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1.
Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol ; 21(6): 553-558, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2161180

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update of the current state of antibody therapy for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 infection that has progressed immensely in a very short time period. RECENT FINDINGS: Limited clinical effect of classical passive immunotherapy (plasma therapy, hyperimmune immunoglobulin [IgG] preparations) whereas monoclonal antibody therapy, if initiated early in the disease process, shows promising results. SUMMARY: Although antibody therapy still remains to be fully explored in patients with COVID-19, a combination of IgG monoclonal antibodies against the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein currently appears to provide the best form of antibody therapy, Immunoglobulin A dimers and Immunoglobulin M pentamers also show promising preliminary therapeutic results.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunoglobulin A/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulin M/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
2.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(11): 100811, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2150820

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent plasma (CCP), a passive polyclonal antibody therapeutic agent, has had mixed clinical results. Although antibody neutralization is the predominant approach to benchmarking CCP efficacy, CCP may also influence the evolution of the endogenous antibody response. Using systems serology to comprehensively profile severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) functional antibodies of hospitalized people with COVID-19 enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of CCP (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04397757), we find that the clinical benefits of CCP are associated with a shift toward reduced inflammatory Spike (S) responses and enhanced nucleocapsid (N) humoral responses. We find that CCP has the greatest clinical benefit in participants with low pre-existing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody function and that CCP-induced immunomodulatory Fc glycan profiles and N immunodominant profiles persist for at least 2 months. We highlight a potential mechanism of action of CCP associated with durable immunomodulation, outline optimal patient characteristics for CCP treatment, and provide guidance for development of a different class of COVID-19 hyperinflammation-targeting antibody therapeutic agents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunization, Passive/methods , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Nucleocapsid
3.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(4): e25500, 2021 04 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141301

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by a novel coronavirus termed SARS-CoV-2, has spread quickly worldwide. Convalescent plasma (CP) obtained from patients following recovery from COVID-19 infection and development of antibodies against the virus is an attractive option for either prophylactic or therapeutic treatment, since antibodies may have direct or indirect antiviral activities and immunotherapy has proven effective in principle and in many clinical reports. OBJECTIVE: We seek to characterize the latest advances and evidence in the use of CP for COVID-19 through a systematic review and quantitative analysis, identify knowledge gaps in this setting, and offer recommendations and directives for future research. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase were continuously searched for studies assessing the use of CP for COVID-19, including clinical studies, commentaries, reviews, guidelines or protocols, and in vitro testing of CP antibodies. The screening process and data extraction were performed according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Quality appraisal of all clinical studies was conducted using a universal tool independent of study designs. A meta-analysis of case-control and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted using a random-effects model. RESULTS: Substantial literature has been published covering various aspects of CP therapy for COVID-19. Of the references included in this review, a total of 243 eligible studies including 64 clinical studies, 79 commentary articles, 46 reviews, 19 guidance and protocols, and 35 in vitro testing of CP antibodies matched the criteria. Positive results have been mostly observed so far when using CP for the treatment of COVID-19. There were remarkable heterogeneities in the CP therapy with respect to patient demographics, donor antibody titers, and time and dose of CP administration. The studies assessing the safety of CP treatment reported low incidence of adverse events. Most clinical studies, in particular case reports and case series, had poor quality. Only 1 RCT was of high quality. Randomized and nonrandomized data were found in 2 and 11 studies, respectively, and were included for meta-analysis, suggesting that CP could reduce mortality and increase viral clearance. Despite promising pilot studies, the benefits of CP treatment can only be clearly established through carefully designed RCTs. CONCLUSIONS: There is developing support for CP therapy, particularly for patients who are critically ill or mechanically ventilated and resistant to antivirals and supportive care. These studies provide important lessons that should inform the planning of well-designed RCTs to generate more robust knowledge for the efficacy of CP in patients with COVID-19. Future research is necessary to fill the knowledge gap regarding prevention and treatment for patients with COVID-19 with CP while other therapeutics are being developed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive
4.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143622

