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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3905, 2022 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740474

ABSTRACT

Temperature sensing is a promising method of enhancing the detection sensitivity of lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) for point-of-care testing. A temperature increase of more than 100 °C can be readily achieved by photoexcitation of reporters like gold nanoparticles (GNPs) or colored latex beads (CLBs) on LFIA strips with a laser power below 100 mW. Despite its promise, processes involved in the photothermal detection have not yet been well-characterized. Here, we provide a fundamental understanding of this thermometric assay using non-fluorescent CLBs as the reporters deposited on nitrocellulose membrane. From a measurement for the dependence of temperature rises on the number density of membrane-bound CLBs, we found a 1.3-fold (and 3.2-fold) enhancement of the light absorption by red (and black) latex beads at 520 nm. The enhancement was attributed to the multiple scattering of light in this highly porous medium, a mechanism that could make a significant impact on the sensitivity improvement of LFIA. The limit of detection was measured to be 1 × 105 particles/mm2. In line with previous studies using GNPs as the reporters, the CLB-based thermometric assay provides a 10× higher sensitivity than color visualization. We demonstrated a practical use of this thermometric immunoassay with rapid antigen tests for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoassay/methods , Microspheres , Humans , Immunoassay/instrumentation , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Thermometry/methods
2.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(8): 10844-10855, 2022 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692677

ABSTRACT

The widespread and long-lasting effect of the COVID-19 pandemic has called attention to the significance of technological advances in the rapid diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 virus. This study reports the use of a highly stable buffer-based zinc oxide/reduced graphene oxide (bbZnO/rGO) nanocomposite coated on carbon screen-printed electrodes for electrochemical immuno-biosensing of SARS-CoV-2 nuelocapsid (N-) protein antigens in spiked and clinical samples. The incorporation of a salt-based (ionic) matrix for uniform dispersion of the nanomixture eliminates multistep nanomaterial synthesis on the surface of the electrode and enables a stable single-step sensor nanocoating. The immuno-biosensor provides a limit of detection of 21 fg/mL over a linear range of 1-10 000 pg/mL and exhibits a sensitivity of 32.07 ohms·mL/pg·mm2 for detection of N-protein in spiked samples. The N-protein biosensor is successful in discriminating positive and negative clinical samples within 15 min, demonstrating its proof of concept used as a COVID-19 rapid antigen test.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/analysis , Graphite/chemistry , Nanocomposites/chemistry , Zinc Oxide/chemistry , Antibodies, Immobilized/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Electrochemical Techniques/instrumentation , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Electrodes , Humans , Immunoassay/instrumentation , Immunoassay/methods , Limit of Detection , Phosphoproteins/analysis , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Proof of Concept Study , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry
3.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 414(8): 2607-2618, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653432

ABSTRACT

The lateral flow assay (LFA) is one of the most popular technologies on the point-of-care diagnostics market due to its low cost and ease of use, with applications ranging from pregnancy to environmental toxins to infectious disease. While the use of these tests is relatively straightforward, significant development time and effort are required to create tests that are both sensitive and specific. Workflows to guide the LFA development process exist but moving from target selection to an LFA that is ready for field testing can be labor intensive, resource heavy, and time consuming. To reduce the cost and the duration of the LFA development process, we introduce a novel development platform centered on the flexibility, speed, and throughput of an automated robotic liquid handling system. The system comprises LFA-specific hardware and software that enable large optimization experiments with discrete and continuous variables such as antibody pair selection or reagent concentration. Initial validation of the platform was demonstrated during development of a malaria LFA but was readily expanded to encompass development of SARS-CoV-2 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis LFAs. The validity of the platform, where optimization experiments are run directly on LFAs rather than in solution, was based on a direct comparison between the robotic system and a more traditional ELISA-like method. By minimizing hands-on time, maximizing experiment size, and enabling improved reproducibility, the robotic system improved the quality and quantity of LFA assay development efforts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoassay/instrumentation , Malaria/diagnosis , Point-of-Care Testing , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , COVID-19 Serological Testing/economics , COVID-19 Serological Testing/instrumentation , Equipment Design , Humans , Immunoassay/economics , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Plasmodium/isolation & purification , Point-of-Care Testing/economics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Time Factors
4.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 20(1): 6, 2022 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608546

