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1.
BMJ ; 376: e068632, 2022 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923185

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of covid-19 vaccines between immunocompromised and immunocompetent people. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Embase, Central Register of Controlled Trials, COVID-19 Open Research Dataset Challenge (CORD-19), and WHO covid-19 databases for studies published between 1 December 2020 and 5 November 2021. ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched in November 2021 to identify registered but as yet unpublished or ongoing studies. STUDY SELECTION: Prospective observational studies comparing the efficacy of covid-19 vaccination in immunocompromised and immunocompetent participants. METHODS: A frequentist random effects meta-analysis was used to separately pool relative and absolute risks of seroconversion after the first and second doses of a covid-19 vaccine. Systematic review without meta-analysis of SARS-CoV-2 antibody titre levels was performed after first, second, and third vaccine doses and the seroconversion rate after a third dose. Risk of bias and certainty of evidence were assessed. RESULTS: 82 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Of these studies, 77 (94%) used mRNA vaccines, 16 (20%) viral vector vaccines, and 4 (5%) inactivated whole virus vaccines. 63 studies were assessed to be at low risk of bias and 19 at moderate risk of bias. After one vaccine dose, seroconversion was about half as likely in patients with haematological cancers (risk ratio 0.40, 95% confidence interval 0.32 to 0.50, I2=80%; absolute risk 0.29, 95% confidence interval 0.20 to 0.40, I2=89%), immune mediated inflammatory disorders (0.53, 0.39 to 0.71, I2=89%; 0.29, 0.11 to 0.58, I2=97%), and solid cancers (0.55, 0.46 to 0.65, I2=78%; 0.44, 0.36 to 0.53, I2=84%) compared with immunocompetent controls, whereas organ transplant recipients were 16 times less likely to seroconvert (0.06, 0.04 to 0.09, I2=0%; 0.06, 0.04 to 0.08, I2=0%). After a second dose, seroconversion remained least likely in transplant recipients (0.39, 0.32 to 0.46, I2=92%; 0.35, 0.26 to 0.46), with only a third achieving seroconversion. Seroconversion was increasingly likely in patients with haematological cancers (0.63, 0.57 to 0.69, I2=88%; 0.62, 0.54 to 0.70, I2=90%), immune mediated inflammatory disorders (0.75, 0.69 to 0.82, I2=92%; 0.77, 0.66 to 0.85, I2=93%), and solid cancers (0.90, 0.88 to 0.93, I2=51%; 0.89, 0.86 to 0.91, I2=49%). Seroconversion was similar between people with HIV and immunocompetent controls (1.00, 0.98 to 1.01, I2=0%; 0.97, 0.83 to 1.00, I2=89%). Systematic review of 11 studies showed that a third dose of a covid-19 mRNA vaccine was associated with seroconversion among vaccine non-responders with solid cancers, haematological cancers, and immune mediated inflammatory disorders, although response was variable in transplant recipients and inadequately studied in people with HIV and those receiving non-mRNA vaccines. CONCLUSION: Seroconversion rates after covid-19 vaccination were significantly lower in immunocompromised patients, especially organ transplant recipients. A second dose was associated with consistently improved seroconversion across all patient groups, albeit at a lower magnitude for organ transplant recipients. Targeted interventions for immunocompromised patients, including a third (booster) dose, should be performed. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42021272088.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunocompetence , Seroconversion/drug effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Altern Complement Med ; 26(6): 444-448, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637539

ABSTRACT

Editor's Note: For those whose response to COVID-19 includes exploring beyond vaccines, conventional pharmaceuticals, and the watchful or healthy waiting until such tools might arrive, interest in cannabinoids has been high - and controversial. It has already stimulated one journal, the Liebert Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, to issue a call for papers on COVID-19. The unique place of cannabis in the culture seems to always mark the herb with an exponential asterisk whenever basketed with the other natural health strategies that are both widely used, and as broadly derided. In this invited commentary, JACM Editorial Board member Michelle Sexton, ND starts by describing the multiple immune modulating effects associated with the herb. The University of California San Diego Assistant Adjunct Professor in Anesthesiology then asks: "Given these effects, can phytocannabinoids be either helpful, or harmful for immune competency, in the context of the current COVID-19 pandemic?" A skilled edge-walker, Sexton lets the research fall where it may in wending a path through this evidentiary maze. -John Weeks, Editor-in-Chief, JACM.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Cannabinoids/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus/drug effects , Immunocompetence/drug effects , Medical Marijuana/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Immunol ; 208(3): 562-570, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625582

