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1.
Pathog Dis ; 80(1)2022 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612517

ABSTRACT

Given the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 virus as a life-threatening pandemic, identification of immunodominant epitopes of the viral structural proteins, particularly the nucleocapsid (NP) protein and receptor-binding domain (RBD) of spike protein, is important to determine targets for immunotherapy and diagnosis. In this study, epitope screening was performed using a panel of overlapping peptides spanning the entire sequences of the RBD and NP proteins of SARS-CoV-2 in the sera from 66 COVID-19 patients and 23 healthy subjects by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Our results showed that while reactivity of patients' sera with reduced recombinant RBD protein was significantly lower than the native form of RBD (P < 0.001), no significant differences were observed for reactivity of patients' sera with reduced and non-reduced NP protein. Pepscan analysis revealed weak to moderate reactivity towards different RBD peptide pools, which was more focused on peptides encompassing amino acids (aa) 181-223 of RBD. NP peptides, however, displayed strong reactivity with a single peptide covering aa 151-170. These findings were confirmed by peptide depletion experiments using both ELISA and western blotting. Altogether, our data suggest involvement of mostly conformational disulfide bond-dependent immunodominant epitopes in RBD-specific antibody response, while the IgG response to NP is dominated by linear epitopes. Identification of dominant immunogenic epitopes in NP and RBD of SARS-CoV-2 could provide important information for the development of passive and active immunotherapy as well as diagnostic tools for the control of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunodominant Epitopes/immunology , Nucleocapsid/immunology , Receptors, Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Aged , Amino Acid Motifs , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/virology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Female , Humans , Immunodominant Epitopes/chemistry , Iran , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Peptides/immunology , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Viral Proteins/immunology
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20383, 2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469988

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 continues to infect an ever-expanding number of people, resulting in an increase in the number of deaths globally. With the emergence of new variants, there is a corresponding decrease in the currently available vaccine efficacy, highlighting the need for greater insights into the viral epitope profile for both vaccine design and assessment. In this study, three immunodominant linear B cell epitopes in the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) were identified by immunoinformatics prediction, and confirmed by ELISA with sera from Macaca fascicularis vaccinated with a SARS-CoV-2 RBD subunit vaccine. Further immunoinformatics analyses of these three epitopes gave rise to a method of linear B cell epitope prediction and selection. B cell epitopes in the spike (S), membrane (M), and envelope (E) proteins were subsequently predicted and confirmed using convalescent sera from COVID-19 infected patients. Immunodominant epitopes were identified in three regions of the S2 domain, one region at the S1/S2 cleavage site and one region at the C-terminus of the M protein. Epitope mapping revealed that most of the amino acid changes found in variants of concern are located within B cell epitopes in the NTD, RBD, and S1/S2 cleavage site. This work provides insights into B cell epitopes of SARS-CoV-2 as well as immunoinformatics methods for B cell epitope prediction, which will improve and enhance SARS-CoV-2 vaccine development against emergent variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Immunodominant Epitopes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Matrix Proteins/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Computational Biology , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/chemistry , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/immunology , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Humans , Immunoassay , Immunodominant Epitopes/chemistry , Macaca , Models, Molecular , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Viral Matrix Proteins/chemistry
3.
Science ; 374(6566): 472-478, 2021 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434867

ABSTRACT

Antibody-based therapeutics and vaccines are essential to combat COVID-19 morbidity and mortality after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Multiple mutations in SARS-CoV-2 that could impair antibody defenses propagated in human-to-human transmission and spillover or spillback events between humans and animals. To develop prevention and therapeutic strategies, we formed an international consortium to map the epitope landscape on the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, defining and structurally illustrating seven receptor binding domain (RBD)­directed antibody communities with distinct footprints and competition profiles. Pseudovirion-based neutralization assays reveal spike mutations, individually and clustered together in variants, that affect antibody function among the communities. Key classes of RBD-targeted antibodies maintain neutralization activity against these emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. These results provide a framework for selecting antibody treatment cocktails and understanding how viral variants might affect antibody therapeutic efficacy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Epitope Mapping , Immunodominant Epitopes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Antigens, Viral/chemistry , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunodominant Epitopes/chemistry , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
4.
Clin Exp Immunol ; 205(3): 363-378, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249405

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly throughout the world, leading to a global effort to develop vaccines and treatments. Despite extensive progress, there remains a need for treatments to bolster the immune responses in infected immunocompromised individuals, such as cancer patients who recently underwent a haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Immunological protection against COVID-19 is mediated by both short-lived neutralizing antibodies and long-lasting virus-reactive T cells. Therefore, we propose that T cell therapy may augment efficacy of current treatments. For the greatest efficacy with minimal adverse effects, it is important that any cellular therapy is designed to be as specific and directed as possible. Here, we identify T cells from COVID-19 patients with a potentially protective response to two major antigens of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, Spike and Nucleocapsid protein. By generating clones of highly virus-reactive CD4+ T cells, we were able to confirm a set of nine immunodominant epitopes and characterize T cell responses against these. Accordingly, the sensitivity of T cell clones for their specific epitope, as well as the extent and focus of their cytokine response was examined. Moreover, using an advanced T cell receptor (TCR) sequencing approach, we determined the paired TCR-αß sequences of clones of interest. While these data on a limited population require further expansion for universal application, the results presented here form a crucial first step towards TCR-transgenic CD4+ T cell therapy of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Amino Acid Sequence , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/virology , Clone Cells/immunology , Clone Cells/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunodominant Epitopes/chemistry , Immunodominant Epitopes/genetics , Immunodominant Epitopes/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/chemistry , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2593, 2021 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223090