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been widely used in local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) immunoassays for biomolecule sensing, which is primarily based on two conventional methods: absorption spectra analysis and colorimetry. The low figure of merit (FoM) of the LSPR and high-concentration AuNP requirement restrict their limit of detection (LOD), which is approximately ng to µg mL-1 in antibody detection if there is no other signal or analyte amplification. Improvements in sensitivity have been slow in recent for a long time, and pushing the boundary of the current LOD is a great challenge of current LSPR immunoassays in biosensing. RESULTS: In this work, we developed spectral image contrast-based flow digital nanoplasmon-metry (Flow DiNM) to push the LOD boundary. Comparing the scattering image brightness of AuNPs in two neighboring wavelength bands near the LSPR peak, the peak shift signal is strongly amplified and quickly detected. Introducing digital analysis, the Flow DiNM provides an ultrahigh signal-to-noise ratio and has a lower sample volume requirement. Compared to the conventional analog LSPR immunoassay, Flow DiNM for anti-BSA detection in pure samples has an LOD as low as 1 pg mL-1 within only a 15-min detection time and 500 µL sample volume. Antibody assays against spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2 in artificial saliva that contained various proteins were also conducted to validate the detection of Flow DiNM in complicated samples. Flow DiNM shows significant discrimination in detection with an LOD of 10 pg mL-1 and a broad dynamic detection range of five orders of magnitude. CONCLUSION: Together with the quick readout time and simple operation, this work clearly demonstrated the high sensitivity and selectivity of the developed Flow DiNM in rapid antibody detection. Spectral image contrast and digital analysis further provide a new generation of LSPR immunoassay with AuNPs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Surface Plasmon Resonance/methods , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/instrumentation , Equipment Design , Gold/chemistry , Humans , Immunoassay/instrumentation , Immunoassay/methods , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Saliva/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Surface Plasmon Resonance/instrumentation
5.
Mikrochim Acta ; 189(1): 14, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556195

ABSTRACT

In the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, simple, rapid, point-of-care tests not requiring trained personnel for primary care testing are essential. Saliva-based antigen rapid tests (ARTs) can fulfil this need, but these tests require overnight-fasted samples; without which independent studies have demonstrated sensitivities of only 11.7 to 23.1%. Herein, we report an Amplified Parallel ART (AP-ART) with sensitivity above 90%, even with non-fasted samples. The virus was captured multimodally, using both anti-spike protein antibodies and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) protein. It also featured two parallel flow channels. The first contained spike protein binding gold nanoparticles which produced a visible red line upon encountering the virus. The second contained signal amplifying nanoparticles that complex with the former and amplify the signal without any linker. Compared to existing dual gold amplification techniques, a limit of detection of one order of magnitude lower was achieved (0.0064 ng·mL-1). AP-ART performance in detecting SARS-CoV-2 in saliva of COVID-19 patients was investigated using a case-control study (139 participants enrolled and 162 saliva samples tested). Unlike commercially available ARTs, the sensitivity of AP-ART was maintained even when non-fasting saliva was used. Compared to the gold standard reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction testing on nasopharyngeal samples, non-fasting saliva tested on AP-ART showed a sensitivity of 97.0% (95% CI: 84.7-99.8); without amplification, the sensitivity was 72.7% (95% CI: 83.7-94.8). Thus, AP-ART has the potential to be developed for point-of-care testing, which may be particularly important in resource-limited settings, and for early diagnosis to initiate newly approved therapies to reduce COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
Antigens/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Point-of-Care Testing , Saliva/virology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Gold/chemistry , Immunoassay/instrumentation , Immunoassay/methods , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Sensitivity and Specificity
6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(47): 19794-19801, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521695