ABSTRACT

Aging is associated with functional deficits in the naive T cell compartment, which compromise the generation of de novo immune responses against previously unencountered Ags. The mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon have nonetheless remained unclear. We found that naive CD8+ T cells in elderly humans were prone to apoptosis and proliferated suboptimally in response to stimulation via the TCR. These abnormalities were associated with dysregulated lipid metabolism under homeostatic conditions and enhanced levels of basal activation. Importantly, reversal of the bioenergetic anomalies with lipid-altering drugs, such as rosiglitazone, almost completely restored the Ag responsiveness of naive CD8+ T cells. Interventions that favor lipid catabolism may therefore find utility as adjunctive therapies in the elderly to promote vaccine-induced immunity against targetable cancers and emerging pathogens, such as seasonal influenza viruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).


Subject(s)
Aging/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Immunocompetence/drug effects , Lipid Metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Apoptosis , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Cancer Vaccines/immunology , Cell Division , Female , Fenofibrate/pharmacology , Glucose/metabolism , HLA-A2 Antigen/immunology , Humans , Hypolipidemic Agents/pharmacology , Hypolipidemic Agents/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/immunology , Lipid Metabolism/drug effects , Lymphocyte Activation , MART-1 Antigen/chemistry , MART-1 Antigen/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/immunology , Peptide Fragments/immunology , Rosiglitazone/pharmacology , Single-Blind Method , Vaccination , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Young Adult
4.
Lancet Glob Health ; 10(2): e288-e292, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586171

ABSTRACT

Measles virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are two important global health pathogens causing substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. The current measles vaccination schedule has the first dose given at 9-12 months of age and the second dose given at 15-18 months of age. Measles outbreaks have been associated with an increase in severe RSV infections in children younger than 6 months, probably as a result of measles-induced immunosuppression. A resurgence in measles cases was already occurring before the COVID-19 pandemic, which has affected global immunisation programmes, resulting in millions of children, mostly in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), missing out on their measles vaccine. This will leave many children living in the most vulnerable of circumstances highly susceptible to measles and RSV infections when current COVID-19 public health control measures are lifted. This Viewpoint discusses these issues and highlights the need for urgent action to address this looming crisis. The use of early measles vaccination at 4 months of age could be an effective strategy to prevent severe morbidity and death from both measles and RSV infections in many LMICs.


Subject(s)
Measles Vaccine/administration & dosage , Measles/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Developing Countries , Global Health , Humans , Immunocompetence/immunology , Measles/complications , Pandemics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 52(2): e13713, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541727

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 and some anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines trigger a humoral autoimmune response against a broad range of endogenous components, which may affect recipients' prognosis in predisposed individuals. Autoantibodies directed against apolipoprotein A-1 (AAA1 IgG) the major protein fraction of High Density Lipoprotein have been shown to be raised in COVID-19 and in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and other populations where they have been associated with poorer outcomes. We wanted to assess the impact of anti-SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-based vaccination on AAA1 autoimmune biomarkers in RA patients. METHODS: 20 healthy controls and 77 RA mRNA-based vaccinated patients were collected at baseline, 3 weeks after the first vaccination, 2 and 8 weeks after the second vaccination. AAA1 and SARS-CoV-2 serologies were measured by immunoassays. Systemic and local symptoms occurring during the vaccination protocol were recorded. RESULTS: mRNA-based vaccination induced a significant increase in median AAA1 IgG levels in both healthy controls and RA patients overtime. However, in both populations, these medians trend did not translate into significant increase in AAA1 IgG seropositivity rates despite evolving from 5 to 10% in healthy controls, and from 9 to 12.9% in RA patients. No associations were retrieved between AAA1 IgG and symptoms of any kind during the vaccination protocol. CONCLUSIONS: mRNA-based vaccination seems to induce a light AAA1 IgG response in immunocompetent individuals within 2 months after the last injection. Although we did not observe any warning signs, the formal demonstration of the harmlessness of such biological warrants further studies.


