49 years vs ≥ 50 years) to allow for possible differences in adherence and seroprotection. We estimated our model using published adherence rates for HBV vaccines, and reported seroprotection rates by number of doses administered. We also compared total expected costs of HBV immunization with each vaccine. RESULTS: Use of a two-dose rather than three-dose HBV vaccine would increase the expected number of adults seroprotected at one year by 275,000 per one million persons beginning immunization series, largely reflecting a gain of 290,000 in the expected number of persons fully vaccinated. Results were similar for the two age groups. While the cost per dose of HEPLISAV-B exceeds that of ENGERIX-B, its estimated mean cost per person seroprotected at one year is $50-$70 (∼15%) lower. CONCLUSIONS: Use of a two-dose HBV vaccine would increase the number of adults fully seroprotected at one year compared with the number expected with a three-dose vaccine. Notwithstanding its higher unit cost, mean expected cost per person seroprotected is substantially lower for HEPLISAV-B than ENGERIX-B as a result of much higher levels of seroprotection.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis B Vaccines , Hepatitis B , Adult , Cohort Studies , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Antibodies , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Humans , Immunization , Immunization Schedule
16.
Eur J Cancer ; 162: 182-193, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838736

ABSTRACT

Taking into account higher risk of severe coronavirus disease 2019 or death among patients with cancer, as well as impaired immunogenicity after anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, in addition to waning immunity, booster dosing appears mandatory in this patient population. This review sought to provide reasonable evidence so as to assist oncologists in their daily practice, helping them decide when an anti-SARS-Cov2 antibody (Ab) dosage should be scheduled after a full two-dose vaccination and, if necessary, propose an early third dose (D3). Such D3 could apply to non-responder patients with anti-Spike (S) Abs titres <40 binding Ab unit (BAU)/mL. For lowresponder patients with anti-S Ab titres between 40 BAU/mL and 100/260 BAU/mL (suggested area of uncertainty), an early D3 may similarly be proposed. Nevertheless, this D3 could be administered in a less urgent manner, taking into account associated comorbidities and regional epidemic incidence rates. This latter strategy may comprise a monthly dosage of anti-S titres so as to better assess the kinetics of waning immunity. For responder patients with anti-S titres above 260 BAU/mL, we suggest to follow the recommendations outlined for the general population. Given this context, patients with anti-S titres above 1000 BAU/mL should be given the possibility to undergo anti-S titre control after three months, designed to assess rapid humoral waning immunity. We strongly recommend that patients with cancer be included into observational serological monitoring studies or clinical trials that are dedicated to severe immunocompromised patients without any humoral seroconversion after D3.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Humoral , Immunization Schedule , Immunization, Secondary , Neoplasms/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Monitoring, Immunologic , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Seroconversion , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
17.
Public Health Nurs ; 39(5): 1119-1122, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784730

ABSTRACT

We describe COVID-19 immunization inquiries regarding children age 5-11 years received by NIP-INFO, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) e-mail immunization inquiry service for health care professionals, at the launch of vaccination efforts for this age group, using descriptive qualitative analysis. From November 2 through November 30, 2021, NIP-INFO responded to 154 questions regarding COVID-19 vaccination for 5-11-year-old children. The most common questions related to formulation and dosage (39.6%), vaccination schedule (14.3%), CDC's educational materials for health care professionals (9.1%), and vaccine safety (8.4%); 16.2% of questions across all inquiry categories related to a vaccination error. We discuss CDC guidance related to the most common inquiries to inform further pediatric COVID-19 vaccination efforts, including future vaccination of younger pediatric age groups, which will be important to help to curb this pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Immunization Schedule , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination
18.
Lancet ; 399(10328): 924-944, 2022 03 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768606

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Knowing whether COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness wanes is crucial for informing vaccine policy, such as the need for and timing of booster doses. We aimed to systematically review the evidence for the duration of protection of COVID-19 vaccines against various clinical outcomes, and to assess changes in the rates of breakthrough infection caused by the delta variant with increasing time since vaccination. METHODS: This study was designed as a systematic review and meta-regression. We did a systematic review of preprint and peer-reviewed published article databases from June 17, 2021, to Dec 2, 2021. Randomised controlled trials of COVID-19 vaccine efficacy and observational studies of COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness were eligible. Studies with vaccine efficacy or effectiveness estimates at discrete time intervals of people who had received full vaccination and that met predefined screening criteria underwent full-text review. We used random-effects meta-regression to estimate the average change in vaccine efficacy or effectiveness 1-6 months after full vaccination. FINDINGS: Of 13 744 studies screened, 310 underwent full-text review, and 18 studies were included (all studies were carried out before the omicron variant began to circulate widely). Risk of bias, established using the risk of bias 2 tool for randomised controlled trials or the risk of bias in non-randomised studies of interventions tool was low for three studies, moderate for eight studies, and serious for seven studies. We included 78 vaccine-specific vaccine efficacy or effectiveness evaluations (Pfizer-BioNTech-Comirnaty, n=38; Moderna-mRNA-1273, n=23; Janssen-Ad26.COV2.S, n=9; and AstraZeneca-Vaxzevria, n=8). On average, vaccine efficacy or effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 infection decreased from 1 month to 6 months after full vaccination by 21·0 percentage points (95% CI 13·9-29·8) among people of all ages and 20·7 percentage points (10·2-36·6) among older people (as defined by each study, who were at least 50 years old). For symptomatic COVID-19 disease, vaccine efficacy or effectiveness decreased by 24·9 percentage points (95% CI 13·4-41·6) in people of all ages and 32·0 percentage points (11·0-69·0) in older people. For severe COVID-19 disease, vaccine efficacy or effectiveness decreased by 10·0 percentage points (95% CI 6·1-15·4) in people of all ages and 9·5 percentage points (5·7-14·6) in older people. Most (81%) vaccine efficacy or effectiveness estimates against severe disease remained greater than 70% over time. INTERPRETATION: COVID-19 vaccine efficacy or effectiveness against severe disease remained high, although it did decrease somewhat by 6 months after full vaccination. By contrast, vaccine efficacy or effectiveness against infection and symptomatic disease decreased approximately 20-30 percentage points by 6 months. The decrease in vaccine efficacy or effectiveness is likely caused by, at least in part, waning immunity, although an effect of bias cannot be ruled out. Evaluating vaccine efficacy or effectiveness beyond 6 months will be crucial for updating COVID-19 vaccine policy. FUNDING: Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization Schedule , Immunization, Secondary , /therapeutic use , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Time Factors
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