Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 1.386
Filter
1.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 19(1): 2209000, 2023 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244593

ABSTRACT

New technologies for the prevention of infectious diseases are emerging to address unmet medical needs, in particular, the use of long-acting monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to prevent Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease in infants during their first RSV season. The lack of precedent for mAbs for broad population protection creates challenges in the assessment of upcoming prophylactic long-acting mAbs for RSV, with associated consequences in legislative and registration categorization, as well as in recommendation, funding, and implementation pathways. We suggest that the legislative and regulatory categorization of preventative solutions should be decided by the effect of the product in terms of its impact on the population and health-care systems rather than by the technology used or its mechanism of action. Immunization can be passive and active, both having the same objective of prevention of infectious diseases. Long-acting prophylactic mAbs work as passive immunization, as such, their recommendations for use should fall under the remit of National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups or other relevant recommending bodies for inclusion into National Immunization Programs. Current regulations, policy, and legislative frameworks need to evolve to embrace such innovative preventative technologies and acknowledge them as one of key immunization and public health tools.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Infant , Humans , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Immunization , Vaccination , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Immunization, Passive
2.
Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther ; 53(5): 398-402, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325899

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to investigate the clinical features and mortality of critically ill patients treated with convalescent plasma for COVID-19 in the intensive care unit (ICU). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively collected clinical and laboratory data of COVID-19 patients treated in the ICU. The patients were divided into two groups: those who received convalescent plasma and those who did not. We evaluated changes in the laboratory parameters and PaO2/FiO2 of the patients in the convalescent plasma group on days 0, 7, and 14. RESULTS: A total of 188 patients were included, 89 of whom received convalescent plasma. There were no significant differences in length of hospitalization [median: 17 vs. 16 days, P = 0.13] or 28-day mortality between the two groups (59% vs. 65%, P = 0.38). The ICU stay of patients who received convalescent plasma was longer (P = 0.001). The dynamics of the laboratory parameters of 44 patients in the convalescent plasma group, who were still in intensive care on the 14th day, were analysed. There was no differences in CRP or PaO2/FiO2 on day 0, 7 or 14 (P = 0.12; P = 0.10, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Convalescent plasma treatment was not associated with shorter hospitalisation or lower mortality in patients diagnosed with COVID-19. However, the ICU stay was longer in patients who received convalescent plasma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Serotherapy
3.
J Addict Med ; 15(5): 355-356, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324055

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in devastating mortality and morbidity consisting of socioeconomic and health effects that have included respiratory/pulmonary, cardiovascular, mental health and neurological consequences such as anxiety, depression, and substance use. Extensive efforts are underway to develop preventive vaccines and therapeutics such as remdesivir, dexamethasone, convalescent plasma, and others to treat COVID-19 but many report residual mental health problems after recovery. Cannabis products such as cannabidiol (CBD) are being advertised for the treatment of COVID-19 associated mental health problems and substance use disorders. This commentary will briefly clear the myth that CBD can ameliorate a wide range of COVID-19 associated health effects including anxiety, depression, or any substance use disorder, and show that there is a clear lack of sufficient unbiased clinical evidence from well-designed double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials to prove the antianxiety or antidepression therapeutic properties of CBD and support its wide use as medicine to treat COVID-19- associated mental health conditions or substance use disorders. Finally, we suggest that addiction physicians must play an important role in dealing with their patients requesting CBD prescription for treating any of these conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cannabidiol , COVID-19/therapy , Cannabidiol/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Serotherapy
4.
Curr Opin HIV AIDS ; 15(6): 336-340, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315501

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious and potentially lethal pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). No specific antiviral treatment is currently available. The purpose of this review is to highlight the main repurposed drug treatments with in-vitro or in-vivo efficacy against the SARS-CoV-2. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent clinical trials suggested remdesivir, IFN-ß-1b and favipiravir have potential clinical and/or virological benefits on patients with COVID-19. Short course of stress dose of corticosteroids might be used as adjunctive treatment to patients who are late presenters with cytokine storm. Convalescent plasma from recovered COVID-19 patients with high neutralizing antibody might also be beneficial in the treatment of severe disease. SUMMARY: Early effective antiviral therapy in COVID-19 patients will suppress the SARS-CoV-2 viral load. Adjunctive therapy with corticosteroid and convalescent plasma might further ameliorate the cytokine response. Further randomized clinical trials of combination therapy are needed.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Interferon-beta/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 Serotherapy
5.
Diagnosis (Berl) ; 10(2): 193-199, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317378