ABSTRACT

Evusheld® (tixagevimab + cilgavimab; AZD7442) was the first anti-Spike monoclonal antibody (mAb) cocktail designed not only for treatment but also with pre-exposure prophylaxis in mind. The immunoglobulins were engineered for prolonged half-life by modifying the Fc fragment, thus creating a long-acting antibody (LAAB). We review here preclinical development, baseline and treatment-emergent resistance, clinical efficacy from registration trials, and real-world post-marketing evidence. The combination was initially approved for pre-exposure prophylaxis at the time of the SARS-CoV-2 Delta VOC wave based on a trial conducted in unvaccinated subjects when the Alpha VOC was dominant. Another trial also conducted at the time of the Alpha VOC wave proved efficacy as early treatment in unvaccinated patients and led to authorization at the time of the BA.4/5 VOC wave. Tixagevimab was ineffective against any Omicron sublineage, so cilgavimab has so far been the ingredient which has made a difference. Antibody monotherapy has a high risk of selecting for immune escape variants in immunocompromised patients with high viral loads, which nowadays represent the main therapeutic indication for antibody therapies. Among Omicron sublineages, cilgavimab was ineffective against BA.1, recovered efficacy against BA.2 and BA.2.12.1, but lost efficacy again against BA.4/BA.5 and BA.2.75. Our analysis indicated that Evusheld® has been used during the Omicron VOC phase without robust clinical data of efficacy against this variant and suggested that several regulatory decisions regarding its use lacked consistency. There is an urgent need for new randomized controlled trials in vaccinated, immunocompromised subjects, using COVID-19 convalescent plasma as a control arm.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic , Drug Combinations , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Front Immunol ; 13: 964398, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141997

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to assess whether convalescent plasma therapy could offer survival advantages for patients with novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). An electronic search of Pubmed, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane library and MedRxiv was performed from January 1st, 2020 to April 1st, 2022. We included studies containing patients with COVID-19 and treated with CCP. Data were independently extracted by two reviewers and synthesized with a random-effect analysis model. The primary outcome was 28-d mortality. Secondary outcomes included length of hospital stay, ventilation-free days, 14-d mortality, improvements of symptoms, progression of diseases and requirements of mechanical ventilation. Safety outcomes included the incidence of all adverse events (AEs) and serious adverse events (SAEs). The Cochrane risk-of-bias assessment tool 2.0 was used to assess the potential risk of bias in eligible studies. The heterogeneity of results was assessed by I^2 test and Q statistic test. The possibility of publication bias was assessed by conducting Begg and Egger test. GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) method were used for quality of evidence. This study had been registered on PROSPERO, CRD42021273608. 32 RCTs comprising 21478 patients with Covid-19 were included. Compared to the control group, COVID-19 patients receiving CCP were not associated with significantly reduced 28-d mortality (CCP 20.0% vs control 20.8%; risk ratio 0.94; 95% CI 0.87-1.02; p = 0.16; I² = 8%). For all secondary outcomes, there were no significant differences between CCP group and control group. The incidence of AEs (26.9% vs 19.4%,; risk ratio 1.14; 95% CI 0.99-01.31; p = 0.06; I² = 38%) and SAEs (16.3% vs 13.5%; risk ratio 1.03; 95% CI 0.87-1.20; p = 0.76; I² = 42%) tended to be higher in the CCP group compared to the control group, while the differences did not reach statistical significance. In all, CCP therapy was not related to significantly improved 28-d mortality or symptoms recovery, and should not be viewed as a routine treatment for COVID-19 patients. Trial registration number: CRD42021273608. Registration on February 28, 2022. Systematic review registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/, Identifier CRD42022313265.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive/adverse effects , Length of Stay , Respiration, Artificial/methods
6.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 21(1): 51, 2022 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139308

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes life-threatening pneumonia. Convalescent plasma therapy (CPT) is expected to be the effective COVID-19 treatment for passive immunity. The high neutralizing antibodies titer of CPT is needed to prove the benefit in early developed severe COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: This case-control study evaluated transfusion efficacy and adverse events with high-titer (≥ 1:320) COVID-19 convalescent plasma compared with standard care alone in severe COVID-19 pneumonia. RESULTS: Among 107 severe COVID-19 patients, 55 received CPT plus standard care, and 52 received standard care alone. All-cause mortality was 15.3% in the CPT group compared with 85.4% in the standard care group (p < 0.001). Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed reduced mortality with CPT (HR 0.14; 95% CI 0.07-0.31; p < 0.001 and HR 0.26; 95% CI 0.08-0.79; p = 0.018, respectively). CPT resulted in decreased use of mechanical ventilation, duration of supplemental oxygen, and high-flow oxygen requirement. Clinical and radiological outcomes improved. CONCLUSIONS: Immediate high neutralizing antibody titer CPT is safe and reduces mortality in early developed severe COVID-19 patients. The benefit of CPT in the early course of illness is challenging and requires additional study. Trial registration Thai clinical trials registry (TCTR) no. 20220101003.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Immunization, Passive
7.
Nature ; 593(7857): 136-141, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114170