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 is a continuous challenge worldwide, and there is an urgent need to map the landscape of immunogenic and immunodominant epitopes recognized by CD8+ T cells. Here, we analyze samples from 31 patients with COVID-19 for CD8+ T cell recognition of 500 peptide-HLA class I complexes, restricted by 10 common HLA alleles. We identify 18 CD8+ T cell recognized SARS-CoV-2 epitopes, including an epitope with immunodominant features derived from ORF1ab and restricted by HLA-A*01:01. In-depth characterization of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cell responses of patients with acute critical and severe disease reveals high expression of NKG2A, lack of cytokine production and a gene expression profile inhibiting T cell re-activation and migration while sustaining survival. SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cell responses are detectable up to 5 months after recovery from critical and severe disease, and these responses convert from dysfunctional effector to functional memory CD8+ T cells during convalescence.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunodominant Epitopes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alleles , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Female , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Humans , Immunodominant Epitopes/chemistry , Immunologic Memory , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , Middle Aged , Polyproteins/immunology , Viral Proteins/immunology
6.
Immunity ; 54(5): 1066-1082.e5, 2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216346

ABSTRACT

To better understand primary and recall T cell responses during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it is important to examine unmanipulated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific T cells. By using peptide-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) tetramers for direct ex vivo analysis, we characterized CD8+ T cells specific for SARS-CoV-2 epitopes in COVID-19 patients and unexposed individuals. Unlike CD8+ T cells directed toward subdominant epitopes (B7/N257, A2/S269, and A24/S1,208) CD8+ T cells specific for the immunodominant B7/N105 epitope were detected at high frequencies in pre-pandemic samples and at increased frequencies during acute COVID-19 and convalescence. SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells in pre-pandemic samples from children, adults, and elderly individuals predominantly displayed a naive phenotype, indicating a lack of previous cross-reactive exposures. T cell receptor (TCR) analyses revealed diverse TCRαß repertoires and promiscuous αß-TCR pairing within B7/N105+CD8+ T cells. Our study demonstrates high naive precursor frequency and TCRαß diversity within immunodominant B7/N105-specific CD8+ T cells and provides insight into SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell origins and subsequent responses.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Immunodominant Epitopes/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Amino Acid Motifs , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Child , Convalescence , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunodominant Epitopes/chemistry , Male , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Phosphoproteins/chemistry , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/chemistry , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta/chemistry , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
7.
Immunity ; 54(5): 1055-1065.e5, 2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1179683

ABSTRACT

Efforts are being made worldwide to understand the immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, including the impact of T cell immunity and cross-recognition with seasonal coronaviruses. Screening of SARS-CoV-2 peptide pools revealed that the nucleocapsid (N) protein induced an immunodominant response in HLA-B7+ COVID-19-recovered individuals that was also detectable in unexposed donors. A single N-encoded epitope that was highly conserved across circulating coronaviruses drove this immunodominant response. In vitro peptide stimulation and crystal structure analyses revealed T cell-mediated cross-reactivity toward circulating OC43 and HKU-1 betacoronaviruses but not 229E or NL63 alphacoronaviruses because of different peptide conformations. T cell receptor (TCR) sequencing indicated that cross-reactivity was driven by private TCR repertoires with a bias for TRBV27 and a long CDR3ß loop. Our findings demonstrate the basis of selective T cell cross-reactivity for an immunodominant SARS-CoV-2 epitope and its homologs from seasonal coronaviruses, suggesting long-lasting protective immunity.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Immunodominant Epitopes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Amino Acid Sequence , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Cross Reactions , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , HLA-B7 Antigen/chemistry , HLA-B7 Antigen/genetics , HLA-B7 Antigen/immunology , Humans , Immunodominant Epitopes/chemistry , Immunologic Memory , Models, Molecular , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/chemistry , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology
8.
J Clin Invest ; 131(7)2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166661

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 (CoV2) antibody therapies, including COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP), monoclonal antibodies, and hyperimmune globulin, are among the leading treatments for individuals with early COVID-19 infection. The functionality of convalescent plasma varies greatly, but the association of antibody epitope specificities with plasma functionality remains uncharacterized. We assessed antibody functionality and reactivities to peptides across the CoV2 and the 4 endemic human coronavirus (HCoV) genomes in 126 CCP donations. We found strong correlation between plasma functionality and polyclonal antibody targeting of CoV2 spike protein peptides. Antibody reactivity to many HCoV spike peptides also displayed strong correlation with plasma functionality, including pan-coronavirus cross-reactive epitopes located in a conserved region of the fusion peptide. After accounting for antibody cross-reactivity, we identified an association between greater alphacoronavirus NL63 antibody responses and development of highly neutralizing antibodies against CoV2. We also found that plasma preferentially reactive to the CoV2 spike receptor binding domain (RBD), versus the betacoronavirus HKU1 RBD, had higher neutralizing titer. Finally, we developed a 2-peptide serosignature that identifies plasma donations with high anti-spike titer, but that suffer from low neutralizing activity. These results suggest that analysis of coronavirus antibody fine specificities may be useful for selecting desired therapeutics and understanding the complex immune responses elicited by CoV2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibody Specificity , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/genetics , Cross Reactions , Endemic Diseases , Genome, Viral , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunodominant Epitopes/chemistry , Immunodominant Epitopes/genetics , Immunodominant Epitopes/immunology , Models, Molecular , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Species Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
9.
Science ; 370(6519): 950-957, 2020 11 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796948

ABSTRACT

Efficient therapeutic options are needed to control the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that has caused more than 922,000 fatalities as of 13 September 2020. We report the isolation and characterization of two ultrapotent SARS-CoV-2 human neutralizing antibodies (S2E12 and S2M11) that protect hamsters against SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Cryo-electron microscopy structures show that S2E12 and S2M11 competitively block angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) attachment and that S2M11 also locks the spike in a closed conformation by recognition of a quaternary epitope spanning two adjacent receptor-binding domains. Antibody cocktails that include S2M11, S2E12, or the previously identified S309 antibody broadly neutralize a panel of circulating SARS-CoV-2 isolates and activate effector functions. Our results pave the way to implement antibody cocktails for prophylaxis or therapy, circumventing or limiting the emergence of viral escape mutants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Amino Acid Motifs/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , CHO Cells , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Cryoelectron Microscopy , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunodominant Epitopes/chemistry , Immunodominant Epitopes/immunology , Microscopy, Electron , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Protein Domains/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
10.
Genomics ; 112(6): 5044-5054, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-752711

ABSTRACT

Genomics-led researches are engaged in tracing virus expression pattern, and induced immune responses in human to develop effective vaccine against COVID-19. In this study, targeted expression profiling and differential gene expression analysis of major histocompatibility complexes and innate immune system genes were performed through SARS-CoV-2 infected RNA-seq data of human cell line, and virus transcriptome was generated for T-and B-cell epitope prediction. Docking studies of epitopes with MHC and B-cell receptors were performed to identify potential T-and B-cell epitopes. Transcriptome analysis revealed the specific multiple allele expressions in cell line, genes for elicited induce immune response, and virus gene expression. Proposed T- and B-cell epitopes have high potential to elicit equivalent immune responses caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection which can be useful to provide links between elicited immune response and virus gene expression. This study will facilitate in vitro and in vivo vaccine related research studies in disease control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/immunology , Immunodominant Epitopes/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , Computational Biology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Gene Expression Profiling , Genes, MHC Class I , Genes, MHC Class II , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Immunodominant Epitopes/chemistry , Immunodominant Epitopes/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
11.
Infect Genet Evol ; 84: 104382, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-381941

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak has caused a large number of deaths, with thousands of confirmed cases worldwide. The present study followed computational approaches to identify B- and T-cell epitopes for the spike (S) glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 by its interactions with the human leukocyte antigen alleles. We identified 24 peptide stretches on the SARS-CoV-2 S protein that are well conserved among the reported strains. The S protein structure further validated the presence of predicted peptides on the surface, of which 20 are surface exposed and predicted to have reasonable epitope binding efficiency. The work could be useful for understanding the immunodominant regions in the surface protein of SARS-CoV-2 and could potentially help in designing some peptide-based diagnostics. Also, identified T-cell epitopes might be considered for incorporation in vaccine designs.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Genome, Viral/immunology , HLA Antigens/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Amino Acid Sequence , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/metabolism , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/metabolism , Gene Expression , HLA Antigens/genetics , HLA Antigens/metabolism , Humans , Immunodominant Epitopes/chemistry , Immunodominant Epitopes/genetics , Immunodominant Epitopes/metabolism , Models, Molecular , Pandemics/prevention & control , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/genetics , Peptides/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/biosynthesis
12.
Science ; 368(6496): 1274-1278, 2020 06 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260594

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibodies could potentially be used as antivirals against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Here, we report isolation of four human-origin monoclonal antibodies from a convalescent patient, all of which display neutralization abilities. The antibodies B38 and H4 block binding between the spike glycoprotein receptor binding domain (RBD) of the virus and the cellular receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). A competition assay indicated different epitopes on the RBD for these two antibodies, making them a potentially promising virus-targeting monoclonal antibody pair for avoiding immune escape in future clinical applications. Moreover, a therapeutic study in a mouse model validated that these antibodies can reduce virus titers in infected lungs. The RBD-B38 complex structure revealed that most residues on the epitope overlap with the RBD-ACE2 binding interface, explaining the blocking effect and neutralizing capacity. Our results highlight the promise of antibody-based therapeutics and provide a structural basis for rational vaccine design.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Receptors, Virus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Immunodominant Epitopes/chemistry , Immunodominant Epitopes/immunology , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Mice , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , Protein Domains , Viral Load/immunology
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