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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 738532, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686470

ABSTRACT

Background: The benefits of intravenous immunoglobulin administration are controversial for critically ill COVID-19 patients. Methods: We analyzed retrospectively the effects of immunoglobulin administration for critically ill COVID-19 patients. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) with propensity score was used to account for baseline confounders. Cluster analysis was used to perform phenotype analysis. Results: Between January 1 and February 29, 2020, 754 patients with complete data from 19 hospitals were enrolled. Death at 28 days occurred for 408 (54.1%) patients. There were 392 (52.0%) patients who received intravenous immunoglobulin, at 11 (interquartile range (IQR) 8, 16) days after illness onset; 30% of these patients received intravenous immunoglobulin prior to intensive care unit (ICU) admission. By unadjusted analysis, no difference was observed for 28-day mortality between the immunoglobulin and non-immunoglobulin groups. Similar results were found by propensity score matching (n = 506) and by IPTW analysis (n = 731). Also, IPTW analysis did not reveal any significant difference between hyperinflammation and hypoinflammation phenotypes. Conclusion: No significant association was observed for use of intravenous immunoglobulin and decreased mortality of severe COVID-19 patients. Phenotype analysis did not show any survival benefit for patients who received immunoglobulin therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Aged , China , Critical Care/methods , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunization, Passive/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Treatment Outcome
2.
Lancet ; 397(10289): 2049-2059, 2021 May 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671320

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many patients with COVID-19 have been treated with plasma containing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of convalescent plasma therapy in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19. METHODS: This randomised, controlled, open-label, platform trial (Randomised Evaluation of COVID-19 Therapy [RECOVERY]) is assessing several possible treatments in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 in the UK. The trial is underway at 177 NHS hospitals from across the UK. Eligible and consenting patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either usual care alone (usual care group) or usual care plus high-titre convalescent plasma (convalescent plasma group). The primary outcome was 28-day mortality, analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. The trial is registered with ISRCTN, 50189673, and ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04381936. FINDINGS: Between May 28, 2020, and Jan 15, 2021, 11558 (71%) of 16287 patients enrolled in RECOVERY were eligible to receive convalescent plasma and were assigned to either the convalescent plasma group or the usual care group. There was no significant difference in 28-day mortality between the two groups: 1399 (24%) of 5795 patients in the convalescent plasma group and 1408 (24%) of 5763 patients in the usual care group died within 28 days (rate ratio 1·00, 95% CI 0·93-1·07; p=0·95). The 28-day mortality rate ratio was similar in all prespecified subgroups of patients, including in those patients without detectable SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at randomisation. Allocation to convalescent plasma had no significant effect on the proportion of patients discharged from hospital within 28 days (3832 [66%] patients in the convalescent plasma group vs 3822 [66%] patients in the usual care group; rate ratio 0·99, 95% CI 0·94-1·03; p=0·57). Among those not on invasive mechanical ventilation at randomisation, there was no significant difference in the proportion of patients meeting the composite endpoint of progression to invasive mechanical ventilation or death (1568 [29%] of 5493 patients in the convalescent plasma group vs 1568 [29%] of 5448 patients in the usual care group; rate ratio 0·99, 95% CI 0·93-1·05; p=0·79). INTERPRETATION: In patients hospitalised with COVID-19, high-titre convalescent plasma did not improve survival or other prespecified clinical outcomes. FUNDING: UK Research and Innovation (Medical Research Council) and National Institute of Health Research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunization, Passive/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , United Kingdom/epidemiology
3.
Cell Rep ; 38(7): 110368, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649284