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Being COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) a therapeutic option that can have a potential impact on the normalization of immunological parameters of COVID-19 affected patients, a detailed analysis of post-infusion immunological changes was conducted in CCP treated patients, aiming to identify possible predictive hallmarks of disease prognosis. METHODS: This prospective observational study describes a cohort of 28 patients who received CCP shortly after being hospitalized for COVID-19 and diagnosed for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. All patients were subjected to a detailed flow cytometry based evaluation of immunological markers at baseline and on days +3 and +7 after transfusion. RESULTS: At baseline almost all patients suffered from lymphopenia (25/28 on T-cells and 16/28 on B-cells) coupled with neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio exceeding normal values (26/28). Lymphocyte subsets were generally characterized by increased percentages of CD19+CD20-CD38hiCD27+ plasmablasts and reduction of CD4+CD45RA+CCR7+CD31+ recent thymic emigrants, while monocytes presented a limited expression of CD4 and HLA-DR molecules. Amelioration of immunological parameters began to be evident from day +3 and became more significant at day +7 post-CCP transfusion in 18 patients who recovered within 30 days from hospitalization. Conversely, baseline immunological characteristics generally persisted in ten critical patients who eventually progressed to death (6) or long-term care (4). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that proper immunophenotyping panels can be potentially useful for monitoring CCP treated patients from the first days after infusion in order to presume higher risk of medical complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Long-Term Care , Immunization, Passive , COVID-19 Serotherapy
7.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 17(5): 381-395, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313432

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: When the COVID-19 pandemic struck no specific therapies were available and many turned to COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP), a form of antibody therapy. The literature provides mixed evidence for CCP efficacy. AREAS COVERED: PubMed was searched using the words COVID-19 and convalescent plasma and individual study designs were evaluated for adherence to the three principles of antibody therapy, i.e. that plasma 1) contain specific antibody; 2) have enough specific antibody to mediate a biological effect; and 3) be administered early in the course of disease. Using this approach, a diverse and seemingly contradictory collection of clinical findings was distilled into a consistent picture whereby CCP was effective when used according to the above principles of antibody therapy. In addition, CCP therapy in immunocompromised patients is useful at any time in the course of disease. EXPERT OPINION: CCP is safe and effective when used appropriately. Today, most of humanity has some immunity to SARS-CoV-2 from vaccines and infection, which has lessened the need for CCP in the general population. However, COVID-19 in immunocompromised patients is a major therapeutic challenge, and with the deauthorization of all SARS-CoV-2-spike protein-directed monoclonal antibodies, CCP is the only antibody therapy available for this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , COVID-19 Serotherapy , Immunization, Passive , Antibodies, Monoclonal
8.
Rev Esp Quimioter ; 35 Suppl 1: 59-63, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2309886

ABSTRACT

Current immune treatment directed to avoid viral replication relies mainly in convalescent plasma and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). No clinical benefit for convalescent plasma has been reported in a meta-analysis and systematic review compared to standard of care. MAbs are recombinant proteins capable to bind with SARS-CoV-2 preventing its entrance into cells. Several mAbs have shown reduction in viral load and/or progression of the disease such as casirivimab-imdevimab, bamlanivimab-etesevimab and sotrovimab. After the apparition of Omicron variant, it has been reported that sotrovimab retained its activity whereas the other two combinations exhibited loss of neutralizing activity. Several aspects as the target population, timing and doses, serological patient status and evolution of variants still require attention, monitorization and further studies for knowledge gaps.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Membrane Glycoproteins , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Envelope Proteins , COVID-19 Serotherapy
9.
Viruses ; 15(1)2022 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311301

