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2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2140364, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591621

ABSTRACT

Importance: Little is known about the factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine adverse effects in a real-world population. Objective: To evaluate factors potentially associated with participant-reported adverse effects after COVID-19 vaccination. Design, Setting, and Participants: The COVID-19 Citizen Science Study, an online cohort study, includes adults aged 18 years and older with a smartphone or internet access. Participants complete daily, weekly, and monthly surveys on health and COVID-19-related events. This analysis includes participants who provided consent between March 26, 2020, and May 19, 2021, and received at least 1 COVID-19 vaccine dose. Exposures: Participant-reported COVID-19 vaccination. Main Outcomes and Measures: Participant-reported adverse effects and adverse effect severity. Candidate factors in multivariable logistic regression models included age, sex, race, ethnicity, subjective social status, prior COVID-19 infection, medical conditions, substance use, vaccine dose, and vaccine brand. Results: The 19 586 participants had a median (IQR) age of 54 (38-66) years, and 13 420 (68.8%) were women. Allergic reaction or anaphylaxis was reported in 26 of 8680 participants (0.3%) after 1 dose of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccine, 27 of 11 141 (0.2%) after 2 doses of the BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 vaccine or 1 dose of the JNJ-78436735 (Johnson & Johnson) vaccine. The strongest factors associated with adverse effects were vaccine dose (2 doses of BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 or 1 dose of JNJ-78436735 vs 1 dose of BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273; odds ratio [OR], 3.10; 95% CI, 2.89-3.34; P < .001), vaccine brand (mRNA-1273 vs BNT162b2, OR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.86-2.15; P < .001; JNJ-78436735 vs BNT162b2: OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.52-0.79; P < .001), age (per 10 years: OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.72-0.76; P < .001), female sex (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.53-1.78; P < .001), and having had COVID-19 before vaccination (OR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.77-2.66; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this real-world cohort, serious COVID-19 vaccine adverse effects were rare and comparisons across brands could be made, revealing that full vaccination dose, vaccine brand, younger age, female sex, and having had COVID-19 before vaccination were associated with greater odds of adverse effects. Large digital cohort studies may provide a mechanism for independent postmarket surveillance of drugs and devices.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , /adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , /administration & dosage , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Anaphylaxis/chemically induced , Drug Hypersensitivity/etiology , Female , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
3.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(12): 2077-2081, 2021 Dec 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1600024

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the immunogenicity and safety of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine used for the vaccination in public security officers with different immunization schedules. Methods: From January to February, 2021, 405 public security officers in Taiyuan were randomly divided into 3 groups. Two doses of SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine were injected according to the immunization schedule of 0-14 days, 0-21 days or 0-28 days, respectively. The nucleic acid of SARS-CoV-2 was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 were tested by microdose cytopathogenic efficiency assay of live virus. The GMT, seroconversion rate of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody and safety of the vaccine were analyzed for the 3 groups. Results: The seroconversion rate of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody was 100% in all the 3 groups. The SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody level of 0-21 day group [166.70 (95%CI: 148.30-185.10)] was similar to that of 0-28 day group [179.50 (95%CI: 156.50-202.60)] (P>0.05), significantly higher than that of 0-14 day group [86.08 (95%CI: 72.36-99.80)] (P<0.001). The incidence rates of adverse reaction in the 3 groups were 1.48% (2/135), 0.74% (1/136) and 1.49% (2/134) respectively (P=0.750), all the adverse reactions were mild. Conclusions: The vaccination of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine with different immunization schedules in public security officers showed good safety and high seroconversion rate, and the GMTs of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody in 0-21 day group and 0-28 day group were higher than that in 0-14 day group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Immunization Schedule , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated
4.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 1354, 2021 Dec 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582093

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) were excluded from the original SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine trials, which may influence vaccine hesitancy in this population. We prospectively characterized the safety and immunogenicity of two-dose SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination in 44 patients with MM, who underwent vaccination from 12/17/2020 to 3/18/2021. RESULTS: Rates adverse reactions were low and consistent with those documented in vaccine trials. Among those on MM therapy, 93% developed detectable anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) antibodies after dose 2, while 94% of patients not on MM therapy seroconverted. CONCLUSIONS: Two-dose SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination is mildly reactogenic and leads to high rates of seroconversion in patients with MM. These findings can provide reassurance to MM patients who are hesitant to receive SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines.