ABSTRACT

Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is uncontrolled in many parts of the world; control is compounded in some areas by the higher transmission potential of the B.1.1.7 variant1, which has now been reported in 94 countries. It is unclear whether the response of the virus to vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 on the basis of the prototypic strain will be affected by the mutations found in B.1.1.7. Here we assess the immune responses of individuals after vaccination with the mRNA-based vaccine BNT162b22. We measured neutralizing antibody responses after the first and second immunizations using pseudoviruses that expressed the wild-type spike protein or a mutated spike protein that contained the eight amino acid changes found in the B.1.1.7 variant. The sera from individuals who received the vaccine exhibited a broad range of neutralizing titres against the wild-type pseudoviruses that were modestly reduced against the B.1.1.7 variant. This reduction was also evident in sera from some patients who had recovered from COVID-19. Decreased neutralization of the B.1.1.7 variant was also observed for monoclonal antibodies that target the N-terminal domain (9 out of 10) and the receptor-binding motif (5 out of 31), but not for monoclonal antibodies that recognize the receptor-binding domain that bind outside the receptor-binding motif. Introduction of the mutation that encodes the E484K substitution in the B.1.1.7 background to reflect a newly emerged variant of concern (VOC 202102/02) led to a more-substantial loss of neutralizing activity by vaccine-elicited antibodies and monoclonal antibodies (19 out of 31) compared with the loss of neutralizing activity conferred by the mutations in B.1.1.7 alone. The emergence of the E484K substitution in a B.1.1.7 background represents a threat to the efficacy of the BNT162b2 vaccine.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immune Evasion/genetics , Immune Evasion/immunology , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage
8.
N Engl J Med ; 387(10): 955, 2022 09 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106611
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19035, 2022 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106464

ABSTRACT

Establishing the optimal treatment for COVID-19 patients remains challenging. Specifically, immunocompromised and pre-diseased patients are at high risk for severe disease course and face limited therapeutic options. Convalescent plasma (CP) has been considered as therapeutic approach, but reliable data are lacking, especially for high-risk patients. We performed a retrospective analysis of 55 hospitalized COVID-19 patients from University Hospital Duesseldorf (UKD) at high risk for disease progression, in a substantial proportion due to immunosuppression from cancer, solid organ transplantation, autoimmune disease, dialysis. A matched-pairs analysis (1:4) was performed with 220 patients from the Lean European Open Survey on SARS-CoV-2-infected Patients (LEOSS) who were treated or not treated with CP. Both cohorts had high mortality (UKD 41.8%, LEOSS 34.1%). A matched-pairs analysis showed no significant effect on mortality. CP administration before the formation of pulmonary infiltrates showed the lowest mortality in both cohorts (10%), whereas mortality in the complicated phase was 27.8%. CP administration during the critical phase revealed the highest mortality: UKD 60.9%, LEOSS 48.3%. In our cohort of COVID-19 patients with severe comorbidities CP did not significantly reduce mortality in a retrospective matched-pairs analysis. However, our data supports the concept that a reduction in mortality is achievable by early CP administration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , Matched-Pair Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Renal Dialysis , Immunization, Passive
10.
Ann Intern Med ; 173(2): JC3, 2020 07 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2103352

ABSTRACT

SOURCE CITATION: Ye Z, Rochwerg B, Wang Y, et al. Treatment of patients with nonsevere and severe coronavirus disease 2019: an evidence-based guideline. CMAJ. 2020;192:E536-45. 32350002.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Pandemics , Plasma , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
11.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099852

ABSTRACT

Therapeutic blood products including convalescent plasma/serum and immunoglobulins concentrated from convalescent plasma, such as intravenous immunoglobulins or hyperimmune globulins, and monoclonal antibodies are passive immunotherapy options for novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). They have been shown to improve the clinical status and biological and radiological parameters in some groups of COVID-19 patients. However, blood products are still potential sources of virus transmission in recipients. The use of pathogen reduction technology (PRT) should increase the safety of the products. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of solvent/detergents (S/D) procedures on SARS-COV-2 infectivity elimination in the plasma of donors but also on COVID-19 convalescent serum (CCS) capacity to neutralize SARS-COV-2 infectivity. In this investigation, S/D treatment for all experiments was performed at a shortened process time (30 min). We first evaluated the impact of S/D treatments (1% TnBP/1% TritonX-45 and 1% TnBP/1% TritonX-100) on the inactivation of SARS-COV-2 pseudoparticles (SARS-COV-2pp)-spiked human plasma followed by S/D agent removal using a Sep-Pak Plus C18 cartridge. Both treatments were able to completely inactivate SARS-COV-2pp infectivity to an undetectable level. Moreover, the neutralizing activity of CCS against SARS-COV-2pp was preserved after S/D treatments. Our data suggested that viral inactivation methods using such S/D treatments could be useful in the implementation of viral inactivation/elimination processes of therapeutic blood products against SARS-COV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , Virus Inactivation , Immunization, Passive/methods , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing
12.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin (Engl Ed) ; 40(9): 507-516, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095292