ABSTRACT

Vulnerable patients such as immunosuppressed or elderly patients are at high risk for a severe course of COVID-19 upon SARS-CoV-2 infection. Immunotherapy with SARS-CoV-2 specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb) or convalescent plasma represents a considerable treatment option to protect these patients from a severe or lethal course of infection. However, monoclonal antibodies are not always available or less effective against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. Convalescent plasma is more commonly available and may represent a good treatment alternative in low-income countries. We retrospectively evaluated outcomes in individuals treated with mAbs or convalescent plasma and compared the 30-day overall survival with a patient cohort that received supportive care due to a lack of SARS-CoV-2 specific therapies between March 2020 and April 2021. Our data demonstrate that mAb treatment is highly effective in preventing severe courses of SARS-CoV-2 infection. All patients treated with mAb survived. Treatment with convalescent plasma improved overall survival to 82% compared with 61% in patients without SARS-CoV-2 targeted therapy. Our data indicate that early convalescent plasma treatment may be an option to improve the overall survival of high-risk COVID-19 patients. This is especially true when other antiviral drugs are not available or their efficacy is significantly reduced, which may be the case with emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19 Serotherapy , Antibodies, Viral , Immunization, Passive/adverse effects , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use
12.
South Med J ; 116(5): 427-433, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298269

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Current evidence favors plasma to be effective against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in critically ill patients in the early stages of infection. We investigated the safety and efficacy of convalescent plasma in specifically late-stage (designated as after 2 weeks of hospital admission) severe COVID-19 infection. We also conducted a literature review on the late-stage use of plasma in COVID-19. METHODS: This case series examined eight COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) who met criteria for severe or life-threatening complications. Each patient received one dose (200 mL) of plasma. Clinical information was gathered in intervals of 1 day pretransfusion and 1 hour, 3 days, and 7 days posttransfusion. The primary outcome was effectiveness of plasma transfusion, measured by clinical improvement, laboratory parameters, and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Eight ICU patients received plasma late in the course of COVID-19 infection, on average at 16.13 days postadmission. On the day before transfusion, the averaged initial Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, PaO2:FiO2 ratio, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), and lymphocyte count were 6.5, 228.03, 8.63, and 1.19, respectively. Three days after plasma treatment, the group averages for the SOFA score (4.86), PaO2:FiO2 ratio (302.73), GCS (9.29), and lymphocyte count (1.75) improved. Although the mean GCS improved to 10.14 by posttransfusion day 7, the other means marginally worsened with an SOFA score of 5.43, a PaO2:FiO2 ratio of 280.44, and a lymphocyte count of 1.71. Clinical improvement was noted in six patients who were discharged from the ICU. CONCLUSIONS: This case series provides evidence that convalescent plasma may be safe and effective in late-stage, severe COVID-19 infection. Results showed clinical improvement posttransfusion as well as decreased all-cause mortality in comparison to pretransfusion predicted mortality. Randomized controlled trials are needed to conclusively determine benefits, dosage, and timing of treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Blood Component Transfusion , Plasma , COVID-19 Serotherapy , Immunization, Passive/adverse effects , Immunization, Passive/methods
13.
BMJ Open ; 13(4): e071277, 2023 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294191

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) is a possible treatment option for COVID-19. A comprehensive number of clinical trials on CCP efficacy have already been conducted. However, many aspects of CCP treatment still require investigations: in particular (1) Optimisation of the CCP product, (2) Identification of the patient population in need and most likely to benefit from this treatment approach, (3) Timing of administration and (4) CCP efficacy across viral variants in vivo. We aimed to test whether high-titre CCP, administered early, is efficacious in preventing hospitalisation or death in high-risk patients. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: COVIC-19 is a multicentre, randomised, open-label, adaptive superiority phase III trial comparing CCP with very high neutralising antibody titre administered within 7 days of symptom onset plus standard of care versus standard of care alone. We will enrol patients in two cohorts of vulnerable patients [(1) elderly 70+ years, or younger with comorbidities; (2) immunocompromised patients]. Up to 1020 participants will be enrolled in each cohort (at least 340 with a sample size re-estimation after reaching 102 patients). The primary endpoint is the proportion of participants with (1) Hospitalisation due to progressive COVID-19, or (2) Who died by day 28 after randomisation. Principal analysis will follow the intention-to-treat principle. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval has been granted by the University of Ulm ethics committee (#41/22) (lead ethics committee for Germany), Comité de protection des personnes Sud-Est I (CPP Sud-Est I) (#2022-A01307-36) (ethics committee for France), and ErasmusMC ethics committee (#MEC-2022-0365) (ethics committee for the Netherlands). Signed informed consent will be obtained from all included patients. The findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at relevant stakeholder conferences and meetings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials.gov (NCT05271929), EudraCT (2021-006621-22).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Serotherapy , Hospitalization , Immunization, Passive/methods , Treatment Outcome , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Multicenter Studies as Topic
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 71(13): 5053-5061, 2023 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305465