Subject(s)
/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization Schedule , Multiple Myeloma/blood , /adverse effects , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Myeloma/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , /adverse effects
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(50): 1735-1739, 2021 Dec 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574278

ABSTRACT

Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) is highly effective at preventing hospitalization due to SARS-CoV-2 infection and booster and additional primary dose COVID-19 vaccinations increase protection (1-3). During August-November 2021, a series of Emergency Use Authorizations and recommendations, including those for an additional primary dose for immunocompromised persons and a booster dose for persons aged ≥18 years, were approved because of reduced immunogenicity in immunocompromised persons, waning vaccine effectiveness over time, and the introduction of the highly transmissible B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant (4,5). Adults aged ≥65 years are at increased risk for COVID-19-associated hospitalization and death and were one of the populations first recommended a booster dose in the U.S. (5,6). Data on COVID-19 vaccinations reported to CDC from 50 states, the District of Columbia (DC), and eight territories and freely associated states were analyzed to ascertain coverage with booster or additional primary doses among adults aged ≥65 years. During August 13-November 19, 2021, 18.7 million persons aged ≥65 years received a booster or additional primary dose of COVID-19 vaccine, constituting 44.1% of 42.5 million eligible* persons in this age group who previously completed a primary vaccination series.† Coverage was similar by sex and age group, but varied by primary series vaccine product and race and ethnicity, ranging from 30.3% among non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native persons to 50.5% among non-Hispanic multiple/other race persons. Strategic efforts are needed to encourage eligible persons aged ≥18 years, especially those aged ≥65 years and those who are immunocompromised, to receive a booster and/or additional primary dose to ensure maximal protection against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Male , United States/epidemiology
7.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 134, 2021.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547728

ABSTRACT

Introduction: no one can deny that vaccination against several serious diseases in the world, and particularly in Morocco, has given very satisfactory protective results. The extension of the COVID-19 pandemic in our country has led to a significant decline in childhood immunization, which could have severe repercussions increasing the risk of future outbreaks. Hence, the measures of the Ministry of Health to correct the situation. The purpose of this study was to highlight the extent of vaccine release during COVID-19 pandemic and to make recommendations to restore vaccination programmes. Methods: we conducted a cross-sectional study of the effect of containment measures during this pandemic on the monitoring of children´s vaccinations. We conducted a national survey of pediatricians using an electronic questionnaire administered via Google Forms. We collected, analyzed and interpreted the results. Results: one hundred and three Moroccan pediatricians answered the questionnaire. More than 2-thirds (78.6%) of pediatricians practiced in the private sector and delivered vaccines in the immunization schedule. The majority of pediatricians (95%) were asked about parental vaccine concerns. We noted that 82.5% of parents were reluctant to go to the local health department and 5.8% refused to take vaccination during COVID-19 pandemic. About 22% of pediatricians completely stopped immunization services and 72.8% delayed immunizations from 3 to 4 weeks. Vaccination stoppage involved older children in two thirds of cases. Conclusion: it is essential to maintain public confidence in vaccination. Ongoing and timely assessment of vaccine coverage as well as clear recommendations and broad public awareness are essential to respond to vaccine changes during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunization Schedule , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunization Programs , Male , Middle Aged , Morocco , Parents , Pediatricians/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination Coverage
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(45): 1579-1583, 2021 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513271

ABSTRACT

The Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 (BNT162b2) vaccine is a lipid nanoparticle-formulated, nucleoside-modified mRNA vaccine encoding the prefusion spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. On August 23, 2021, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a Biologics License Application (BLA) for use of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, marketed as Comirnaty (Pfizer, Inc.), in persons aged ≥16 years (1). The Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine is also recommended for adolescents aged 12-15 years under an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) (1). All persons aged ≥12 years are recommended to receive 2 doses (30 µg, 0.3 mL each), administered 3 weeks apart (2,3). As of November 2, 2021, approximately 248 million doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine had been administered to persons aged ≥12 years in the United States.* On October 29, 2021, FDA issued an EUA amendment for a new formulation of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine for use in children aged 5-11 years, administered as 2 doses (10 µg, 0.2 mL each), 3 weeks apart (Table) (1). On November 2, 2021, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) issued an interim recommendation† for use of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine in children aged 5-11 years for the prevention of COVID-19. To guide its deliberations regarding recommendations for the vaccine, ACIP used the Evidence to Recommendation (EtR) Framework§ and incorporated a Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach.¶ The ACIP recommendation for the use of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine in children aged 5-11 years under an EUA is interim and will be updated as additional information becomes available. The Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine has high efficacy (>90%) against COVID-19 in children aged 5-11 years, and ACIP determined benefits outweigh risks for vaccination. Vaccination is important to protect children against COVID-19 and reduce community transmission of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Advisory Committees , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Child , Drug Approval , Humans , Immunization/standards , Immunization Schedule , United States/epidemiology , United States Food and Drug Administration
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(44): 1553-1559, 2021 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502903

