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1.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 05 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224254

ABSTRACT

More than one year into the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, healthcare systems across the world continue to be overwhelmed with soaring daily cases. The treatment spectrum primarily includes ventilation support augmented with repurposed drugs and/or convalescent plasma transfusion (CPT) from recovered COVID-19 patients. Despite vaccine variants being recently developed and administered in several countries, challenges in global supply chain logistics limit their timely availability to the wider world population, particularly in developing countries. Given the measured success of conventional CPT in treating several infections over the past decade, recent studies have reported its effectiveness in decreasing the duration and severity of COVID-19 symptoms. In this review, we conduct a literature search of published studies investigating the use of CPT to treat COVID-19 patients from January 2020 to January 2021. The literature search identified 181 records of which 39 were included in this review. A random-effects model was used to aggregate data across studies, and mortality rates of 17 vs. 32% were estimated for the CPT and control patient groups, respectively, with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.49. The findings indicate that CPT shows potential in reducing the severity and duration of COVID-19 symptoms. However, early intervention (preferably within 3 days), recruitment of donors, and plasma potency introduce major challenges for its scaled-up implementation. Given the low number of existing randomized clinical trials (RCTs, four with a total of 319 patients), unanticipated risks to CPT recipients are highlighted and discussed. Nevertheless, CPT remains a promising COVID-19 therapeutic option that merits internationally coordinated RCTs to achieve a scientific risk-benefit consensus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Blood Component Transfusion , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunization, Passive/trends , Pandemics , Plasma , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Treatment Outcome
2.
Blood Purif ; 51(1): 1-14, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166612

ABSTRACT

Since early 2020, COVID-19 has wreaked havoc in many societies around the world. As of the present, the SARS-CoV-2-borne disease is propagating in almost all countries, affecting hundreds of thousands of people in an unprecedented way. As the name suggests, the novel coronavirus, widely known as SARS-CoV-2, is a new emerging human pathogen. A novel disease of relatively unknown origin, COVID-19 does not seem to be amenable to the currently available medicines since there is no specific cure for the disease. In the absence of any vaccine or effective antiviral medication, we have no tools at our disposal, but the method of quarantine, be it domestic or institutional, to hinder any further progression of this outbreak. However, there is a record of physicians in the past who practiced convalescent blood transfusion. To their awe, the method seemed to be useful. It is anticipated that these contemporary methods will outdo any other vaccination process in the time being, as blood transfusion is instead a cost-effective and time-friendly technique. Following a successful trial, this new approach of contemporary nature to a viral disease may serve as an emergency intervention to intercept infectious outbreaks and prevent an impending epidemic/pandemic. In this review, we document the most recent evidence regarding the efficiency of convalescent plasma and serum therapy on SARS, MERS, and particularly COVID-19, while discussing potential advantages and possible risks of such practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/history , COVID-19/prevention & control , Clinical Trials as Topic , Convalescence , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Forecasting , History, 20th Century , Humans , Immunization, Passive/adverse effects , Immunization, Passive/ethics , Immunization, Passive/history , Immunization, Passive/trends , Influenza, Human/therapy , Plasma , Risk , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Serum , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy
3.
Biosci Trends ; 15(2): 126-128, 2021 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140772

ABSTRACT

Despite strict control measures implemented worldwide, the COVID-19 pandemic continues to rage. Several drugs, including lopinavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, dexamethasone, and remdesivir, have been evaluated for the treatment of COVID-19 during the past year. While most of the drugs failed to display efficacy in treating COVID-19, scientists have encouraged herd immunity to control the pandemic. Immunity generated after natural infection with SARS-CoV-2 is precarious, as indicated by real-world evidence in the form of epidemiological data from Manaus, Brazil. Vaccines using different platforms are therefore the most promising approach to help us return to normality. Although several vaccines have been authorized for emergency use, there are still many concerns regarding their accessibility, the vaccination rate, and most importantly, their efficacy in preventing infection with emerging virus variants. Continued virus surveillance and rapid redesign of new vaccines to counter new variants are crucial to fighting COVID-19. Rapid production and extensive vaccination are also essential to preventing the emergence of new variants. Nevertheless, antivirals including monoclonal antibodies and oral medicines need to be developed in light of uncertainties with regard to vaccination. In the battle between humans and SARS-CoV-2, the speed with which we fight the virus, and especially its emerging variants, is the key to winning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/isolation & purification , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Drug Development/trends , Drug Resistance, Viral , Humans , Immunity, Herd , Immunization, Passive/trends , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
4.
Inflamm Res ; 70(4): 407-428, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1103389