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence indicates that both neutralizing and Fc-mediated effector functions of antibodies contribute to protection against SARS-CoV-2. It is unclear whether Fc-effector functions alone can protect against SARS-CoV-2. Here, we isolated CV3-13, a non-neutralizing antibody, from a convalescent individual with potent Fc-mediated effector functions. The cryoelectron microscopy structure of CV3-13 in complex with the SARS-CoV-2 spike reveals that the antibody binds from a distinct angle of approach to an N-terminal domain (NTD) epitope that only partially overlaps with the NTD supersite recognized by neutralizing antibodies. CV3-13 does not alter the replication dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in K18-hACE2 mice, but its Fc-enhanced version significantly delays virus spread, neuroinvasion, and death in prophylactic settings. Interestingly, the combination of Fc-enhanced non-neutralizing CV3-13 with Fc-compromised neutralizing CV3-25 completely protects mice from lethal SARS-CoV-2 infection. Altogether, our data demonstrate that efficient Fc-mediated effector functions can potently contribute to the in vivo efficacy of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Disease Models, Animal , Epitopes , Humans , Immunization, Passive/mortality , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/chemistry , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/metabolism , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/genetics , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/immunology , Mice , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
4.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5789-5797, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432411

ABSTRACT

There is no consensus on the management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and modification of immunosuppressive therapy in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). In this study, we examined the clinical outcome of our KTRs with COVID-19 disease, who were treated with a broad-spectrum anti-inflammatory protocol. This protocol is essentially composed of intravenous immunoglobulin +/- tocilizumab in KTRs with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Among 809 KTRs, 64 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 disease between April 2020 and February 2021, were evaluated. Twenty-nine patients with pneumonia confirmed by chest computed tomography (CCT) were hospitalized. The treatment protocol included high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone, favipiravir, enoxaparin, and empirical antibiotics. Patients with pneumonic involvement of more than 25% on CCT with or without respiratory failure were given a total of 2 g/kg intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy. Nonresponders received tocilizumab, an interleukin-6 receptor antibody. Of the 29 patients with pneumonia, 6 were treated in other hospitals. These six patients did not receive IVIg and 5 of them deceased. In our center, IVIg treatment was applied to 15 of 23 patients. Seven of them required tocilizumab. Respiratory parameters improved significantly in all but one patient after IVIg ± tocilizumab treatment. The mortality rate was 6.6% in patients who received IVIg therapy and 35.7% in those who did not (p = 0.08). The mortality rate was higher in patients who received treatment in external centers (2.2% vs. 26.3%; p = 0.0073). The treatment of KTRs with severe COVID-19 pneumonia in organ transplant centers with significant experience yields better results. The administration of broad-spectrum anti-inflammatory treatment in this patient group was safe and provided excellent outcomes.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , COVID-19/therapy , Kidney Transplantation , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Combined Modality Therapy , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/mortality , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients , Treatment Outcome
5.
Br J Anaesth ; 127(6): 834-844, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377666

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific antibodies, particularly those preventing interaction between the viral spike receptor-binding domain and the host angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor, may prevent viral entry into host cells and disease progression. METHODS: We performed a systematic review, meta-analysis, trial sequential analysis (TSA), and meta-regression of RCTs to evaluate the benefit of convalescent plasma for COVID-19. The primary outcome was 28-30 day mortality. Secondary outcomes included need for mechanical ventilation and ICU admission. Data sources were PubMed, Embase, MedRxiv, and the Cochrane library on July 2, 2021. RESULTS: We identified 17 RCTs that recruited 15 587 patients with 8027 (51.5%) allocated to receive convalescent plasma. Convalescent plasma use was not associated with a mortality benefit (24.7% vs 25.5%; odds ratio [OR]=0.94 [0.85-1.04]; P=0.23; I2=4%; TSA adjusted confidence interval [CI], 0.84-1.05), or reduction in need for mechanical ventilation (15.7% vs 15.4%; OR=1.01 [0.92-1.11]; P=0.82; I2=0%; TSA adjusted CI, 0.91-1.13), or ICU admission (22.4% vs 16.7%; OR=0.80 [0.21-3.09]; P=0.75; I2=63%; TSA adjusted CI, 0.0-196.05). Meta-regression did not reveal association with titre of convalescent plasma, timing of administration, or risk of death and treatment effect (P>0.05). Risk of bias was high in most studies. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with COVID-19, there was no clear mortality benefit associated with convalescent plasma treatment. In patients with mild disease, convalescent plasma did not prevent either the need for mechanical ventilation or ICU admission. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: CRD42021234201 (PROSPERO).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Immunization, Passive/mortality , Regression Analysis , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Respiration, Artificial/trends , Treatment Outcome
6.
J Clin Invest ; 130(9): 4791-4797, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365265

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDConvalescent plasma is the only antibody-based therapy currently available for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It has robust historical precedence and sound biological plausibility. Although promising, convalescent plasma has not yet been shown to be safe as a treatment for COVID-19.METHODSThus, we analyzed key safety metrics after transfusion of ABO-compatible human COVID-19 convalescent plasma in 5000 hospitalized adults with severe or life-threatening COVID-19, with 66% in the intensive care unit, as part of the US FDA expanded access program for COVID-19 convalescent plasma.RESULTSThe incidence of all serious adverse events (SAEs), including mortality rate (0.3%), in the first 4 hours after transfusion was <1%. Of the 36 reported SAEs, there were 25 reported incidences of related SAEs, including mortality (n = 4), transfusion-associated circulatory overload (n = 7), transfusion-related acute lung injury (n = 11), and severe allergic transfusion reactions (n = 3). However, only 2 of 36 SAEs were judged as definitely related to the convalescent plasma transfusion by the treating physician. The 7-day mortality rate was 14.9%.CONCLUSIONGiven the deadly nature of COVID-19 and the large population of critically ill patients included in these analyses, the mortality rate does not appear excessive. These early indicators suggest that transfusion of convalescent plasma is safe in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.TRIAL REGISTRATIONClinicalTrials.gov NCT04338360.FUNDINGMayo Clinic, Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (75A50120C00096), National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (UL1TR002377), National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (5R35HL139854 and R01 HL059842), National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (5T32DK07352), Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (PDF-532926-2019), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (R21 AI145356, R21 AI152318, and AI152078), Schwab Charitable Fund, United Health Group, National Basketball Association, Millennium Pharmaceuticals, and Octapharma USA Inc.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Compassionate Use Trials , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/adverse effects , Immunization, Passive/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Safety , Transfusion Reaction/epidemiology , Transfusion Reaction/etiology , Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury/epidemiology , Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury/etiology , United States/epidemiology , United States Food and Drug Administration , Young Adult
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4864, 2021 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354101

ABSTRACT

Successful therapeutics and vaccines for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have harnessed the immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Evidence that SARS-CoV-2 exists as locally evolving variants suggests that immunological differences may impact the effectiveness of antibody-based treatments such as convalescent plasma and vaccines. Considering that near-sourced convalescent plasma likely reflects the antigenic composition of local viral strains, we hypothesize that convalescent plasma has a higher efficacy, as defined by death within 30 days of transfusion, when the convalescent plasma donor and treated patient were in close geographic proximity. Results of a series of modeling techniques applied to approximately 28,000 patients from the Expanded Access to Convalescent Plasma program (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT04338360) support this hypothesis. This work has implications for the interpretation of clinical studies, the ability to develop effective COVID-19 treatments, and, potentially, for the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines as additional locally-evolving variants continue to emerge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Plasma/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Specificity , Antigenic Variation , Blood Donors , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(10): 1488-1493, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345288

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is commonly used to treat severe COVID-19, although the clinical outcome of such treatment remains unclear. This study evaluated the effectiveness of IVIG treatment in severe COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This retrospective multicentre study evaluated 28-day mortality in severe COVID-19 patients with or without IVIG treatment. Each patient treated with IVIG was matched with one untreated patient. Logistic regression and inverse probability weighting (IPW) were used to control confounding factors. RESULTS: The study included 850 patients (421 IVIG-treated patients and 429 non-IVIG-treated patients). After matching, 406 patients per group remained. No significant difference in 28-day mortality was observed after IPW analysis (average treatment effect (ATE) = 0.008, 95% CI -0.081 to 0.097, p 0.863). There were no significant differences between the IVIG group and non-IVIG group for acute respiratory distress syndrome, diffuse intravascular coagulation, myocardial injury, acute hepatic injury, shock, acute kidney injury, non-invasive mechanical ventilation, invasive mechanical ventilation, continuous renal replacement therapy and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation except for prone position ventilation (ATE = -0.022, 95% CI -0.041 to -0.002, p 0.028). DISCUSSION: IVIG treatment was not associated with significant changes in 28-day mortality in severe COVID-19 patients. The effectiveness of IVIG in treating patients with severe COVID-19 needs to be further investigated through future studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Immunization, Passive/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
9.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 15: 17534666211028077, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288594

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Given the variability of previously reported results, this systematic review aims to determine the clinical effectiveness of convalescent plasma employed in the treatment of hospitalized patients diagnosed with COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of controlled clinical trials assessing treatment with convalescent plasma for hospitalized patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The outcomes were mortality, clinical improvement, and ventilation requirement. RESULTS: A total of 51 studies were retrieved from the databases. Five articles were finally included in the data extraction and qualitative and quantitative synthesis of results. The overall risk of bias in the reviewed articles was established at low-risk only in two trials. The meta-analysis suggests that there is no benefit of convalescent plasma compared with standard care or placebo in reducing the overall mortality and the ventilation requirement. However, there could be a benefit for the clinical improvement in patients treated with plasma. CONCLUSION: Current results led to assume that the convalescent plasma transfusion cannot reduce the mortality or ventilation requirement in hospitalized patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. More controlled clinical trials conducted with methodologies that ensure a low risk of bias are still needed.The reviews of this paper are available via the supplemental material section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Immunization, Passive/adverse effects , Immunization, Passive/mortality , Recovery of Function , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
10.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD013600, 2021 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1235649

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Convalescent plasma and hyperimmune immunoglobulin may reduce mortality in patients with viral respiratory diseases, and are being investigated as potential therapies for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A thorough understanding of the current body of evidence regarding benefits and risks of these interventions is required.  OBJECTIVES: Using a living systematic review approach, to assess whether convalescent plasma or hyperimmune immunoglobulin transfusion is effective and safe in the treatment of people with COVID-19; and to maintain the currency of the evidence. SEARCH METHODS: To identify completed and ongoing studies, we searched the World Health Organization (WHO) COVID-19 Global literature on coronavirus disease Research Database, MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register, the Epistemonikos COVID-19 L*OVE Platform, and trial registries. Searches were done on 17 March 2021. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating convalescent plasma or hyperimmune immunoglobulin for COVID-19, irrespective of disease severity, age, gender or ethnicity. For safety assessments, we also included non-controlled non-randomised studies of interventions (NRSIs) if 500 or more participants were included. We excluded studies that included populations with other coronavirus diseases (severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) or Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)), as well as studies evaluating standard immunoglobulin. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed standard Cochrane methodology. To assess bias in included studies, we used the Cochrane 'Risk of Bias 2' tool for RCTs, and for NRSIs, the assessment criteria for observational studies, provided by Cochrane Childhood Cancer. We rated the certainty of evidence, using the GRADE approach, for the following outcomes: all-cause mortality, improvement and worsening of clinical status (for individuals with moderate to severe disease), development of severe clinical COVID-19 symptoms (for individuals with asymptomatic or mild disease), quality of life (including fatigue and functional independence), grade 3 or 4 adverse events, and serious adverse events. MAIN RESULTS: We included 13 studies (12 RCTs, 1 NRSI) with 48,509 participants, of whom 41,880 received convalescent plasma. We did not identify any completed studies evaluating hyperimmune immunoglobulin. We identified a further 100 ongoing studies evaluating convalescent plasma or hyperimmune immunoglobulin, and 33 studies reporting as being completed or terminated. Individuals with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 and moderate to severe disease Eleven RCTs and one NRSI investigated the use of convalescent plasma for 48,349 participants with moderate to severe disease. Nine RCTs compared convalescent plasma to placebo treatment or standard care alone, and two compared convalescent plasma to standard plasma (results not included in abstract). Effectiveness of convalescent plasma We included data on nine RCTs (12,875 participants) to assess the effectiveness of convalescent plasma compared to placebo or standard care alone.  Convalescent plasma does not reduce all-cause mortality at up to day 28 (risk ratio (RR) 0.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92 to 1.05; 7 RCTs, 12,646 participants; high-certainty evidence). It has little to no impact on clinical improvement for all participants when assessed by liberation from respiratory support (RR not estimable; 8 RCTs, 12,682 participants; high-certainty evidence). It has little to no impact on the chance of being weaned or liberated from invasive mechanical ventilation for the subgroup of participants requiring invasive mechanical ventilation at baseline (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.57 to 1.93; 2 RCTs, 630 participants; low-certainty evidence). It does not reduce the need for invasive mechanical ventilation (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.08; 4 RCTs, 11,765 participants; high-certainty evidence). We did not identify any subgroup differences.  We did not identify any studies reporting quality of life, and therefore, do not know whether convalescent plasma has any impact on quality of life. One RCT assessed resolution of fatigue on day 7, but we are very uncertain about the effect (RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.42; 309 participants; very low-certainty evidence).  Safety of convalescent plasma We included results from eight RCTs, and one NRSI, to assess the safety of convalescent plasma. Some of the RCTs reported on safety data only for the convalescent plasma group.  We are uncertain whether convalescent plasma increases or reduces the risk of grade 3 and 4 adverse events (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.41; 4 RCTs, 905 participants; low-certainty evidence), and serious adverse events (RR 1.24, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.90; 2 RCTs, 414 participants; low-certainty evidence).  A summary of reported events of the NRSI (reporting safety data for 20,000 of 35,322 transfused participants), and four RCTs reporting safety data only for transfused participants (6125 participants) are included in the full text. Individuals with a confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and asymptomatic or mild disease We identified one RCT reporting on 160 participants, comparing convalescent plasma to placebo treatment (saline).  Effectiveness of convalescent plasma We are very uncertain about the effect of convalescent plasma on all-cause mortality (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.09 to 2.65; very low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain about the effect of convalescent plasma on developing severe clinical COVID-19 symptoms (RR not estimable; low-certainty evidence).  We identified no study reporting quality of life.  Safety of convalescent plasma We do not know whether convalescent plasma is associated with a higher risk of grade 3 or 4 adverse events (very low-certainty evidence), or serious adverse events (very low-certainty evidence). This is a living systematic review. We search weekly for new evidence and update the review when we identify relevant new evidence. Please refer to the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for the current status of this review. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We have high certainty in the evidence that convalescent plasma for the treatment of individuals with moderate to severe disease does not reduce mortality and has little to no impact on measures of clinical improvement. We are uncertain about the adverse effects of convalescent plasma. While major efforts to conduct research on COVID-19 are being made, heterogeneous reporting of outcomes is still problematic. There are 100 ongoing studies and 33 studies reporting in a study registry as being completed or terminated. Publication of ongoing studies might resolve some of the uncertainties around hyperimmune immunoglobulin therapy for people with any disease severity, and convalescent plasma therapy for people with asymptomatic or mild disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Bias , COVID-19/mortality , Cause of Death , Humans , Immunization, Passive/adverse effects , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunization, Passive/mortality , Immunization, Passive/statistics & numerical data , Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Treatment Outcome , Ventilator Weaning/statistics & numerical data
11.
J Pharm Pharm Sci ; 24: 210-219, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1212102

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare how treatment with convalescent plasma (CP) monotherapy, remdesivir (RDV) monotherapy, and combination therapy (CP + RDV) in patients with COVID-19 affected clinical outcomes. METHODS: Patients with COVID-19 infection who were admitted to the hospital received CP, RDV, or combination of both. Mortality, discharge disposition, hospital length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit (ICU) LOS, and total ventilation days were compared between each treatment group and stratified by ABO blood group. An exploratory analysis identified risk factors for mortality. Adverse effects were also evaluated. RESULTS: RDV monotherapy showed an increased chance of survival compared to combination therapy or CP monotherapy (p = 0.052). There were 15, 3, and 6 deaths in the CP, RDV, and combination therapy groups, respectively. The combination therapy group had the longest median ICU LOS (8, IQR 4.5-15.5, p = 0.220) and hospital LOS (11, IQR 7-15.5, p = 0.175). Age (p = 0.036), initial SOFA score (p = 0.013), and intubation (p = 0.005) were statistically significant predictors of mortality. Patients with type O blood had decreased ventilation days, ICU LOS, and total LOS. Thirteen treatment-related adverse events occurred. CONCLUSION: No significant differences in clinical outcomes were observed between patients treated with RDV, CP, or combination therapy. Elderly patients, those with a high initial SOFA score, and those who require intubation are at increased risk of mortality associated with COVID-19. Blood type did not affect clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitals, Community/trends , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adult , Aged , Alanine/administration & dosage , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , California/epidemiology , Combined Modality Therapy/methods , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/mortality , Length of Stay/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
12.
PLoS Med ; 18(3): e1003415, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115283

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Convalescent plasma (CP), despite limited evidence on its efficacy, is being widely used as a compassionate therapy for hospitalized patients with COVID-19. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of early CP therapy in COVID-19 progression. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The study was an open-label, single-center randomized clinical trial performed in an academic medical center in Santiago, Chile, from May 10, 2020, to July 18, 2020, with final follow-up until August 17, 2020. The trial included patients hospitalized within the first 7 days of COVID-19 symptom onset, presenting risk factors for illness progression and not on mechanical ventilation. The intervention consisted of immediate CP (early plasma group) versus no CP unless developing prespecified criteria of deterioration (deferred plasma group). Additional standard treatment was allowed in both arms. The primary outcome was a composite of mechanical ventilation, hospitalization for >14 days, or death. The key secondary outcomes included time to respiratory failure, days of mechanical ventilation, hospital length of stay, mortality at 30 days, and SARS-CoV-2 real-time PCR clearance rate. Of 58 randomized patients (mean age, 65.8 years; 50% male), 57 (98.3%) completed the trial. A total of 13 (43.3%) participants from the deferred group received plasma based on clinical aggravation. We failed to find benefit in the primary outcome (32.1% versus 33.3%, odds ratio [OR] 0.95, 95% CI 0.32-2.84, p > 0.999) in the early versus deferred CP group. The in-hospital mortality rate was 17.9% versus 6.7% (OR 3.04, 95% CI 0.54-17.17 p = 0.246), mechanical ventilation 17.9% versus 6.7% (OR 3.04, 95% CI 0.54-17.17, p = 0.246), and prolonged hospitalization 21.4% versus 30.0% (OR 0.64, 95% CI, 0.19-2.10, p = 0.554) in the early versus deferred CP group, respectively. The viral clearance rate on day 3 (26% versus 8%, p = 0.204) and day 7 (38% versus 19%, p = 0.374) did not differ between groups. Two patients experienced serious adverse events within 6 hours after plasma transfusion. The main limitation of this study is the lack of statistical power to detect a smaller but clinically relevant therapeutic effect of CP, as well as not having confirmed neutralizing antibodies in donor before plasma infusion. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, we failed to find evidence of benefit in mortality, length of hospitalization, or mechanical ventilation requirement by immediate addition of CP therapy in the early stages of COVID-19 compared to its use only in case of patient deterioration. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04375098.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Early Medical Intervention/methods , Time-to-Treatment , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Chile , Disease Progression , Early Medical Intervention/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunization, Passive/mortality , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Time-to-Treatment/standards , Treatment Outcome
13.
Exp Clin Transplant ; 19(4): 304-309, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090202

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: There are limited clinical data on feasibility and safety of convalescent plasma therapy in kidney transplant recipients with severe COVID-19. The present study was conducted to explore the feasibility of convalescent plasma treatment in 10 kidney transplant recipients with severe COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The prospective observational cohort study was conducted at the Institute of Kidney Disease and Research Centre, Ahmedabad, India. All patients were admitted to the intensive care unit and received antiviral therapy, glucocorticoids, and other supportive care. Two doses of 200 mL each of convalescent plasma with neutralization activity of >1:640 were transfused into patients 24 hours apart following the World Health Organization blood transfusion protocol. The endpoints were the improvement of clinical symptoms and laboratory parameters within 1 day and 7 days after convalescent plasma transfusion. RESULTS: The patients showed resolution of clinical symptoms, and there was a significant decrease in inflammatory markers (P < .05) within 7 days of convalescent plasma transfusion. Of the 10 patients, 9 patients had full recovery and 1 patient died. CONCLUSIONS: Convalescent plasma therapy is highly safe and clinically feasible and reduces mortality in kidney transplant recipients with severe COVID-19. Larger clinical registries and randomized clinical trials should be conducted to further explore the clinical outcomes associated with convalescent plasma use in kidney transplant recipients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Kidney Transplantation , Transplant Recipients , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/adverse effects , Immunization, Passive/mortality , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , India , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
14.
Trials ; 22(1): 112, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058265

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infection with possible serious consequences. The plasma of recovered patients might serve as treatment, which we aim to assess in the form of a prospective meta-analysis focusing on mortality, multi-organ failure, duration of intensive care unit stay, and adverse events. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted to find relevant registered randomized controlled trials in five trial registries. A comprehensive search will be done continuously on a monthly basis in MEDLINE (via PubMed), Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and Web of Science to find the results of previously registered randomized controlled trials. The selection will be done by two independent authors. Data extraction will be carried out by two other independent reviewers. Disagreements will be resolved by a third investigator. An update of the search of the registries and the first search of the databases will be done on the 21st of July. Data synthesis will be performed following the recommendations of the Cochrane Collaboration. In the case of dichotomous outcomes (mortality and organ failure), we will calculate pooled risk ratios with a 95% confidence interval (CI) from two-by-two tables (treatment Y/N, outcome Y/N). Data from models with multivariate adjustment (hazard ratios, odds ratio, risk ratio) will be preferred for the analysis. P less than 0.05 will be considered statistically significant. In the case of ICU stay, weighted mean difference with a 95% confidence interval will be calculated. Heterogeneity will be tested with I2, and χ2 tests. Meta-analysis will be performed if at least 3 studies report on the same outcome and population. DISCUSSION: Convalescent plasma therapy is a considerable alternative in COVID-19, which we aim to investigate in a prospective meta-analysis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunization, Passive/mortality , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Prospective Studies , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome
15.
Am J Pathol ; 190(11): 2290-2303, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-877760

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, has spread globally, and proven treatments are limited. Transfusion of convalescent plasma collected from donors who have recovered from COVID-19 is among many approaches being studied as potentially efficacious therapy. We are conducting a prospective, propensity score-matched study assessing the efficacy of COVID-19 convalescent plasma transfusion versus standard of care as treatment for severe and/or critical COVID-19. We present herein the results of an interim analysis of 316 patients enrolled at Houston Methodist hospitals from March 28 to July 6, 2020. Of the 316 transfused patients, 136 met a 28-day outcome and were matched to 251 non-transfused control COVID-19 patients. Matching criteria included age, sex, body mass index, comorbidities, and baseline ventilation requirement 48 hours from admission, and in a second matching analysis, ventilation status at day 0. Variability in the timing of transfusion relative to admission and titer of antibodies of plasma transfused allowed for analysis in specific matched cohorts. The analysis showed a significant reduction (P = 0.047) in mortality within 28 days, specifically in patients transfused within 72 hours of admission with plasma with an anti-spike protein receptor binding domain titer of ≥1:1350. These data suggest that treatment of COVID-19 with high anti-receptor binding domain IgG titer convalescent plasma is efficacious in early-disease patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Plasma/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Component Transfusion/methods , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Plasma/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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