ABSTRACT

Effective screening of infectious diseases requires a fast, cheap, and population-scale testing. Antigen pool testing can increase the test rate and shorten the screening time, thus being a valuable approach for epidemic prevention and control. However, the overall percent agreement (OPA) with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is one-half to three-quarters, hampering it from being a comprehensive method, especially pool testing, beyond the gold-standard PCR. Here, a multiantibodies transistor assay is developed for sensitive and highly precise antigen pool testing. The multiantibodies capture SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 proteins with different configurations, resulting in an antigen-binding affinity down to 0.34 fM. The limit of detection reaches 3.5 × 10-17 g mL-1SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 protein in artificial saliva, 4-5 orders of magnitude lower than existing transistor sensors. The testing of 60 nasopharyngeal swabs exhibits ∼100% OPA with PCR within an average diagnoses time of 38.9 s. Owing to its highly precise feature, a portable integrated platform is fabricated, which achieves 10-in-1 pooled screening for high testing throughput. This work solves the long-standing problem of antigen pool testing, enabling it to be a valuable tool in precise diagnoses and population-wide screening of COVID-19 or other epidemics in the future.


Subject(s)
Antibodies/immunology , Immunoassay/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Transistors, Electronic , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Immunoassay/instrumentation , Limit of Detection , Nasopharynx/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Protein Subunits/genetics , Protein Subunits/immunology , Protein Subunits/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Saliva/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
7.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 35(12): e24091, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499275

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly infectious and concealed virus that causes pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, and even death. Although the epidemic has been controlled since the development of vaccines and quarantine measures, many people are still infected, particularly in third-world countries. Several methods have been developed for detection of SARS-CoV-2, but owing to its price and efficiency, the immune strip could be a better method for the third-world countries. METHODS: In this study, two antibodies were linked to latex microspheres, using 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide, as the bridge to decrease the cost further and improve the detection performance. The specificity of the lateral flow immunoassay strip (LFIA) was tested by several common viruses and respiratory bacterial infections. Besides, the reproducibility and stability of the LFIAs were tested on the same batch of test strips. Under optimal conditions, the sensitivity of LFIA was determined by testing different dilutions of the positive specimens. RESULTS: The proposed LFIAs were highly specific, and the limit of detection was as low as 25 ng/mL for SARS-CoV-2 antigens. The clinical applicability was evaluated with 659 samples (230 positive and 429 negative samples) by using both LFIA and rRT-PCR. Youden's index (J) was used to assess the performance of these diagnostic tests. The sensitivity and specificity were 98.22% and 97.93%, respectively, and J is 0.9615. The sensitivity and specificity were 98.22% and 97.93%, respectively, and J is 0.9615. In addition, the consistency of our proposed LFIA was analyzed using Cohen's kappa coefficient (κ = 0.9620). CONCLUSION: We found disease stage, age, gender, and clinical manifestations have only a slight influence on the diagnosis. Therefore, the lateral flow immunoassay SARS-CoV-2 antigen test strip is suitable for point-of-care detection and provides a great application for SARS-CoV-2 epidemic control in the third-world countries.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Immunoassay/methods , COVID-19 Serological Testing/instrumentation , Carbodiimides/chemistry , Humans , Immunoassay/instrumentation , Latex/chemistry , Methylamines/chemistry , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Microspheres , Point-of-Care Systems , Reproducibility of Results , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Succinimides/chemistry
8.
Monoclon Antib Immunodiagn Immunother ; 40(5): 210-218, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483363

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), exhibits a strong human-to-human transmission infectivity and could cause acute respiratory infections. Therefore, simple and rapid serological testing is urgently needed to recognize positive cases. In this study, a point-of-care serological test based on lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) was developed and its application for the simultaneous detection of IgM/IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 was evaluated. The recombinant SARS-CoV-2 antigens were conjugated to the produced colloidal gold nanoparticles and used as the detection reagent. This test required only 10-15 minutes to achieve simultaneous qualitative detection of IgM/IgG antibodies specific to SARS-CoV-2 in 20 µL of serum or plasma samples. The clinical performance and reliability of the assay were evaluated by performing the test with 60 samples and comparing the results of these tests with those obtained via real-time polymerase chain reaction. The sensitivity and specificity of our assay were defined to be 90% and 96.6%, respectively. The presented LFIA was sufficiently sensitive and accurate to be used for the rapid diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 in laboratories or in patient care settings, particularly in emergency conditions, in which many samples require to be evaluated on time.