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this review is to explore whether patients with autoimmune diseases (AIDs) were at high risk of infection during the COVID-19 epidemic and how severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic affected immune system. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed using the foreign databases (NCBI, web of science, EBSCO, ELSEVIER ScienceDirect) and Chinese databases (WanFang, CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure), VIP, CBM) to locate all relevant publications (up to January 10, 2021). The search strategies used Medical Search Headings (MeSH) headings and keywords for "COVID-19" or "SARS-CoV-2" or "coronavirus" and "autoimmune disease". RESULTS: This review evaluates the effect of SARS-CoV-2 on the immune system through ACE-2 receptor binding as the main pathway for cell attachment and invasion. It is speculated that SARS-COV-2 infection can activate lymphocytes and inflammatory response, which may play a role in the clinical onset of AIDs and also patients were treated with immunomodulatory drugs during COVID-19 outbreak. Preliminary studies suggested that the risk of developing severe forms of COVID-19 in patients with AIDs treated with immunomodulators or biologics might not increase. A large number of samples are needed for further verification, leading to an excessive immune response to external stimuli. CONCLUSION: The relationship between autoimmune diseases and SARS-CoV-2 infection is complex. During the COVID-19 epidemic, individualized interventions for AIDs should be provided such as Internet-based service.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/complications , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Azetidines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Dendritic Cells/virology , Humans , Immune System , Immunity, Innate , Immunization, Passive/trends , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/virology , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/immunology , Monocytes/virology , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use
5.
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol ; 43(1): 30-36, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-990300

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) and is ominously threatening the survival of humankind on the whole planet. With a quick spread of the outbreak from its origin, Wuhan, China, to almost all over the world, it has affected more than seven million people to date, hence it has devastated every part of the infrastructural skeleton of governance. Continuously escalating disease burden and lack of proven therapeutic approaches are mounting challenges to health scientists and ultimately to healthcare providers. Although recent studies have shown benefits in decreasing the severity and duration of the illness and there are more benefits compared to risks, plasma therapy cannot be considered as a standard of care until the ongoing trials are completed and they establish definite evidence on its therapeutic efficacy and safety. Though a beneficial aspect may be there, acquiring donors and adequate availability of plasma is equally challenging, and its associated untoward effects related to biological therapeutic agents. The rational practice of CP therapy guided by risk-benefit judgment from aspects of donor and recipient can be a therapeutic option in such a global health crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive/adverse effects , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunization, Passive/trends , Pandemics , Treatment Outcome
7.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 16(12): 2963-2972, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-786985

ABSTRACT

Passive immunotherapeutics (PITs), including convalescent plasma, serum, or hyperimmune immunoglobulin, have been of clinical importance during sudden outbreaks since the early twentieth century for the treatment of viral diseases such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS) and swine flu (H1N1). With the recent SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, wherein effective antivirals and vaccines are still lacking, an interest in convalescent plasma therapy as a lifesaving option has resurfaced due to its capacity for antigenic neutralization and reducing viremia. This review summarizes convalescent blood products (CBPs) in terms of current technologies and the shortcomings related to the collection, manufacture, pathogen inactivation, and banking of CBPs, with a specific focus on their plausible applications, benefits, and risks in the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Immunization, Passive/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Passive/trends , Risk Assessment/methods
8.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(6): 222, 2020 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-692128

ABSTRACT

The world is facing lockdown for the first time in decades due to the novel coronavirus COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. This has led to massive global economic disruption, placed additional strain on local and global public health resources and, above all, threatened human health. We conducted a review of peer-reviewed and unpublished data, written in English, reporting on the current COVID-19 pandemic. This data includes previously used strategies against infectious disease, recent clinical trials and FDA-approved diagnostic and treatment strategies. The literature was obtained through a systematic search using PubMed, Web of Sciences, and FDA, NIH and WHO websites. Of the 98 references included in the review, the majority focused on pathogen and host targeting, symptomatic treatment and convalescent plasma utilization. Other sources investigated vaccinations in the pipeline for the possible prevention of COVID-19 infection. The results demonstrate various conventional as well as potentially advanced in vitro diagnostic approaches (IVD) for the diagnosis of COVID-19. Mixed results have been observed so far when utilising these approaches for the treatment of COVID-19 infection. Some treatments have been found highly effective in specific regions of the world while others have not altered the disease process. The responsiveness of currently available options is not conclusive. The novelty of this disease, the rapidity of its global outbreak and the unavailability of vaccines have contributed to the global public's fear. It is concluded that the exploration of a range of diagnostic and treatment strategies for the management of COVID-19 is the need of the hour.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Humans , Immunization, Passive/trends , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/trends , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/trends , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Theranostics ; 10(17): 7821-7835, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-655908

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has recently become a pandemic. As the sudden emergence and rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 is endangering global health and the economy, the development of strategies to contain the virus's spread are urgently needed. At present, various diagnostic kits to test for SARS-CoV-2 are available for use to initiate appropriate treatment faster and to limit further spread of the virus. Several drugs have demonstrated in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2 or potential clinical benefits. In addition, institutions and companies worldwide are working tirelessly to develop treatments and vaccines against COVID-19. However, no drug or vaccine has yet been specifically approved for COVID-19. Given the urgency of the outbreak, we focus here on recent advances in the diagnostics, treatment, and vaccine development for SARS-CoV-2 infection, helping to guide strategies to address the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Viral Vaccines , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/trends , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Drug Development/trends , Humans , Immunization, Passive/trends , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Theranostic Nanomedicine/trends , Viral Vaccines/isolation & purification , Viral Vaccines/pharmacology
10.
Eur J Med Res ; 25(1): 16, 2020 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-270845

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of the corona virus pandemic is an existential problem for many people in numerous countries. So far, there is no effective vaccine protection or proven therapy available against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. In this review, we describe the role of passive immunization in times of the corona virus. Passive immunization could be a bridging technology to improve the immune defense of critically ill patients until better approaches with effective medications are available.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Immunization, Passive , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , COVID-19 , Humans , Immunization, Passive/trends , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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