ABSTRACT

Immunocompromised persons, defined as those with suppressed humoral or cellular immunity resulting from health conditions or medications, account for approximately 3% of the U.S. adult population (1). Immunocompromised adults are at increased risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes (2) and might not acquire the same level of protection from COVID-19 mRNA vaccines as do immunocompetent adults (3,4). To evaluate vaccine effectiveness (VE) among immunocompromised adults, data from the VISION Network* on hospitalizations among persons aged ≥18 years with COVID-19-like illness from 187 hospitals in nine states during January 17-September 5, 2021 were analyzed. Using selected discharge diagnoses,† VE against COVID-19-associated hospitalization conferred by completing a 2-dose series of an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine ≥14 days before the index hospitalization date§ (i.e., being fully vaccinated) was evaluated using a test-negative design comparing 20,101 immunocompromised adults (10,564 [53%] of whom were fully vaccinated) and 69,116 immunocompetent adults (29,456 [43%] of whom were fully vaccinated). VE of 2 doses of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine against COVID-19-associated hospitalization was lower among immunocompromised patients (77%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 74%-80%) than among immunocompetent patients (90%; 95% CI = 89%-91%). This difference persisted irrespective of mRNA vaccine product, age group, and timing of hospitalization relative to SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant predominance in the state of hospitalization. VE varied across immunocompromising condition subgroups, ranging from 59% (organ or stem cell transplant recipients) to 81% (persons with a rheumatologic or inflammatory disorder). Immunocompromised persons benefit from mRNA COVID-19 vaccination but are less protected from severe COVID-19 outcomes than are immunocompetent persons, and VE varies among immunocompromised subgroups. Immunocompromised persons receiving mRNA COVID-19 vaccines should receive 3 doses and a booster, consistent with CDC recommendations (5), practice nonpharmaceutical interventions, and, if infected, be monitored closely and considered early for proven therapies that can prevent severe outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Laboratories , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United States/epidemiology , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Young Adult
12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(43): 1495-1500, 2021 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498052

ABSTRACT

Endorsed by the World Health Assembly in 2020, the Immunization Agenda 2030 (IA2030) strives to reduce morbidity and mortality from vaccine-preventable diseases across the life course (1). This report, which updates a previous report (2), presents global, regional,* and national vaccination coverage estimates and trends as of 2020. Changes are described in vaccination coverage and the numbers of unvaccinated and undervaccinated children as measured by receipt of the first and third doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis-containing vaccine (DTP) in 2020, when the COVID-19 pandemic began, compared with 2019. Global estimates of coverage with the third dose of DTP (DTP3) and a polio vaccine (Pol3) decreased from 86% in 2019 to 83% in 2020. Similarly, coverage with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) dropped from 86% in 2019 to 84% in 2020. The last year that coverage estimates were at 2020 levels was 2009 for DTP3 and 2014 for both MCV1 and Pol3. Worldwide, 22.7 million children (17% of the target population) were not vaccinated with DTP3 in 2020 compared with 19.0 million (14%) in 2019. Children who did not receive the first DTP dose (DTP1) by age 12 months (zero-dose children) accounted for 95% of the increased number. Among those who did not receive DTP3 in 2020, approximately 17.1 million (75%) were zero-dose children. Global coverage decreased in 2020 compared with 2019 estimates for the completed series of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), hepatitis B vaccine (HepB), human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV), and rubella-containing vaccine (RCV). Full recovery from COVID-19-associated disruptions will require targeted, context-specific strategies to identify and catch up zero-dose and undervaccinated children, introduce interventions to minimize missed vaccinations, monitor coverage, and respond to program setbacks (3).


Subject(s)
Global Health , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine/administration & dosage , Goals , Humans , Immunization Programs , Immunization Schedule , Infant , Measles Vaccine/administration & dosage , Poliovirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , World Health Organization
14.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 2016-2029, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493580