ABSTRACT

Patients lacking humoral response have been suggested to develop a less severe COVID-19, but there are some reports with a prolonged, relapsing or deadly course. From April 2020, there is growing evidence on the benefits of COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) for patients with humoral immunodeficiency. Most of them had a congenital primary immunodeficiency or were on treatment with anti CD20 antibodies. We report on three patients treated in our hospital and review thirty-one more cases described in the literature. All patients but three resolved clinical picture with CCP. A dose from 200 to 800ml was enough in most cases. Antibody levels after transfusion were negative or low, suggesting consumption of them in SARS-CoV-2 neutralization. These patients have a protracted clinical course shortened after CCP. CCP could be helpful for patients with humoral immunodeficiency. It avoid relapses and chronification. CCP should be transfused as early as possible in patients with COVID-19 and humoral immunodeficiency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunization, Passive/adverse effects
14.
15.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090364

ABSTRACT

Historically the therapeutic potential of polyclonal passive immunotherapies in viral diseases has been related to antiviral neutralizing antibodies, but there is also considerable evidence that non-neutralizing antibodies can translate into clinical benefit as well. In the setting of SARS-CoV-2 infection, we review here in vitro and in vivo evidence supporting a contributing role for anti-nucleocapsid antibodies. Retrospective investigation of anti-nucleocapsid antibody levels in randomized clinical trials of COVID-19 convalescent plasma is warranted to better understand whether there is an association with efficacy or lack thereof.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Immunization, Passive
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(41): e30998, 2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077958

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To date, there has been little agreement on what drug is the "best" drug for treating severe COVID-19 patients. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of different medications available at present for severe COVID-19. METHODS: We searched databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published up to February 28, 2022, with no language restrictions, of medications recommended for patients (aged 16 years or older) with severe COVID-19 infection. We extracted data on trials and patient characteristics, and the following primary outcomes: all-cause mortality (ACM), and treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). RESULTS: We identified 4021 abstracts and of these included 48 RCTs comprising 9147 participants through database searches and other sources. For decrease in ACM, we found that ivermectin/doxycycline, C-IVIG (i.e., a hyperimmune anti-COVID-19 intravenous immunoglobulin), methylprednisolone, interferon-beta/standard-of-care (SOC), interferon-beta-1b, convalescent plasma, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, immunoglobulin gamma, high dosage sarilumab (HS), auxora, and imatinib were effective when compared with placebo or SOC group. We found that colchicine and interferon-beta/SOC were only associated with the TEAEs of severe COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: This study suggested that ivermectin/doxycycline, C-IVIG, methylprednisolone, interferon-beta/SOC, interferon-beta-1b, convalescent plasma (CP), remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, immunoglobulin gamma, HS, auxora, and imatinib were efficacious for treating severe COVID-19 patients. We found that most medications were safe in treating severe COVID-19. More large-scale RCTs are still needed to confirm the results of this study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Doxycycline/therapeutic use , Humans , Imatinib Mesylate/therapeutic use , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Interferon beta-1b/therapeutic use , Ivermectin/adverse effects , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Network Meta-Analysis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Ritonavir/therapeutic use
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(10): e2237540, 2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2074861

ABSTRACT

This cross-sectional study estimates the trial capacity of sites participating in the COVID-19 convalescent plasma expanded access program.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , Immunization, Passive , SARS-CoV-2 , Clinical Trials as Topic
18.
Cells ; 11(19)2022 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065730