ABSTRACT

The immunoglobulin Y (IgY) derived from hyperimmune egg yolk is a promising passive immune agent to combat microbial infections in humans and livestock. Numerous studies have been performed to develop specific egg yolk IgY for pathogen control, but with limited success. To date, the efficacy of commercial IgY products, which are all delivered through an oral route, has not been approved or endorsed by any regulatory authorities. Several challenging issues of the IgY-based passive immunization, which were not fully recognized and holistically discussed in previous publications, have impeded the development of effective egg yolk IgY products for humans and animals. This review summarizes major challenges of this technology, including in vivo stability, purification, heterologous immunogenicity, and repertoire diversity of egg yolk IgY. To tackle these challenges, potential solutions, such as encapsulation technologies to stabilize IgY, are discussed. Exploration of this technology to combat the COVID-19 pandemic is also updated in this review.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Egg Yolk , Animals , Humans , Pandemics , Chickens , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunoglobulins , Immunization, Passive , Antibodies , Immunization
15.
mBio ; 14(3): e0042823, 2023 06 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304328

ABSTRACT

Measurement of antibody content and function after a viral illness is important for diagnosis and selection of the best convalescent plasma (CP) units for passive immunization. Zhang et al. (mBio 14:e03523-22, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1128/mbio.03523-22) analyzed over 19,000 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) CP (CCP) samples from the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic and reported a moderately strong correlation between antibody amount and neutralizing titer. Strikingly, about one-third of the samples had little or no neutralizing activity. The results provide a detailed glimpse of the humoral immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in immunologically naive humans and reveal major differences in the quality of CP units collected for passive therapy before antibody screening. Heterogeneity in CCP quality undoubtedly contributed to the variable therapeutic efficacy. Analysis of the COVID-19 serology data suggest that, for the next infectious disease emergency, the best approach after quick establishment of methods for robust antibody-level stratification would be to use CP units in the top quintile of antibody content and neutralizing capacity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Serotherapy , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Immunization, Passive/methods
16.
Malays J Pathol ; 45(1): 87-95, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2290508

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of convalescent plasma (CP) transfusion on clinical and serial laboratory parameters in severe COVID-19 patients. The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic presents a challenge to the healthcare system worldwide due to the limited treatment options available. The body of evidence reported that CP containing anti- COVID-19 antibodies could be effective against the infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study that involved retrospective data collection of severe COVID-19 adult patients who received CP transfusion along with the best-of-care (CP group, n: 53) and best-of-care only (control group, n: 53). An age, gender, and comorbidity were manually matched approximately at a 1:1 ratio. RESULTS: The prevalence of adverse transfusion reactions was 5.7%. A shorter duration of oxygen support (median: 12 days vs 14 days, P=0.030) and a shorter duration of mechanical ventilation (median: 6 days vs 10 days, P=0.048) were found in the CP group. The laboratory parameters were also improved. However, there was no significant difference in the mechanical ventilation rate, length of hospital stay, length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and mortality rate across both groups (P = 0.492, 0.614, 0.793, 0.374). CONCLUSION: CP transfusion is safe and effective in the treatment of severe COVID-19 patients. However, a revision of our approaches such as early CP transfusion and use of a high-titre anti-COVID-19 neutralising antibody (nAb) unit is necessary to unlock the full potential benefits of CP transfusion among COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Blood Component Transfusion , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Immunization, Passive/adverse effects , COVID-19 Serotherapy , Plasma , Treatment Outcome
17.
Curr Opin Pulm Med ; 27(3): 169-175, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286794