Subject(s)
Immunoassay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Colloids/chemistry , Cross Reactions , Gold , Humans , Immunoassay/instrumentation , Reagent Strips , Sensitivity and Specificity
10.
J Immunol Methods ; 496: 113096, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349521

ABSTRACT

Serology or antibody tests for COVID-19 are designed to detect antibodies (mainly Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and Immunoglobulin G (IgG) produced in response to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2) infection. In this study, 30 lateral flow immunoassays were tested using serum or plasma from patients with confirmed SARS CoV-2 infection. Negative serological controls were accessed from a well-characterised bank of sera which were stored prior to February 2020. Operational characteristics and ease of use of the assays are reported. 4/30 (13%) of kits (Zheihang Orient Gene COVID-19 IgG/IgM, Genrui Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) IgG/IgM, Biosynex COVID-19 BSS IgG/IgM, Boson Biotech 2019-nCoV IgG/IgM) were recommended for SAHPRA approval based on kit sensitivity. Of these, only the Orientgene was recommended by SAHPRA in August 2020 for use within the approved national testing algorithm while the remaining three received limited authorization for evaluation. All kits evaluated work on the same basic principle of immunochromatography with minor differences noted in the shape and colour of cartridges, the amount of specimen volume required and the test duration. Performance of the lateral flow tests were similar to sensitivities and specificities reported in other studies. The cassettes of the majority of kits evaluated (90%) detected both IgG and IgM. Only 23% of kits evaluated contained all consumables required for point-of-care testing. The study highlights the need for thorough investigation of kits prior to implementation.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19 Serological Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoassay/instrumentation , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic/statistics & numerical data , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunoassay/statistics & numerical data , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/isolation & purification , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/isolation & purification , Point-of-Care Testing/statistics & numerical data , RNA, Viral/blood , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity
11.
Scand J Clin Lab Invest ; 80(7): 541-545, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-896893

ABSTRACT

To determine the analytical performance of Novel VITROS BRAHMS Procalcitonin Immunoassay on VITROS 3600 and correlation with BRAHMS PCT sensitive KRYPTOR reference method. Analytical performances including imprecision studies, linearity, limit of detection (LoD) and determination of hemolysis index were performed for VITROS BRAHMS PCT assay. Imprecision was assessed on plasma pool and internal control with 2 levels. The method comparison was performed using 162 plasma obtained from clinical departments. The total imprecision was acceptable and all CV were <5%. The LoD was in accordance with manufacturer's claims. The equation of linearity in the lower range was found to be y = 1.0014x - 0.0091, with r2 = 1. No interference to hemoglobin up to 11 g/L was observed. Correlation studies showed a good correlation between PCT measurements using VITROS BRAHMS PCT assay against KRYPTOR system including for values lower than 2 µg/L. The novel VITROS BRAHMS PCT assay from OrthoClinical Diagnostics shows analytical performances acceptable for clinical use. In addition, the concordance with KRYPTOR method was fine at all clinical cut-offs.


Subject(s)
Immunoassay/methods , Procalcitonin/blood , Humans , Immunoassay/instrumentation , Limit of Detection , Regression Analysis
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14926, 2021 07 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320240

ABSTRACT

Infection with SARS-CoV-2, the Betacoronavirus, caused a pandemic that affected the globe negatively. The gold method, RT-PCR, can detect SARS-CoV-2 but it is time-consuming and needs sophisticated equipment and professional personnel. On the other hand, rapid tests offer fast results and can detect anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (Abs). The aim of this study is to develop a new rapid and cost-effective method for the detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM Abs. A new top-loading detection device was developed and composed of a small piece of plastic (25 × 25 × 0.5 mm) with an opening in the center, a piece of nitrocellulose (NC) membrane enough to block the opening from one side and adhesive tape to affix the NC to the plastic piece. The NC is blotted with anti-human IgG/IgM and rabbit serum. The device was evaluated against a commercially available IgG/IgM ELISA detection kit using normal, Covid-19-positive, HCV, HBV, and Cytomegalovirus-positive sera. Outcomes demonstrated simplicity, reproducibility, and accuracy of the new device and results can be obtained in less than 5 min. We anticipate our developed assay method to be used widely in point of care before deciding on the use of expensive nucleic acid assays.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoassay/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunoassay/instrumentation , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Point-of-Care Testing , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity
13.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(2): 378-386, 2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285448

ABSTRACT

Antibody tests can be tools for detecting current or past severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 [coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)]) infections. Independent test evaluations are needed to document the performance with different sample sets. We evaluated six lateral flow assays (LFAs) and two laboratory-based tests (EUROIMMUN-SARS-CoV-2 ELISA and Abbott-Architect-SARS-CoV-2-IgG). We tested 210 plasma samples from 89 patients diagnosed with acute COVID-19. These samples were collected at different time points after the onset of symptoms. In addition, 80 convalescent plasma samples, and 168 pre-pandemic samples collected from adults in the United States and in Africa were tested. LFA performance varied widely, and some tests with high sensitivity had low specificity. LFA sensitivities were low (18.8-40.6%) for samples collected 0 to 3 days after symptom onset, and were greater (80.3-96.4%) for samples collected > 14 days after symptom onset. These results are similar to those obtained by ELISA (15.6% and 89.1%) and chemiluminescent microparticle assay (21.4% and 93.1%). The range of test specificity was between 82.7% and 97%. The combined use of two LFAs can increase specificity to more than 99% without a major loss of sensitivity. Because of suboptimal sensitivity with early COVID-19 samples and background reactivity with some pre-pandemic samples, none of the evaluated tests alone is reliable enough for definitive diagnosis of COVID-19 infection. However, antibody testing may be useful for assessing the status of the epidemic or vaccination campaign. Some of the LFAs had sensitivities and specificities that were comparable to those of more expensive laboratory tests, and these may be useful for seroprevalence surveys in resource-limited settings.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/standards , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoassay/standards , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic/standards , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Africa , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Humans , Immunoassay/instrumentation , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(22): 25694-25700, 2021 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246315

ABSTRACT

Containing the global severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has been an unprecedented challenge due to high horizontal transmissivity and asymptomatic carriage rates. Lateral flow device (LFD) immunoassays were introduced in late 2020 to detect SARS-CoV-2 infection in asymptomatic or presymptomatic individuals rapidly. While LFD technologies have been used for over 60 years, their widespread use as a public health tool during a pandemic is unprecedented. By the end of 2020, data from studies into the efficacy of the LFDs emerged and showed these point-of-care devices to have very high specificity (ability to identify true negatives) but inadequate sensitivity with high false-negative rates. The low sensitivity (<50%) shown in several studies is a critical public health concern, as asymptomatic or presymptomatic carriers may wrongly be assumed to be noninfectious, posing a significant risk of further spread in the community. Here, we show that the direct visual readout of SARS-CoV-2 LFDs is an inadequate approach to discriminate a potentially infective viral concentration in a biosample. We quantified significant immobilized antigen-antibody-labeled conjugate complexes within the LFDs visually scored as negative using high-sensitivity synchrotron X-ray fluorescence imaging. Correlating quantitative X-ray fluorescence measurements and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) determined numbers of viral copies, we identified that negatively scored samples could contain up to 100 PFU (equivalent here to ∼10 000 RNA copies/test). The study demonstrates where the shortcomings arise in many of the current direct-readout SARS-CoV-2 LFDs, namely, being a deficiency in the readout as opposed to the potential level of detection of the test, which is orders of magnitude higher. The present findings are of importance both to public health monitoring during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and to the rapid refinement of these tools for immediate and future applications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Immunoassay/instrumentation , SARS Virus/isolation & purification , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reference Standards , SARS Virus/ultrastructure , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Vero Cells
15.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 413(22): 5619-5632, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226211

ABSTRACT

In the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, the need for rapid serological tests that allow multiplexing emerged, as antibody seropositivity can instruct about individual immunity after an infection with SARS-CoV-2 or after vaccination. As many commercial antibody tests are either time-consuming or tend to produce false negative or false positive results when only one antigen is considered, we developed an automated, flow-based chemiluminescence microarray immunoassay (CL-MIA) that allows for the detection of IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD), spike protein (S1 fragment), and nucleocapsid protein (N) in human serum and plasma in less than 8 min. The CoVRapid CL-MIA was tested with a set of 65 SARS-CoV-2 serology positive or negative samples, resulting in 100% diagnostic specificity and 100% diagnostic sensitivity, thus even outcompeting commercial tests run on the same sample set. Additionally, the prospect of future quantitative assessments (i.e., quantifying the level of antibodies) was demonstrated. Due to the fully automated process, the test can easily be operated in hospitals, medical practices, or vaccination centers, offering a valuable tool for COVID-19 serosurveillance. Graphical abstract.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antigens, Viral/chemistry , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Automation, Laboratory , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Humans , Immobilized Proteins/chemistry , Immobilized Proteins/immunology , Immune Sera , Immunoassay/instrumentation , Lab-On-A-Chip Devices , Luminescent Measurements , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Time Factors
16.
Front Immunol ; 12: 635677, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156121

ABSTRACT

The outbreak and worldwide pandemic of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have a significant impact on global economy and human health. In order to reduce the disease spread, 16 monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) again SARS-CoV-2 were generated by immunized mice with the spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD), which was expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cell (CHO). A colloidal gold-based immunochromatographic strip was developed with two McAbs to detect SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, which can play a potential role in monitoring vaccine quality. The strip is highly specific, detecting only SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, and does not show any non-specific reactions with syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and other coronavirus and influenza viruses. The strip detected subunit vaccine in our laboratory with a detection limit of spike protein of 62.5 ng/mL. This strip provides an effective method in monitoring vaccine quality by detecting the antigen content of spike protein.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19/diagnosis , Gold Colloid , Immunoassay/instrumentation , Reagent Strips , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibody Specificity , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Limit of Detection , Predictive Value of Tests , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
17.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122038

ABSTRACT

The diagnosis of respiratory viruses of zoonotic origin (RVsZO) such as influenza and coronaviruses in humans is crucial, because their spread and pandemic threat are the highest. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an analytical technique with promising impact for the point-of-care diagnosis of viruses. It has been applied to a variety of influenza A virus subtypes, such as the H1N1 and the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. In this work, a review of the strategies used for the detection of RVsZO by SERS is presented. In addition, relevant information about the SERS technique, anthropozoonosis, and RVsZO is provided for a better understanding of the theme. The direct identification is based on trapping the viruses within the interstices of plasmonic nanoparticles and recording the SERS signal from gene fragments or membrane proteins. Quantitative mono- and multiplexed assays have been achieved following an indirect format through a SERS-based sandwich immunoassay. Based on this review, the development of multiplex assays that incorporate the detection of RVsZO together with their specific biomarkers and/or secondary disease biomarkers resulting from the infection progress would be desirable. These configurations could be used as a double confirmation or to evaluate the health condition of the patient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoassay/methods , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spectrum Analysis, Raman/methods , COVID-19 Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Equipment Design , Humans , Immunoassay/instrumentation , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/isolation & purification , Spectrum Analysis, Raman/instrumentation
18.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 4(2): 1307-1318, 2021 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069089

ABSTRACT

Recent evidence suggests that proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), play a pivotal role in the development of inflammatory-related pathologies (covid-19, depressive disorders, sepsis, cancer, etc.,). More importantly, the development of TNF-α biosensors applied to biological fluids (e.g. sweat) could offer non-invasive solutions for the continuous monitoring of these disorders, in particular, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based biosensors. We have therefore investigated the biofunctionalization of PDMS surfaces using a silanization reaction with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, for the development of a human TNF-α biosensor. The silanization conditions for 50 µm PDMS surfaces were extensively studied by using water contact angle measurements, electron dispersive X-ray and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies, and fluorescamine detection. Evaluation of the wettability of the silanized surfaces and the Si/C ratio pointed out to the optimal silanization conditions supporting the formation of a stable and reproducible aminosilane layer, necessary for further bioconjugation. An ELISA-type immunoassay was then successfully performed for the detection and quantification of human TNF-α through fluorescent microscopy, reaching a limit of detection of 0.55 µg/mL (31.6 nM). Finally, this study reports for the first time a promising method for the development of PDMS-based biosensors for the detection of TNF-α, using a quick, stable, and simple biofunctionalization process.


Subject(s)
Dimethylpolysiloxanes/chemistry , Immunoassay/methods , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Antibodies, Immobilized/chemistry , Antibodies, Immobilized/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Carbon/chemistry , Humans , Immunoassay/instrumentation , Limit of Detection , Microfluidics , Microscopy, Fluorescence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Silicon/chemistry , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology , Wettability
19.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1147: 30-37, 2021 Feb 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1012278

ABSTRACT

Simple, low-cost, and sensitive new platforms for electrochemical immunosensors for virus detection have been attracted attention due to the recent pandemic caused by a new type of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). In the present work, we report for the first time the construction of an immunosensor using a commercial 3D conductive filament of carbon black and polylactic acid (PLA) to detect Hantavirus Araucaria nucleoprotein (Np) as a proof-of-concept. The recognition biomolecule was anchored directly at the filament surface by using N-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride and N-Hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS). Conductive and non-conductive composites of PLA were characterized using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), revealing around 30% w/w of carbon in the filament. Morphological features of composites were obtained from SEM and TEM measurements. FTIR measurement revealed that crosslinking agents were covalently bonded at the filament surface. Electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used for the evaluation of each step involved in the construction of the proposed immunosensor. The results showed the potentiality of the device for the quantitative detection of Hantavirus Araucaria nucleoprotein (Np) from 30 µg mL-1 to 240 µg mL-1 with a limit of detection of 22 µg mL-1. Also, the proposed immunosensor was applied with success for virus detection in 100x diluted human serum samples. Therefore, the PLA conductive filament with carbon black is a simple and excellent platform for immunosensing, which offers naturally carboxylic groups able to anchor covalently biomolecules.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Immunoassay/methods , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Antibodies, Immobilized/chemistry , Antibodies, Immobilized/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Dielectric Spectroscopy , Electrodes , Hantavirus/isolation & purification , Hantavirus/metabolism , Hantavirus Infections/diagnosis , Hantavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Immunoassay/instrumentation , Limit of Detection , Nucleocapsid Proteins/blood , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Soot/chemistry
20.
Anal Chem ; 93(3): 1826-1833, 2021 01 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-997756

ABSTRACT

Collection of nasopharyngeal samples using swabs followed by the transfer of the virus into a solution and an RNA extraction step to perform reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the primary method currently used for the diagnosis of COVID-19. However, the need for several reagents and steps and the high cost of PCR hinder its worldwide implementation to contain the outbreak. Here, we report a cotton-tipped electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus antigen. Unlike the reported approaches, we integrated the sample collection and detection tools into a single platform by coating screen-printed electrodes with absorbing cotton padding. The immunosensor was fabricated by immobilizing the virus nucleocapsid (N) protein on carbon nanofiber-modified screen-printed electrodes which were functionalized by diazonium electrografting. The detection of the virus antigen was achieved via swabbing followed by competitive assay using a fixed amount of N protein antibody in the solution. A square wave voltammetric technique was used for the detection. The limit of detection for our electrochemical biosensor was 0.8 pg/mL for SARS-CoV-2, indicating very good sensitivity for the sensor. The biosensor did not show significant cross-reactivity with other virus antigens such as influenza A and HCoV, indicating high selectivity of the method. Moreover, the biosensor was successfully applied for the detection of the virus antigen in spiked nasal samples showing excellent recovery percentages. Thus, our electrochemical immunosensor is a promising diagnostic tool for the direct rapid detection of the COVID-19 virus that requires no sample transfer or pretreatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Cotton Fiber , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Immunoassay/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Carbon/chemistry , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Electrochemical Techniques/instrumentation , Electrodes , Gossypium/chemistry , Humans , Immobilized Proteins/chemistry , Immobilized Proteins/immunology , Immunoassay/instrumentation , Limit of Detection , Nanofibers/chemistry , Phosphoproteins/chemistry , Phosphoproteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
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