ABSTRACT

Despite the advancement of vaccination and therapies currently available, deaths due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are still heavily documented. Severely infected individuals experience a generalized inflammatory storm, caused by massive secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines that can lead to endothelial dysfunction, cardiovascular disease, multi-organ failure, and even death. COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) therapy, selected primarily based on anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels, has not been as convincing as expected in the fight against COVID-19. Given the consequences of a dysfunctional endothelium on the progression of the disease, we propose that the selection of plasma for CCP therapy should be based on more specific parameters that take into consideration the effect on vascular inflammation. Thus, in the present study, we have characterized a subset of CCP that have been used for CCP therapy and measured their anti- or pro-inflammatory effect on human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs). Our data revealed that the longer the time lapse between the onset of symptoms and the plasma donation, the more mitochondrial dysfunction can be evidenced. The concentration of blood endothelial cell extracellular vesicles (BEC-EVs) was increased in the plasma of young individuals with mild symptoms. This type of selected convalescent plasma promoted the activation of the blood vascular endothelium, as reflected by the overexpression of ICAM1 and NFκB1 and the downregulation of VE-Cadherin. We propose this mechanism is a warning signal sent by the injured endothelium to trigger self-defense of peripheral blood vessels against excessive inflammation. Therefore, these results are in line with our previous data. They suggest that a more specific selection of COVID-19 convalescent plasma should be based on the time of donation following the onset of the clinical symptoms of the donor, the severity of the symptoms, and the age of the donor. These characteristics are relatively easy to identify in any hospital and would reflect the concentration of plasma BEC-EVs and be optimal in CCP therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Extracellular Vesicles , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , Biomarkers , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokines , Endothelial Cells , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Inflammation , Pandemics
19.
Front Immunol ; 13: 968105, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065511

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Despite vaccine development, the COVID-19 pandemic is ongoing due to immunity-escaping variants of concern (VOCs). Estimations of vaccine-induced protective immunity against VOCs are essential for setting proper COVID-19 vaccination policy. Methods: We performed plaque-reduction neutralizing tests (PRNTs) using sera from healthcare workers (HCWs) collected from baseline to six months after COVID-19 vaccination and from convalescent COVID-19 patients. The 20.2% of the mean PRNT titer of convalescent sera was used as 50% protective value, and the percentage of HCWs with protective immunity for each week (percent-week) was compared among vaccination groups. A correlation equation was deduced between a PRNT 50% neutralizing dose (ND50) against wild type (WT) SARS-CoV-2 and that of the Delta variant. Results: We conducted PRNTs on 1,287 serum samples from 297 HCWs (99 HCWs who received homologous ChAdOx1 vaccination (ChAd), 99 from HCWs who received homologous BNT162b2 (BNT), and 99 from HCWs who received heterologous ChAd followed by BNT (ChAd-BNT)). Using 365 serum samples from 116 convalescent COVID-19 patients, PRNT ND50 of 118.25 was derived as 50% protective value. The 6-month cumulative percentage of HCWs with protective immunity against WT SARS-CoV-2 was highest in the BNT group (2297.0 percent-week), followed by the ChAd-BNT (1576.8) and ChAd (1403.0) groups. In the inter-group comparison, protective percentage of the BNT group (median 96.0%, IQR 91.2-99.2%) was comparable to the ChAd-BNT group (median 85.4%, IQR 15.7-100%; P =0.117) and significantly higher than the ChAd group (median 60.1%, IQR 20.0-87.1%; P <0.001). When Delta PRNT was estimated using the correlation equation, protective immunity at the 6-month waning point was markedly decreased (28.3% for ChAd group, 52.5% for BNT, and 66.7% for ChAd-BNT). Conclusion: Decreased vaccine-induced protective immunity at the 6-month waning point and lesser response against the Delta variant may explain the Delta-dominated outbreak of late 2021. Follow-up studies for newly-emerging VOCs would also be needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Kinetics , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
20.
Vox Sang ; 117(10): 1202-1210, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2063958

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The use of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent plasma (CCP) in the treatment of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome-2 infection has been controversial. Early administration of CCP before hospital admission offers a potential advantage. This manuscript summarizes current trials of early use of CCP and explores the feasibility of this approach in different countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire was distributed to the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) CCP working group. We recorded respondents' input on existing trials on early/outpatient CCP and out-of-hospital (OOH)/home transfusion (HT) practices in their countries and feedback on challenges in initiating home CCP infusion programmes. In addition, details of existing trials registered on clinicaltrials.gov were summarized. RESULTS: A total of 31 country representatives participated. Early/OOH CCP transfusion studies were reported in the United States, the Netherlands, Spain and Brazil. There were a total of six published and five ongoing trials on the prophylactic and therapeutic early use of CCP. HT was practised in Australia, the UK, Belgium, France, Japan, Nigeria, the Netherlands, Spain, Italy, Norway, the United States and some provinces in Canada. Thirty-four representatives indicated a lack of OOH CCP or HT in their institutions and countries. Barriers to implementation of OOH/HT included existing legislation, lack of policies pertaining to outpatient transfusion, and associated logistical challenges, including lack of staffing and resources. CONCLUSION: Early administration of CCP remains a potential option in COVID-19 management in countries with existing OOH/HT programmes. Legislation and regulatory bodies should consider OOH/HT practice for transfusion in future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/therapy , Feasibility Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Immunization, Passive/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
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