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACTA COVID-19 vaccine that can give early protection is needed to eliminate the viral spread efficiently. Here, we demonstrate the development of a nanoparticle vaccine candidate, REVC-128, in which multiple trimeric spike ectodomains with glycine (G) at position 614 were multimerized onto a nanoparticle. In-vitro characterization of this vaccine confirms its structural and antigenic integrity. In-vivo immunogenicity evaluation in mice indicates that a single dose of this vaccine induces potent serum neutralizing antibody titre at two weeks post-immunization. This is significantly higher than titre caused by trimeric spike protein without nanoparticle presentation. The comparison of serum binding to spike subunits between animals immunized by a spike with and without nanoparticle presentation indicates that nanoparticle prefers the display of spike RBD (Receptor-Binding Domain) over S2 subunit, likely resulting in a more neutralizing but less cross-reactive antibody response. Moreover, a Syrian golden hamster in-vivo model for the SARS-CoV-2 virus challenge was implemented two weeks post a single dose of REVC-128 immunization. The results showed that vaccination protects hamsters against the SARS-CoV-2 virus challenge with evidence of steady body weight, suppressed viral loads and alleviation of tissue damage for protected animals, compared with ∼10% weight loss, high viral loads and tissue damage in unprotected animals. Furthermore, the data showed that vaccine REVC-128 is thermostable at up to 37°C for at least 4 weeks. These findings, along with a history of safety for protein vaccines, suggest that the REVC-128 is a safe, stable and efficacious single-shot vaccine to give the earliest protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Nanoparticles/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cricetinae , Humans , Immunization , Immunization Schedule , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Mesocricetus , Mice , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination , Viral Load
18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 726960, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477820

ABSTRACT

Objectives: In the context of the Covid-19 pandemic, the fast development of vaccines with efficacy of around 95% preventing Covid-19 illness provides a unique opportunity to reduce the mortality associated with the pandemic. However, in the absence of efficacious prophylactic medications and few treatments for this infection, the induction of a fast and robust protective immunity is required for effective disease control, not only to prevent the disease but also the infection and shedding/transmission. The objective of our study was to analyze the level of specific humoral and cellular T-cell responses against the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 induced by two mRNA-based vaccines (BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273), but also how long it takes after vaccination to induce these protective humoral and cellular immune responses. Methods: We studied in 40 healthy (not previously infected) volunteers vaccinated with BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 vaccines the presence of spike-specific IgG antibodies and SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells at 3, 7 and 14 days after receiving the second dose of the vaccine. The specific T-cell response was analyzed stimulating fresh whole blood from vaccinated volunteers with SARS-CoV-2 peptides and measuring the release of cytokines secreted by T cells in response to SARS-CoV-2 stimulation. Results: Our results indicate that the immunization capacity of both vaccines is comparable. However, although both BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 vaccines can induce early B-cell and T-cell responses, these vaccine-mediated immune responses do not reach their maximum values until 14 days after completing the vaccination schedule. Conclusion: This refractory period in the induction of specific immunity observed after completing the vaccination could constitute a window of higher infection risk, which could explain some emerging cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in vaccinated people.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunization Schedule , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Prospective Studies , Vaccination
20.
Front Immunol ; 12: 742914, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472387

ABSTRACT

Constant efforts to prevent infections by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are actively carried out around the world. Several vaccines are currently approved for emergency use in the population, while ongoing studies continue to provide information on their safety and effectiveness. CoronaVac is an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine with a good safety and immunogenicity profile as seen in phase 1, 2, and 3 clinical trials around the world, with an effectiveness of 65.9% for symptomatic cases. Although vaccination reduces the risk of disease, infections can still occur during or after completion of the vaccination schedule (breakthrough cases). This report describes the clinical and immunological profile of vaccine breakthrough cases reported in a clinical trial in progress in Chile that is evaluating the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of two vaccination schedules of CoronaVac (clinicaltrials.gov NCT04651790). Out of the 2,263 fully vaccinated subjects, at end of June 2021, 45 have reported symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection 14 or more days after the second dose (1.99% of fully vaccinated subjects). Of the 45 breakthrough cases, 96% developed mild disease; one case developed a moderate disease; and one developed a severe disease and required mechanical ventilation. Both cases that developed moderate and severe disease were adults over 60 years old and presented comorbidities. The immune response before and after SARS-CoV-2 infection was analyzed in nine vaccine breakthrough cases, revealing that six of them exhibited circulating anti-S1-RBD IgG antibodies with neutralizing capacities after immunization, which showed a significant increase 2 and 4 weeks after symptoms onset. Two cases exhibited low circulating anti-S1-RBD IgG and almost non-existing neutralizing capacity after either vaccination or infection, although they developed a mild disease. An increase in the number of interferon-γ-secreting T cells specific for SARS-CoV-2 was detected 2 weeks after the second dose in seven cases and after symptoms onset. In conclusion, breakthrough cases were mostly mild and did not necessarily correlate with a lack of vaccine-induced immunity, suggesting that other factors, to be defined in future studies, could lead to symptomatic infection after vaccination with CoronaVac.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Chile , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Vaccination , Young Adult
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