Subject(s)
Apolipoprotein A-I/immunology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , mRNA Vaccines/adverse effects , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , BNT162 Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Immunocompetence , Immunoglobulin G , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , mRNA Vaccines/therapeutic use
6.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(12): 2966-2979, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504520

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) anti-spike (S) IgG antibody production after vaccination with BNT162b2 and the protection from symptomatic breakthrough infections in health care workers. METHODS: This prospective observational study (RENAISSANCE) had as a primary end point the evaluation of serologic response to BNT162b2 14 days after a second dose. SARS-CoV-2 anti-S IgG antibodies were evaluated with LIAISON SARS-CoV-2 TrimericS IgG assay (DiaSorin S.p.A.), which is able to detect the presence of both binding and neutralizing antibodies for trimeric spike glycoprotein. Participants were recruited from February 1, 2021, to February 22, 2021. Occurrence of vaccine breakthrough infections was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction on symptomatic and contact cases up to June 6, 2021. RESULTS: Of 2569 staff evaluated, only 4 were nonresponders (0.16%; 95% CI, 0.04% to 0.41%). All 4 nonresponders were severely immunosuppressed and receiving treatment with mycophenolate mofetil or mycophenolic acid. At 14 days after the second dose, 67.5% (1733) of staff had anti-S IgG titers of 2000 BAU/mL or higher; 19.2% (494), between 1500 and 2000 BAU/mL; 9.8% (251), between 1000 and 1500 BAU/mL; and 3.4% (87), 1000 BAU/mL or lower. Women had a higher probability of having higher titers than men (64.5% [1044/1618] vs 58.3% [410/703]; P=.005). This was confirmed after adjustment for age group (odds ratio, 1.275; 95% CI, 1.062 to 1.531; P=.009). Four months after the end of the vaccination program, only 13 participants (0.26%) had experienced a breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection, including 1 nonresponder. This was the only participant requiring hospitalization for severe COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The vaccination campaign among health care workers at the ASST GOM Niguarda has resulted in a marked serologic response and reduction of incident COVID-19 cases. Yet, the lack of protection should not be overlooked in immunocompromised individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19 , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Immunity, Active/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , /immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunocompetence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sex Factors
7.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 148(5): 1176-1191, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401557

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The risk of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) varies significantly among persons of similar age and is higher in males. Age-independent, sex-biased differences in susceptibility to severe COVID-19 may be ascribable to deficits in a sexually dimorphic protective attribute that we termed immunologic resilience (IR). OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine whether deficits in IR that antedate or are induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection independently predict COVID-19 mortality. METHODS: IR levels were quantified with 2 novel metrics: immune health grades (IHG-I [best] to IHG-IV) to gauge CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell count equilibrium, and blood gene expression signatures. IR metrics were examined in a prospective COVID-19 cohort (n = 522); primary outcome was 30-day mortality. Associations of IR metrics with outcomes in non-COVID-19 cohorts (n = 13,461) provided the framework for linking pre-COVID-19 IR status to IR during COVID-19, as well as to COVID-19 outcomes. RESULTS: IHG-I, tracking high-grade equilibrium between CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell counts, was the most common grade (73%) among healthy adults, particularly in females. SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with underrepresentation of IHG-I (21%) versus overrepresentation (77%) of IHG-II or IHG-IV, especially in males versus females (P < .01). Presentation with IHG-I was associated with 88% lower mortality, after controlling for age and sex; reduced risk of hospitalization and respiratory failure; lower plasma IL-6 levels; rapid clearance of nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 burden; and gene expression signatures correlating with survival that signify immunocompetence and controlled inflammation. In non-COVID-19 cohorts, IR-preserving metrics were associated with resistance to progressive influenza or HIV infection, as well as lower 9-year mortality in the Framingham Heart Study, especially in females. CONCLUSIONS: Preservation of immunocompetence with controlled inflammation during antigenic challenges is a hallmark of IR and associates with longevity and AIDS resistance. Independent of age, a male-biased proclivity to degrade IR before and/or during SARS-CoV-2 infection predisposes to severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV-1/physiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sex Factors , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Disease Resistance , Female , Humans , Immunocompetence , Interleukin-6/blood , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Transcriptome/immunology , United States/epidemiology , Viral Load
9.
Dig Liver Dis ; 53(12): 1539-1545, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260397

ABSTRACT

Treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) frequently requires administration of immunosuppressive therapies, which increases susceptibility to a number of infectious pathogens. However, many infections can be prevented by correct and appropriate utilization of vaccinations. While several guidelines have been published on vaccination schedules in patients with IBD, vaccination rates remain suboptimal and even lower than those in the general population. This is due to many factors including poor awareness of the importance of vaccines by gastroenterologists and general practitioners as well as potential prejudices of patients regarding the safety and benefits of vaccines. With the aim of increasing awareness about the key role of immunization in the management of patients with IBD, the present review examines the existing literature relating to the main vaccinations and their application in these patients. We also summarize current evidence in order to provide clinicians with an easy source of reference for the principal recommendations for prevention of infectious diseases in patients with IBD. In addition, the recommendations about traveling for IBD patients are briefly explored. Lastly, since it is important for gastroenterologists to be aware of recommendations on vaccination, we recommend implementing educational programs to ensure compliance with current guidelines.


Subject(s)
Colitis, Ulcerative/immunology , Crohn Disease/immunology , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Vaccination/standards , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Gastroenterology/standards , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Immunocompetence , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage
10.
Front Immunol ; 12: 594356, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305639

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus-19 disease (COVID-19) pandemic reminds us of the importance of immune function, even in immunologically normal individuals. Multiple lifestyle factors are known to influence the immune function. Objective: The aim was to investigate the association between NK cell activity (NKA) and multiple factors including vitamin D, physical exercise, age, and gender. Methods: This was a cross-sectional association study using health check-up and NKA data of 2,095 subjects collected from 2016 to 2018 in a health check-up center in the Republic of Korea. NKA was measured using the interferon-γ (IFN-γ) stimulation method. The association of NKA with 25-(OH)-vitamin D (25(OH)D) and other factors was investigated by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: The average age of subjects was 48.8 ± 11.6 years (52.9% of subjects were female). Among 2,095 subjects, 1,427 had normal NKA (NKA ≥ 500 pg IFN-γ/mL), while 506 had low NKA (100 ≤ NKA < 500 pg/mL), and 162 subjects had very low NKA (NKA < 100 pg/mL). Compared to men with low 25(OH)D serum level (< 20 ng/mL), vitamin D replete men (30-39.9 ng/mL) had significantly lower risk of very low NKA (OR: 0.358; 95% CI: 0.138, 0.929; P = 0.035). In women, both low exercise (OR: 0.529; 95% CI: 0.299, 0.939; P = 0.030) and medium to high exercise (OR: 0.522; 95% CI: 0.277, 0.981; P = 0.043) decreased the risk compared to lack of physical exercise. Interestingly, in men and women older than 60 years, physical exercise significantly decreased the risk. Older-age was associated with increased risk of very low NKA in men, but not in women. Conclusion: Physical exercise and vitamin D were associated with NKA in a gender- and age-dependent manner. Age was a major risk factor of very low NKA in men but not in women.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , COVID-19/immunology , Exercise , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sex Factors , Vitamin D/blood , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cells, Cultured , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Status , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Immunocompetence , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
11.
Rev Med Interne ; 42(6): 401-410, 2021 Jun.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258490

ABSTRACT

Viral infections may involve all ocular tissues and may have short and long-term sight-threatening consequences. Among them, ocular infections caused by herpesviruses are the most frequent. HSV-1 keratitis and kerato-uveitis affect approximately are the leading cause of infectious blindness in the Western world, mainly because of corneal opacification caused by recurrences. For this reason, they may warrant long-term antiviral prophylaxis. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus, accounts for 10 to 20% of all shingles locations and can be associated with severe ocular involvement (keratitis, kerato-uveitis) of which a quarter becomes chronic/recurrent. Post herpetic neuralgias in the trigeminal territory can be particularly debilitating. Necrotizing retinitis caused by herpesviruses (HSV, VZV, CMV) are seldom, but must be considered as absolute visual emergencies, requiring urgent intravenous and intravitreal antiviral treatment. Clinical pictures depend on the immune status of the host. Adenovirus are the most frequent cause of infectious conjunctivitis. These most often benign infections are highly contagious and may be complicated by visually disabling corneal lesions that may last over months or years. Some arboviruses may be associated with inflammatory ocular manifestations. Among them, congenital Zika infections may cause macular or optic atrophy. Conjunctivitis is frequent during the acute phase of Ebola virus disease. Up to 15% of survivors present with severe chronic inflammatory ocular conditions caused by viral persistence in uveal tissues. Finally, COVID-19-associated conjunctivitis can precede systemic disease, or even be the unique manifestation of the disease. Utmost caution must be taken because of viral shedding in tears.


Subject(s)
Eye Infections, Viral/complications , COVID-19/complications , Conjunctivitis, Viral/virology , Cytomegalovirus Retinitis/complications , Eye Infections, Viral/prevention & control , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/complications , Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus/epidemiology , Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus/prevention & control , Humans , Immunocompetence , Immunocompromised Host , Neuralgia, Postherpetic/etiology , Retinitis/drug therapy , Retinitis/virology , Trigeminal Nerve Diseases/complications , Trigeminal Nerve Diseases/virology , Zika Virus Infection/complications
12.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(7): e263-e265, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228551

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 spread globally and caused over 97 million cases with more than 2 million deaths. There is still ongoing discussion on the duration of infectious interval SARS-CoV-2 infection. Symptomatic children had longer virus shedding and there are some reports of prolonged infectious virus shedding in adults particularly patients having an immunocompromised status. A missense mutation, D614G, in the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, which has emerged as a predominant clade in Europe and is spreading worldwide that can result in higher viral loads in patients. Herein, we described the longest infectious virus shedding in a previously healthy child infected with SARS-CoV-2 expressing spike D614G substitution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Mutation, Missense , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Shedding , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Carrier State/virology , Humans , Immunocompetence , Male , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Load
13.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; 53(5): 382-385, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1109133

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several cases of invasive fungal diseases in patients with COVID-19 have been reported, mostly due to Aspergillus spp., with anecdotic reports of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) as co-infections in immunocompromised patients. We describe the first case of PJP in an immunocompetent patient who recovered from COVID-19 pneumonia. CASE DESCRIPTION: Our patient was hospitalized for 18 d for respiratory failure due to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia and successfully treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) respiratory support, enoxaparin, ceftaroline and intravenous 6 mg of dexamethasone for 10 d, then with oral prednisone tapering. Despite his improved radiological and clinical conditions at discharge, he was admitted again after 18 d for worsening of respiratory conditions. Upon the second admission, a high-resolution CT-scan of the chest showed the development of new ground-glass opacities and P. jirovecii was detected on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. A therapy with trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole 20 mg/kg and methylprednisolone 40 mg i.v. bis in die (BID) was started, with improvement of clinical, biochemical and radiological conditions. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients may have multiple risk factors for development of PJP, in particular lymphopaenia and use of steroids. PJP must be ruled out with direct microbiological methods in patients presenting with radiologic and clinical features of possible or probable PJP, even in immunocompetent hosts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumocystis carinii , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis , Humans , Immunocompetence , Male , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/drug therapy
14.
J Mycol Med ; 31(2): 101124, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096172

ABSTRACT

Aspergillus infection is a well-known complication of severe influenza and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and these infections have been related with significant morbidity and mortality even when appropriately diagnosed and treated. Recent studies have indicated that SARS-CoV-2 might increase the risk of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). Here, we report the first case of Aspergillus ochraceus in a SARS-CoV-2 positive immunocompetent patient, which is complicated by pulmonary and brain infections. Proven IPA is supported by the positive Galactomannan test, culture-positive, and histopathological evidence. The patient did not respond to voriconazole, and liposomal amphotericin B was added to his anti-fungal regimen. Further studies are needed to evaluate the prevalence of IPA in immunocompetent patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Consequently, testing for the incidence of Aspergillus species in lower respiratory secretions and Galactomannan test of COVID-19 patients with appropriate therapy and targeted anti-fungal therapy based on the primary clinical suspicion of IPA are highly recommended.


Subject(s)
Aspergillosis/complications , Aspergillus ochraceus/isolation & purification , COVID-19/complications , Invasive Fungal Infections/complications , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Aspergillosis/diagnostic imaging , Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Biomarkers , Brain Abscess/diagnostic imaging , Brain Abscess/etiology , Brain Abscess/microbiology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Fatal Outcome , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Immunocompetence , Invasive Fungal Infections/diagnostic imaging , Invasive Fungal Infections/drug therapy , Invasive Fungal Infections/microbiology , Lung Diseases, Fungal/complications , Lung Diseases, Fungal/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases, Fungal/microbiology , Male , Mannans/blood , Voriconazole/therapeutic use
15.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(1)2021 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066836

ABSTRACT

This case represents a rare fulminant course of fried-rice associated food poisoning in an immunocompetent person due to pre-formed exotoxin produced by Bacillus cereus, with severe manifestations of sepsis, including multi-organ (hepatic, renal, cardiac, respiratory and neurological) failure, shock, metabolic acidosis, rhabdomyolysis and coagulopathy. Despite maximal supportive measures (continuous renal replacement therapy, plasmapheresis, N-acetylcysteine infusion and blood products, and broad-spectrum antimicrobials) and input from a multidisciplinary team (consisting of infectious diseases, intensive care, gastroenterology, surgery, toxicology, immunology and haematology), mortality resulted. This case is the first to use whole genome sequencing techniques to confirm the toxigenic potential of B. cereus It has important implications for food preparation and storage, particularly given its occurrence in home isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Bacillus cereus/genetics , Exotoxins/genetics , Foodborne Diseases/diagnosis , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Acidosis/physiopathology , Acidosis/therapy , Adult , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , Bacillus cereus/isolation & purification , Blood Coagulation Disorders/physiopathology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , Blood Transfusion , Brain Diseases , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy , Fatal Outcome , Female , Foodborne Diseases/microbiology , Foodborne Diseases/physiopathology , Foodborne Diseases/therapy , Free Radical Scavengers/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunocompetence , Liver Failure/physiopathology , Liver Failure/therapy , Multiple Organ Failure/physiopathology , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , Plasmapheresis , Renal Insufficiency/physiopathology , Renal Insufficiency/therapy , Rhabdomyolysis/physiopathology , Rhabdomyolysis/therapy , Sepsis/physiopathology , Sepsis/therapy , Shock/physiopathology , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Whole Genome Sequencing
17.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 182(3): 195-209, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1042227

ABSTRACT

We report perhaps the most comprehensive study of subsets of CD4+ and CD8+ and subsets of B cells in a mild symptomatic SARS-CoV-2+ immunocompetent patient and a common variable immunodeficiency disease (CVID) patient who had normal absolute lymphocyte counts and remained negative for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies. Naïve (TN), central memory (TCM), effector memory (TEM), and terminally differentiated effector memory (TEMRA) subsets of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, subsets of T follicular helper cells (cTFH, TFH1, TFH2, TFH17, TFH1/TFH17, and TFR), CD4 Treg, CD8 Treg, mature B cells, transitional B cells, marginal zone B cells, germinal center (GC) B cells, CD21low B cells, antibody-secreting cells (plasmablasts), and Breg cells were examined in patients and age-matched controls with appropriate monoclonal antibodies and isotype controls using multicolor flow cytometry. Different patterns of abnormalities (often contrasting) were observed in the subsets of CD4+ T, CD8+ T, B-cell subsets, and regulatory lymphocytes among the immunocompetent patient and CVID patient as compared to corresponding healthy controls. Furthermore, when data were analyzed between the 2 patients, the immunocompetent patient demonstrated greater changes in various subsets as compared to the CVID patient. These data demonstrate different immunological responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection in an immunocompetent patient and the CVID patient. A marked decrease in GC B cells and plasmablasts may be responsible for failure to make SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The lack of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies with mild clinical disease suggests an important role of T-cell response in defense against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Adult , B-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunocompetence , Male , Middle Aged
18.
Muscle Nerve ; 63(3): 294-303, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1037922

ABSTRACT

The clinical course of neuromuscular disorders (NMDs) can be affected by infections, both in immunocompetent individuals, and in those with reduced immunocompetence due to immunosuppressive/immunomodulating therapies. Infections and immunizations may also trigger NMDs. There is a potential for reduced efficacy of immunizations in patients with reduced immunocompetence. The recent vaccination program for coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) raises several questions regarding the safety and efficacy of this vaccine in individuals with NMDs. In this Practice Topic article, we address the role of vaccine-preventable infections in NMDs and the safety and efficacy of immunization in individuals with NMDs, with emphasis on vaccination against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Neuromuscular Diseases/therapy , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases/prevention & control , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Humans , Immunocompetence/immunology , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , Neuromuscular Diseases/epidemiology , Neuromuscular Diseases/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Attenuated/therapeutic use , Vaccines, Inactivated/therapeutic use
20.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(12)2020 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1020894

ABSTRACT

We present a previously healthy man in his 30s who presented with typical viral prodrome symptoms and worsening abdominal pain. He was found to have portal vein thrombosis, with extensive hypercoagulability workup performed. It was determined that the aetiology of thrombus was secondary to acute cytomegalovirus infection. The patient was started on anticoagulation therapy, with later clot resolution demonstrated on abdominal Doppler ultrasound and abdominal CT scan. Given the atypical presentation of this common virus, we performed a literature review of cytomegalovirus-associated portal vein thrombosis in healthy individuals; we found that most patients present with non-specific symptoms of fever and abdominal pain in the setting of a viral prodrome. This case and literature review suggest physicians must consider cytomegalovirus-associated portal vein thrombosis as a potential diagnosis when patients present with abdominal pain and viral symptoms. The literature highlights the need for a consensus on anticoagulation and antiviral therapy.


Subject(s)
Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Portal Vein , Venous Thrombosis/virology , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Adult , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , Computed Tomography Angiography , Cytomegalovirus Infections/immunology , Humans , Immunocompetence , Male , Portal Vein/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography, Doppler , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy
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