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an acute multisystem disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Investigations are ongoing in the search for effective therapeutics, with clinical approaches evolving based upon such evidence. RECENT FINDINGS: The antiviral agent, remdesivir, and the immunomodulator, dexamethasone, are the first therapeutics for which there is evidence of efficacy from randomized trials. Subgroup analyses suggest remdesivir is beneficial in hospitalized patients whose severity of illness falls at the lower end of the spectrum, while dexamethasone is more beneficial in hospitalized patients whose severity of illness falls at the higher end of the spectrum. We recommend that inpatients who require supplemental oxygen but are not mechanically ventilated receive both remdesivir and dexamethasone, and inpatients who require mechanical ventilation receive dexamethasone monotherapy. Additional evidence regarding anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, convalescent plasma, and a variety of antiinterleukin therapies is forthcoming. SUMMARY: The body of evidence related to COVID-19 therapeutics continues to evolve and, as a result, management is likely to change with time. As new evidence is generated and published, the optimal approach to managing patients with COVID-19 should be reconsidered.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/therapy , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Patient Selection , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19 Serotherapy
19.
Ann Hematol ; 101(10): 2337-2345, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270323

ABSTRACT

Patients with hematological malignancies (HMs) are at a higher risk of developing severe form and protracted course of COVID-19 disease. We investigated whether the combination of viral replication inhibition with remdesivir and administration of anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulins with convalescent plasma (CP) therapy might be sufficient to treat B-cell-depleted patients with COVID-19. We enrolled 20 consecutive patients with various HMs with profound B-cell lymphopenia and COVID-19 pneumonia between December 2020 and May 2021. All patients demonstrated undetectable baseline anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin levels before CP. Each patient received at least a complete course of remdesivir and at least one unit of CP. Previous anti-CD20 therapy resulted in a more prolonged SARS-CoV-2 PCR positivity compared to other causes of B-cell lymphopenia (p = 0.004). Timing of CP therapy showed a significant impact on the clinical outcome. Simultaneous use of remdesivir and CP reduced time period for oxygen weaning after diagnosis (p = 0.017), length of hospital stay (p = 0.007), and PCR positivity (p = 0.012) compared to patients who received remdesivir and CP consecutively. In addition, time from the diagnosis to CP therapy affected the length of oxygen dependency (p < 0.001) and hospital stay (p < 0.0001). In those cases where there were at least 10 days from the diagnosis to plasma administration, oxygen dependency was prolonged vs. patients with shorter interval (p = 0.006). In conclusion, the combination of inhibition of viral replication with passive immunization was proved to be efficient and safe. Our results suggest the clear benefit of early, combined administration of remdesivir and CP to avoid protracted COVID-19 disease among patients with HMs and B-cell lymphopenia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Lymphopenia , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/therapy , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Lymphopenia/etiology , Lymphopenia/therapy , Oxygen , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Serotherapy
20.
Mil Med ; 187(9-10): e1043-e1046, 2022 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2258147

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The treatment of severe and life-threatening COVID-19 is a rapidly evolving practice. The purpose of our study was to describe the characteristics and outcomes of patients with severe or life-threatening COVID-19 who present to a Military Treatment Facility (MTF) with an emphasis on addressing institutional adaptations to rapidly changing medical evidence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single-center retrospective study conducted on a prospectively maintained cohort. The MTF is a 52-bed hospital within an urban setting. Patients were included in the cohort if they had laboratory-confirmed severe or life-threatening COVID-19 with positive SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Severe disease was defined as dyspnea, respiratory frequency ≥30/min, blood oxygen saturation ≤93% on ambient air, partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio <300, or lung infiltrates involving >50% of lung fields within 24-48 hours. Life-threatening COVID-19 was defined as respiratory failure, septic shock, or multiple organ dysfunction. The cohort included patients admitted from June 1 through November 13. Data were collected retrospectively via chart review by a resident physician. RESULTS: In total, our MTF saw 14 cases of severe or life-threatening COVID-19 from June 1 to November 13. Patients had a median age of 70.5 years, with 7% being active duty personnel, 21% dependents, and 71% retired military members. The median time to dexamethasone, remdesivir, and convalescent plasma administration was 4.7, 6.3, and 11.2 hours, respectively. The 28-day in-hospital mortality was 0%. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who present to an MTF with severe or life-threatening COVID-19 are largely retirees, with only a small fraction comprising active duty personnel. The institution of order sets and early consultation can help facilitate prompt patient care for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Military Personnel , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Oxygen , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Serotherapy
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL